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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
808 nm driven Nd(3+)-sensitized upconversion nanostructures for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The in vivo biological applications of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) prefer excitation at 700-850 nm, instead of 980 nm, due to the absorption of water. Recent approaches in constructing robust Nd(3+) doped UCNPs with 808 nm excitation properties rely on a thick Nd(3+) sensitized shell. However, for the very important and popular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based applications, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or switchable biosensors, this type of structure has restrictions resulting in a poor energy transfer. In this work, we have designed a NaYF4:Yb/Ho@NaYF4:Nd@NaYF4 core-shell-shell nanostructure. We have proven that this optimal structure balances the robustness of the upconversion emission and the FRET efficiency for FRET-based bioapplications. A proof of the concept was demonstrated for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells triggered by 808 nm light, where low heating and a high PDT efficacy were achieved.
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Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Augments Calvarial Defect Healing and Promotes Suture Regeneration.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Repair of complex cranial defects is hindered by a paucity of appropriate donor tissue. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFb1) have been shown separately to induce bone formation through physiologically distinct mechanisms and potentially improve surgical outcome for cranial defect repair by obviating the need for donor tissue. We hypothesize that a combination of BMP2 and TGFb1 would improve calvarial defect healing by augmenting physiologic osteogenic mechanisms.
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Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.
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Tunable near-Infrared Luminescence of PbSe Quantum Dots for Multigas Analysis.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Multigas sensing is highly demanded in the fields of environmental monitoring, industrial production, and coal mine security. Three near-infrared emission wavelengths from PbSe quantum dots (QDs) were used to analyze the concentration of three gases simultaneously through direct absorption spectroscopy, including acetylene (C2H2), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3). The corresponding lower detection limits for the three gases were 20, 100, and 20 ppm, respectively, with an accuracy of 2%. This study demonstrates that QDs with tunable emissions have great potential for simultaneous and uninterfered multiplex gas analysis and detection due to the advantages of the easy tunability of multiplex emitting wavelengths from QDs.
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A Lumen Detection Based Intestinal Direction Vector Acquisition Method for Wireless Endoscopy Systems.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring an intestinal direction vector (IDV) based on a single static wireless endoscopic image. The IDV can be used for navigation of wireless capsule endoscopy, and for multi-camera Micro-Ball system, this information can help to select cameras to capture images of the region of interest (ROI). Our proposal is based on lumen detection, which involves Bayer-format down-sample, adaptive threshold segmentation and radial texture detection. Then an IDV calculation method with only one single static image by modeling the small intestine and image capture process is put forward. The performance of the proposed method is verified with experiments based on real digestive tract images and the Micro-Ball demo system respectively. The lumen detection method achieves 95.5% precision and 98.1% sensitivity. The experimental results in pig intestine show that the error of IDV is limited by a sphere with center (-0.00629, 0.00097, 0.00061) and radius 0.085.
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Effect of genotype and environment on five bioactive components of cultivated licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH.) populations in northern China.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Methods to improve the bioactive component content of cultivated licorice have become the bottleneck of industrial licorice extraction for pharmaceutical use. To evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and their interaction on major bioactive components, we analyzed the five bioactive components: liquiritin (LQ), liquiritigenin (LQG), glycyrrhizin (GL), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritigenin (ILQG) of four diverse licorice varieties grown in four distinct environments in northern China during 2010-11. Analysis of variance showed that environmental and genotypic effects were significant (P<0.01) for all five bioactive components. Additionally, their interaction was significant (P<0.05) for GL in the 2-year study period. LQ and ILQ were mainly affected by genetic factors and have great potential for genetic improvement, whereas LQG and ILQG were mainly affected by environmental factors. GL was similarly affected by environmental and genetic factors. Biplot of the principal component analysis showed that for quality breeding, G2 (WNT-1) and G3 (JX-1) are two relatively preferable genotypes, and E2 (Chifeng) location is suitable for accumulation of the bioactive components of these two genotypes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that sunshine and rainfall are the dominant environmental factors for licorice bioactive component accumulation; increased duration of sunshine is advantageous to GL accumulation whereas declining rainfall is conducive to LQG and ILQG accumulation. These results provide a theoretical basis for initiating licorice breeding programs with increased bioactive components and improved quality.
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[Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.
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[Impacts of land-use types on soil C mineralization and temperature sensitivity of forests in Qianyanzhou, Jiangxi Province, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Decomposition of soil organic matter plays an important role in the regulation of carbon (C) cycles at ecosystem or regional scales, and is closely related to temperature, moisture, and land-use types. The influences of soil temperature, moisture, and land-use types on soil C mineralization in Citrus reticulata and Pinus elliottii forests were investigated at the Qianyanzhou Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, by conducting incubation experiments at 5-level temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and 3-level moistures (30%, 60% and 90% saturated soil moisture, SSM). The results showed that soil temperature, moisture, and land-use types had significant effects on soil C mineralization and they had significant interaction effects. Soil C mineralization was positively correlated with incubation temperature in the two forests, and the maximum of soil C mineralization was in the 60% SSM treatment. The accumulation of soil C mineralization was higher in the C. reticulata forest than in the P. elliottii forest under the same temperature and moisture conditions. The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil C mineralization was influenced by land-use type and soil moisture. Q10 increased with the increasing soil moisture in both C. reticulata and P. elliottii forests at incubation 7 and 42 d. Q10 in the C. reticulata forest was higher than in the P. elliottii forest in the same moisture level, and the deviation increased with the increasing soil moisture. The model including temperature and moisture could depict the response of soil C mineralization to temperature and moisture. Temperature and moisture together explained 79.9% -91.9% of the variation in soil C mineralization.
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The orthologous Tbx transcription factors Omb and TBX2 induce epithelial cell migration and extrusion in vivo without involvement of matrix metalloproteinases.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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The transcription factors TBX2 and TBX3 are overexpressed in various human cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of overexpressing the orthologous Tbx genes Drosophila optomotor-blind (omb) and human TBX2 in the epithelium of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc and observed two types of cell motility. Omb/TBX2 overexpressing cells could move within the plane of the epithelium. Invasive cells migrated long-distance as single cells retaining or regaining normal cell shape and apico-basal polarity in spite of attenuated apical DE-cadherin concentration. Inappropriate levels of DE-cadherin were sufficient to drive cell migration in the wing disc epithelium. Omb/TBX2 overexpression and reduced DE-cadherin-dependent adhesion caused the formation of actin-rich lateral cell protrusions. Omb/TBX2 overexpressing cells could also delaminate basally, penetrating the basal lamina, however, without degradation of extracellular matrix. Expression of Timp, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, blocked neither intraepithelial motility nor basal extrusion. Our results reveal an MMP-independent mechanism of cell invasion and suggest a conserved role of Tbx2-related proteins in cell invasion and metastasis-related processes.
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Multishelled TiO2 Hollow Microspheres as Anodes with Superior Reversible Capacity for Lithium Ion Batteries.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Herein, uniform multishelled TiO2 hollow microspheres were synthesized, especially 3- and 4-shelled TiO2 hollow microspheres were synthesized for the first time by a simple sacrificial method capable of controlling the shell thickness, intershell spacing, and number of internal multishells, which are achieved by controlling the size, charge, and diffusion rate of the titanium coordination ions as well as the calcination process. Used as anodes for lithium ion batteries, the multishelled TiO2 hollow microspheres show excellent rate capacity, good cycling performance, and high specific capacity. A superior capacity, up to 237 mAh/g with minimal irreversible capacity after 100 cycles is achieved at a current rate of 1 C (167.5 mA/g), and a capacity of 119 mAh/g is achieved at a current rate of 10 C even after 1200 cycles.
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Lack of family-based association between common variations in WNK1 and blood pressure level.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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WNK1 (With No-lysine Kinase 1) modulates numerous sodium transport-related ion channels involved in regulation of blood pressure. Several studies have indicated associations between the common variants of the WNK1 gene and hypertension or blood pressure levels. However, little data exists on Asian populations and normotensive or pre-hypertensive subjects. Our aim was to detect whether the common variations in the WNK1 gene are potential contributors to individual variations in blood pressure in a family-based sample.
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Terabit Nyquist PDM-32QAM signal transmission with training sequence based time domain channel estimation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose a time domain structure of channel estimation for coherent optical communication systems, which employs training sequence based equalizer and is transparent to arbitrary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) formats. Enabled with this methodology, 1.02Tb/s polarization division multiplexed 32QAM Nyquist pulse shaping signal with a net spectral efficiency of 7.46b/s/Hz is transmitted over standard single-mode fiber link with Erbium-doped fiber amplifier only amplification. After 1190km transmission, the average bit-error rate is lower than the 20% hard-decision forward error correction threshold of 1.5 × 10-2. The transmission distance can be extended to 1428km by employing intra-subchannel nonlinear compensation with the digital back-propagation method.
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Demonstration of 6.25 Gbaud advanced modulation formats with subcarrier multiplexed technique on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators (Si MZMs) with good linearity are designed and fabricated. 6.25 Gbaud Nyquist 16, 32 and 64-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) optical signals were successfully generated by intensity modulation from the Si MZM, and the effective data rates are 22.61 Gb/s, 28.26 Gb/s and 33.91 Gb/s respectively. The subcarrier multiplexed technique and direct detection scheme were employed in this experiment. After 53.1 km transmission, the BERs of 16-QAM and 32-QAM are both below the 7% hard-decision forward error correction limit, while the back-to-back BER of 64-QAM is well below the 20% soft-decision forward error correction limit. These results demonstrated that the Si MZM can be used in the high-capacity low-cost short-haul intensity modulation and direct detection system.
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Oct-4 and nanog promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer stem cells and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Oct-4 and Nanog in regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of breast cancer has not been clarified. We found that both Oct-4 and Nanog expression were significantly associated with tumor pathology and poor prognosis in 126 breast cancer patients. Characterization of CD44+CD24-Cancer stem cell(CSC) derived from breast cancer cells indicated that CSC rapidly formed mammospheres and had potent tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, TGF-? up-regulated the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, and Snail, but down-regulated E-cadherin and cytokeratin 18 expression, demonstrating that CSC underwent EMT. Knockdown of both Oct-4 and Nanog expression inhibited spontaneous changes in the expression of EMT-related genes, while induction of both Oct-4 and Nanog over-expression enhanced spontaneous changes in the expression of EMT-related genes in CSC. However, perturbing alternation of Oct-4 and Nanog expression also modulated TGF-?-induced EMT-related gene expression in CSC. Induction of Oct-4 and Nanog over-expression enhanced the invasiveness of CSC, but knockdown of both Oct-4 and Nanog inhibited the migration of CSC in vitro. Our data suggest that both Oct-4 and Nanog may serve as biomarkers for evaluating breast cancer prognosis. Our findings indicate that Oct-4 and Nanog positively regulate the EMT process, contributing to breast cancer metastasis.
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LncRNA-HOST2 regulates cell biological behaviors in epithelial ovarian cancer through a mechanism involving microRNA let-7b.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Recently, a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported in mammalian genomes and are evolutionarily conserved and presumably function in many biological events, especially in the pathogenesis of diverse human cancers. A lncRNA, named HOST2 (human ovarian cancer-specific transcript 2), was once reported to specifically be expressed at high level in human ovarian cancer. However, how HOST2 acts to regulate gene functions in ovarian carcinogenesis has remained enigmatic. Here we report, for the first time, that HOST2 promotes tumor cell migration, invasion and proliferation in epithelial ovarian cancer by working in key aspects of biological behaviors. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis indicated that HOST2 binds with microRNA let-7b, a potent tumor suppressor, which was then verified to target HOST2. Our results showed that HOST2 harbors a let-7b binding site and modulates let-7b availability by acting as a molecular sponge. HOST2 inhibits let-7b functions, which post-transcriptionally suppress the expression of targets, including some oncogenes that regulate cell growth and motility. Additionally, understanding HOST2/let-7b-dependent regulation may lead to alternative approaches for the diagnosis and cure of this deadly disease.
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FAK inhibition with small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases viability, clonogenicity, and cell attachment in thyroid cancer cell lines and synergizes with targeted therapeutics.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is up-regulated in thyroid cancer and small molecule FAK scaffolding inhibitor, Y15, was shown to decrease cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We sought to test the effectiveness of Y15 in thyroid cancer cell lines, profile gene expression with Y15 compared with clinical trial FAK inhibitor PF-04554878, and use Y15 in novel drug combinations. Cell viability was decreased in a dose dependent manner in four thyroid cancer cell lines with Y15 and with higher doses in PF-04554878. Y397 FAK and total FAK were decreased with Y15 and decreased less with PF-04554878. Detachment and necrosis were increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines with Y15. Clonogenicity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner for both Y15 and PF-04554878. We compared gene profiles between papillary thyroid cell lines, TPC1, BCPAP and K1, and 380, 109, and 74 genes were significantly >2-fold changed with Y15 treatment, respectively. Common up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, transcription and heat shock; down-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cell-to-cell interactions, and cancer stem cell markers. We also compared gene profiles of TT cells treated with Y15 versus PF-04554878. Y15 caused 144 genes to change over 4 fold and PF-04554878 caused 208 gene changes >4-fold (p<0.05). Among genes changed 4 fold, 11 were shared between the treatments, including those involved in metabolism, cell cycle, migration and transcription. Y15 demonstrated synergy with PF-04554878 in TT cells and also synergy with Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and strong synergy with Sunitinib in resistant K1 cells. This report revealed the biological effect of Y15 inhibitor, detected the unique and common gene signature profiles in response to Y15 in 4 different thyroid cancer cell lines, demonstrated differential response changes with Y15 and PF-04554878 treatment, and showed the synergy of Y15 with PF-04554878, Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and Sunitinib.
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[Reprogramming mechanism and genetic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were reprogrammed from somatic cells using specific transcription factors. Bypassing the ethical issue caused by embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs can be successfully induced from a variety of cells, which makes iPSCs a powerful research tool for developmental biology. iPSCs have also become indispensable to the research of life science due to their broad potential applications. However, it's a big challenge to obtain iPSCs with high quality and genetic stability. Here, we review the research progress of increasing the reprogramming mechanism and genetic stability of iPSCs in order to provide references of reprogramming efficiency of iPSCs, reducing the cost, and addressing key points of iPSCs quality control, further promoting clinical application of the iPSCs.
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Dynamic postural stability in young adolescent male and female athletes.
Pediatr Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To investigate dynamic postural stability performance of young adolescent athletes.
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Candidate Pathway-Based GWAS Identifies Novel Associations of Genomic Variants in the Complement System Associated with Coronary Artery Disease.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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-Genomic variants identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain <20% of heritability of coronary artery disease (CAD), thus many risk variants remain missing for CAD. Identification of new variants may unravel new biological pathways and genetic mechanisms for CAD. To identify new variants associated with CAD, we developed a candidate pathway-based GWAS by integrating expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analysis and mining of GWAS data with variants in a candidate pathway.
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A novel two-dimensional preparative chromatography method designed for the separation of traditional animal Tibetan medicine Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Animal medicine is an important part in traditional Tibetan medicine. However, information about the chemical composition of animal medicine is very limited, and there is a lack of comprehensive chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, animal medicine Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi was taken as an example and a novel two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method was established for the preparation of single compounds with high purity from the extract of Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi. The first-dimension preparation was carried on a DAISO Silica prep column, and ten fractions were obtained from the 112.3 g crude sample within 12 injections. A diol prep column used in nonaqueous mobile phase was selected for the second-dimension preparation. The purity of the compounds isolated from the crude extract was >98%, which indicated that the method built in this work was efficient to manufacture single compounds of high purity from the extract of Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the purification of weakly polar chemicals and it could act as a good example in the purification of other traditional animal medicines.
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Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100 %, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100 % in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76 % after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed.
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State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future.
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FAK inhibition with small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases viability, clonogenicity, and cell attachment in thyroid cancer cell lines and synergizes with targeted therapeutics.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is up-regulated in thyroid cancer and small molecule FAK scaffolding inhibitor, Y15, was shown to decrease cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We sought to test the effectiveness of Y15 in thyroid cancer cell lines, profile gene expression with Y15 compared with clinical trial FAK inhibitor PF-04554878, and use Y15 in novel drug combinations. Cell viability was decreased in a dose dependent manner in four thyroid cancer cell lines with Y15 and with higher doses in PF-04554878. Y397 FAK and total FAK were decreased with Y15 and decreased less with PF-04554878. Detachment and necrosis were increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines with Y15. Clonogenicity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner for both Y15 and PF-04554878. We compared gene profiles between papillary thyroid cell lines, TPC1, BCPAP and K1, and 380, 109, and 74 genes were significantly >2-fold changed with Y15 treatment, respectively. Common up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, transcription and heat shock; down-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cell-to-cell interactions, and cancer stem cell markers. We also compared gene profiles of TT cells treated with Y15 versus PF-04554878. Y15 caused 144 genes to change over 4 fold and PF-04554878 caused 208 gene changes >4-fold (p<0.05). Among genes changed 4 fold, 11 were shared between the treatments, including those involved in metabolism, cell cycle, migration and transcription. Y15 demonstrated synergy with PF-04554878 in TT cells and also synergy with Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and strong synergy with Sunitinib in resistant K1 cells. This report revealed the biological effect of Y15 inhibitor, detected the unique and common gene signature profiles in response to Y15 in 4 different thyroid cancer cell lines, demonstrated differential response changes with Y15 and PF-04554878 treatment, and showed the synergy of Y15 with PF-04554878, Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and Sunitinib.
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External Application of the Volatile Oil from Blumea balsamifera May Be Safe for Liver - A Study on Its Chemical Composition and Hepatotoxicity.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ainaxiang (Blumea balsamifera), also known as Sambong, is an important ancient medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. It is rich in volatile oil, and still widely used nowadays for skin wound healing and treatment of sore throats. We analyzed the volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera (BB oil) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty one components, including l-borneol, were identified. Next, the damaging effects of BB oil diluted with olive oil on liver at different concentrations (100%, 50%, 20%), were evaluated, using both normal and wounded skin. Plasma ALT, AST, ALP and TBili were assessed, along with liver histopathology. The results showed that serum levels of liver toxicity markers in the high concentration groups (100% w/v) increased compared with control groups, whereas no significant changes was observed in histopathology of liver samples. In the wound groups, treatment with BB oil resulted in a decrease in serum toxicity index, compared with normal animal groups. This study confirms the safety of short term BB oil consumption, though high BB oil doses may lead to mild liver injury and this response might be weakened in the case of cutaneous wounds. These results are expected to be helpful for guiding appropriate therapeutic use of BB oil.
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Local inhibition of GABA affects precedence effect in the inferior colliculus.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The precedence effect is a prerequisite for faithful sound localization in a complex auditory environment, and is a physiological phenomenon in which the auditory system selectively suppresses the directional information from echoes. Here we investigated how neurons in the inferior colliculus respond to the paired sounds that produce precedence-effect illusions, and whether their firing behavior can be modulated through inhibition with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We recorded extracellularly from 36 neurons in rat inferior colliculus under three conditions: no injection, injection with saline, and injection with gamma-aminobutyric acid. The paired sounds that produced precedence effects were two identical 4-ms noise bursts, which were delivered contralaterally or ipsilaterally to the recording site. The normalized neural responses were measured as a function of different inter-stimulus delays and half-maximal interstimulus delays were acquired. Neuronal responses to the lagging sounds were weak when the inter-stimulus delay was short, but increased gradually as the delay was lengthened. Saline injection produced no changes in neural responses, but after local gamma-aminobutyric acid application, responses to the lagging stimulus were suppressed. Application of gamma-aminobutyric acid affected the normalized response to lagging sounds, independently of whether they or the paired sounds were contralateral or ipsilateral to the recording site. These observations suggest that local inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat inferior colliculus shapes the neural responses to lagging sounds, and modulates the precedence effect.
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Improvement of the SiOx passivation layer for high-efficiency Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Interfacial properties currently hinder the performance of Si/organic heterojunction solar cells for an alternative to high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaics. Here, we present a simple and repeatable wet oxidation method for developing the surface passivation layer, SiOx, on the Si surface for the fabrication of high-efficiency Si/poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction solar cells. The uniform and dense SiOx thin layer introduced by the oxidizing aqueous solution of H2O2 or HNO3 provided the better surface passivation and stronger wettability of the Si surface, compared to those in the native oxide case. These two types of progress helped create a lower defect density at the Si/PEDOT:PSS interface and thus a high-quality p-n junction with a lower interface recombination velocity. As a result, the HNO3-oxidized device displayed better performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11%, representing a 28.96% enhancement from the PCE of 8.53% in the native oxide case. The effects on the performance of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells of the wet oxidation treatment procedure, including the differences in surface roughness and wettability of the Si substrate, the quality and thickness of the SiOx, etc., were explored extensively. Such a simple and controllable oxidizing treatment could be an effective way to promote the interfacial properties that are an important cornerstone for more efficient Si/organic hybrid solar cells.
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[Relationship between IL-18 gene polymorphism and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To investigate the association between IL-18 polymorphisms and the risk of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA).
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Survival of people living with HIV after treatment with traditional Chinese medicine in Henan province of China: a retrospective cohort study.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To provide survival estimates of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) after treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in rural China, to identify the prognostic factors at enrollment, and to explore the effectiveness ofTCM in treating PLHIV.
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Immunosensor based on electrodeposition of gold-nanoparticles and ionic liquid composite for detection of Salmonella pullorum.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In order to increase the reproducibility and stability of electrochemical immunosensor, which is a key issue for its application and popularization, an accurate and stable immunosensor for rapid detection of Salmonella pullorum (S. pullorum) was proposed in this study. The immunosensor was fabricated by modifying Screen-printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE) with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), HRP-labeled anti-S. pullorum and ionic liquids (ILs) (AuNP/HRP/IL). AuNPs are electrodeposited on the working electrode surface to increase the amount of antibodies that bind to the electrode and then modified with ILs to protect the antibodies from being inactivated in the test environment and maintain their biological activity and the stability of the detection electrode. The electrochemical characteristics of the stepwise modified electrodes and the detection of S. pullorum were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As shown in the results of the experiments, AuNPs with unique electrochemical properties as well as biocompatibility characteristics have been proven to be able to strengthen the antibody combination effectively and to increase the electrochemical response signal. In addition, a crucial assessment regarding implementation of stability and reproducibility analysis of a range of immunosensors is provided. We found that application of AuNPs/ILs in the immune modified electrodes showed obvious improvement when compared with other groups. Given their high levels of reproducibility, stability, target specificity and sensitivity, AuNPs and ILs were considered to be excellent elements for electrode modification.
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New organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor sensitizers for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Two organic donor-acceptor-?-acceptor (D-A-?-A) sensitizers (AQ and AP), containing quinoxaline/pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine as the auxiliary acceptor, have been. Through fine-tuning of the auxiliary acceptor, a higher designed and synthesized photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.02% for the AQ-based dye-sensitized solar cells under standard global AM1.5 solar conditions was achieved. Also, it was found that AQ-Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts displayed a better rate of H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation (420 nm
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A new prognostic score for AIDS-related lymphomas in the Rituximab-era.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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While the International Prognostic Index is commonly used to predict outcomes in immunocompetent patients with aggressive B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, HIV-infection is an important competing risk for death in patients with AIDS-related lymphomas. We investigated whether a newly created prognostic score (AIDS-related lymphoma International Prognostic Index) could better assess risk of death in patients with AIDS-related lymphomas. We randomly divided a dataset of 487 patients newly diagnosed with AIDS-related lymphomas and treated with rituximab-containing chemoimmunotherapy into a training (n=244) and validation set (n=243). We examined the association of HIV-related and other known risk factors with overall survival in both sets independently. We defined a new score (AIDS-related lymphoma International Prognostic Index) by assigning weights to each significant predictor (age-adjusted international prognostic index, extranodal sites, HIV-score [composed of CD4 count, viral load, and prior history of AIDS]) with three risk categories similar to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (low, intermediate and high risk). We compared the prognostic value for overall survival between AIDS-related lymphoma International Prognostic Index and age-adjusted International Prognostic Index in the validation set and found that the AIDS-related lymphoma International Prognostic Index performed significantly better in predicting risk of death than the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (p=0.004) and better discriminated risk of death between each risk category (p=0.015 vs. p=0.13).
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Protective effects of humanin on okadaic Acid-induced neurotoxicities in cultured cortical neurons.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Neurofibrillary tangles are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are mostly composed of hyperphosphorylated tau and directly correlate with dementia in AD patients. Okadaic acid (OA), a toxin extracted from marine life, can specifically inhibit protein phosphatases (PPs), including PP1 and Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), resulting in tau hyperphosphorylation. Humanin (HN), a peptide of 24 amino acids, was initially reported to protect neurons from AD-related cell toxicities. The present study was designed to test if HN could attenuate OA-induced neurotoxicities, including neural insults, apoptosis, autophagy, and tau hyperphosphorylation. We found that administration of OA for 24 h induced neuronal insults, including lactate dehydrogenase released, decreased of cell viability and numbers of living cells, neuronal apoptosis, cells autophagy and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. Pretreatment of cells with HN produced significant protective effects against OA-induced neural insults, apoptosis, autophagy and tau hyperphosphorylation. We also found that OA treatment inhibited PP2A activity and HN pretreatment significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of OA. This study demonstrated for the first time that HN protected cortical neurons against OA-induced neurotoxicities, including neuronal insults, apoptosis, autophagy, and tau hyperphosphorylation. The mechanisms underlying the protections of HN may involve restoration of PP2A activity.
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Epigenetic regulation of CD271, a potential cancer stem cell marker associated with chemoresistance and metastatic capacity.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the cause of tumor initiation, metastasis and recurrence. Additionally, CSCs are responsible for the failure of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The isolation and identification of CSCs is crucial for facilitating the monitoring, therapy or prevention of cancer. We aimed to identify esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) stem-like cells, the epigenetic mechanism and identify novel biomarkers for targeting ESCC CSCs. Sixty-three paired ESCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were included in this study. CD271, which was identified as the CSC marker for melanoma, was assessed using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using flow cytometry, we isolated CD271+ cells comprising 7.5% of cancer cells from the KYSE70 cell line. Sphere formation and anchorage-independent growth were analyzed in CD271+ and CD271- cancer cells, respectively. qPCR was used to detect stem-related genes and CCK-8 was performed to analyze the sensitivity to chemotherapy in the two groups. Bisul?te genomic sequencing was used to analyze the methylation status. CD271 expression was significantly higher in ESCC tissues than in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Compared with CD271- cancer cells, CD271+ cancer cells showed a higher ability of sphere and colony formation, a high level expression of stem-related gene, and resistance to chemotherapy. The expression of CD271 was induced by a demethylation agent. In conclusion, CD271+ ESCC cells possess stem-like properties. CD271 can potentially act as a prognostic marker for ESCC, whose expression is regulated epigenetically.
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Computational design of two-photon fluorescent probes for intracellular free zinc ions.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Two-photon fluorescence probes used in two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) can achieve intact tissue imaging without destruction. Therefore, for a long time, TPM has been an important tool in biology and medicine. In this background via a quantum chemical method, a series of zinc ion probe molecules using N,N-di(2-picolyl)ethylenediamine (DPEN) as the recognition group were studied, which are based on the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. The fact that the one-photon absorption peak is almost unchanged and the fluorescence emission intensity increased significantly upon coordination with a zinc ion reveals that these probes can be PET fluorescent bioimaging reagents. And it is predicted that when the chemically modified probe molecule is incorporated with Zn(2+), the two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section (?max) will greatly increase and the TPA peak will be in the near-infrared region. The molecules after changing the fluorophore become more suitable for probing Zn(2+) in vivo, and a modification at the end of the fluorophore can fine-tune the fluorescence and TPA properties. The detailed investigations will provide a theoretical basis for synthesizing new zinc-ion-responsive two-photon fluorescent probes.
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Phenethyl isothiocyanate upregulates death receptors 4 and 5 and inhibits proliferation in human cancer stem-like cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The cytokine TRAIL (tumor necrotic factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to cancer-recurrence are frequently TRAIL-resistant. Here we examined hitherto unknown effects of the dietary anti-carcinogenic compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) on attenuation of proliferation and tumorigenicity and on up regulation of death receptors and apoptosis in human cervical CSC.
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AKR1C3 overexpression mediates methotrexate resistance in choriocarcinoma cells.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Chemotherapy is typically used to treat choriocarcinoma, but a small proportion of tumors develop resistance to chemotherapy. Similarly, methotrexate (MTX) is a first-line chemotherapy used to treat choriocarcinoma; although ~30% of patients are drug-resistant for MTX mono-therapy. Thus, we sought to elucidate the mechanism of chemotherapeutic-resistance of MTX.
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Embelin inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by directly inducing cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly restricting IL-6 associated inflammatory and immune suppressive cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and unresponsive to conventional chemotherapies. Here, the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of embelin on pancreatic cancer were investigated. Embelin significantly attenuated cells invasion, proliferation and induced apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 and activation of p53 signaling pathways. Embelin substantially reduced the tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo, which was associated with reduced inflammatory cells and immune suppressive cells, IL-17A(+) Th17, GM-CSF(+) Th, MDSCs and Treg, through inhibition of IL-6 secretion. Moreover, embelin decrease IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In summary, embelin represents a novel therapeutic drug candidate for the clinical treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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Group search optimizer for the mobile location management problem.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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We propose a diversity-guided group search optimizer-based approach for solving the location management problem in mobile computing. The location management problem, which is to find the optimal network configurations of management under the mobile computing environment, is considered here as an optimization problem. The proposed diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is realized with the aid of diversity operator, which helps alleviate the premature convergence problem of group search optimizer algorithm, a successful optimization algorithm inspired by the animal behavior. To address the location management problem, diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is exploited to optimize network configurations of management by minimizing the sum of location update cost and location paging cost. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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Deficiency of female sex hormones augments PGE2 and CGRP levels within midbrain periaqueductal gray.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a substantial component of the descending modulatory network to control on nociceptive transmission and autonomic functions. Also, accumulated evidence has suggested that the PAG plays a crucial role in regulating migraine headache, a neurovascular disorder. The purpose of this study was to employ ELISA methods to examine the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in the PAG of rats who received ovariectomy and subsequent hormone replacement with 17?-estradiol, progesterone, or the combination of 17?-estradiol and progesterone. In addition, using Western blot analysis we examined expression of subtypes of PGE2 receptor in the PAG of rats with different conditions of female sex hormones. Results of our study demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly increased the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the dorsolateral PAG (P<0.05) as well as expression of PGE2 EP3 receptors (P<0.05). Furthermore, a liner relationship was observed between PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG (r=092, P<0.01). Also, inhibiting EP3 receptors by chronic administration of L-798106 (EP3 antagonist) into the lateral ventricles significantly attenuated expression of CGRP in the PAG of ovariectomized animals (P<0.05 vs. vehicle control). Overall, our findings for the first time show that (1) circulating 17?-estradiol and/or progesterone influences the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG; (2) a lower level of 17?-estradiol and/or progesterone augments PGE2 and its EP3 receptor; and (3) PGE2 plays a role in regulating expression of CGRP in the PAG.
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Affinity assisted selection of antibodies for Point of Care TSH immunoassay with limited wash.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Molecular binding characteristics of several thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) antibodies were determined for the TSH antigen, along with its closely related endogenous interfering hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG).
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State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part I. Gene delivery technologies.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Safe and effective gene delivery is a prerequisite for successful gene therapy. In the early age of human gene therapy, setbacks due to problematic gene delivery vehicles plagued the exciting therapeutic outcome. However, gene delivery technologies rapidly evolved ever since. With the advancement of gene delivery techniques, gene therapy clinical trials surged during the past decade. As the first gene therapy product (Glybera) has obtained regulatory approval and reached clinic, human gene therapy finally realized the promise that genes can be medicines. The diverse gene delivery techniques available today have laid the foundation for gene therapy applications in treating a wide range of human diseases. Some of the most urgent unmet medical needs, such as cancer and pandemic infectious diseases, have been tackled by gene therapy strategies with promising results. Furthermore, combining gene transfer with other breakthroughs in biomedical research and novel biotechnologies opened new avenues for gene therapy. Such innovative therapeutic strategies are unthinkable until now, and are expected to be revolutionary. In part I of this review, we introduced recent development of non-viral and viral gene delivery technology platforms. As cell-based gene therapy blossomed, we also summarized the diverse types of cells and vectors employed in ex vivo gene transfer. Finally, challenges in current gene delivery technologies for human use were discussed.
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Enhanced succinic acid production and magnesium utilization by overexpression of magnesium transporter mgtA in Escherichia coli mutant.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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In this study, a novel engineered Escherichia coli strain KMG111 was constructed by overexpression of mgtA in E. coli mutant DC1515. By adopting KMG111, nearly a concentration of succinic acid (32.41gL(-1)) with a yield of 0.81gg(-1) glucose, could be obtained in a batch fermentation by using the low-cost mixture of Mg(OH)2 and NH3·H2O to replace MgCO3 as the alkaline neutralizer. Moreover, the effect of the inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates on cell growth and succinic acid production could be relieved. In a 3-L bioreactor, the overall productivity and yield of succinic acid in the whole anaerobic stage were 2.15gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.86gg(-1) total sugar, respectively. This study was the first to report decreased alkaline neutralizer cost via genetic manipulation for succinic acid production, which contributed to the industrialization of this microbial synthesis process.
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Output-Feedback Adaptive Neural Control for Stochastic Nonlinear Time-Varying Delay Systems With Unknown Control Directions.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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This paper presents an adaptive output-feedback neural network (NN) control scheme for a class of stochastic nonlinear time-varying delay systems with unknown control directions. To make the controller design feasible, the unknown control coefficients are grouped together and the original system is transformed into a new system using a linear state transformation technique. Then, the Nussbaum function technique is incorporated into the backstepping recursive design technique to solve the problem of unknown control directions. Furthermore, under the assumption that the time-varying delays exist in the system output, only one NN is employed to compensate for all unknown nonlinear terms depending on the delayed output. Moreover, by estimating the maximum of NN parameters instead of the parameters themselves, the NN parameters to be estimated are greatly decreased and the online learning time is also dramatically decreased. It is shown that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded in probability. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the simulation results.
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Thermomonas carbonis sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a coal mine.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Strain GZ436(T) was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and isolated from the soil of a coal mine. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain clustered with Thermomonas brevis LMG 21746(T) (97.5?%), Thermomonas haemolytica A50-7-3(T) (96.3?%), Thermomonas koreensis KCTC 12540(T) (96.4?%), Thermomonas hydrothermalis SGM-6(T) (95.5?%) and Thermomonas fusca LMG 21737(T) (95.1?%). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 67 mol%. Strain GZ436(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>5?%) were iso-C15?:?0, iso-C11?:?0, iso-C11?:?0 3-OH, iso-C17?:?1?9c, C16?:?0 and summed feature 3. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain GZ436(T) and T. brevis LMG 21746(T) was 54±0.4?%. According to phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain GZ436(T) represents a novel species of the genus Thermomonas, for which the name Thermomonas carbonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GZ436(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013364(T)?=?KCTC 42013(T)).
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[Evaluation on the effects of prevention and control programs regarding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in Guizhou province, from 2007 to 2012].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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This study was to evaluate the effects of prevention and control regarding programs on typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, in Guizhou province, from 2007 to 2012, to provide evidence for the improvement of related programs.
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Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on serum renalase levels in Chinese adults: a randomized trial.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans.Forty-two subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0?g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0?g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0?g/day of NaCl?+?4.5?g/day of KCl).Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions.The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects.
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Incidence of dental caries among susceptible community-dwelling older adults using fluoride toothpaste: 2-year follow-up study.
J Can Dent Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To explore reasons for the underuse of dental services covered by a government-funded program in Alberta.
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Circulating miR-148b and miR-133a as biomarkers for breast cancer detection.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Circulating microRNAs have drawn a great deal of attention as promising novel biomarkers for breast cancer. However, to date, the results are mixed. Here, we performed a three-stage microRNA analysis using plasma samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls, with efforts taken to address several pitfalls in detection techniques and study design observed in previous studies. In the discovery phase with 122 Caucasian study subjects, we identified 43 microRNAs differentially expressed between breast cancer cases and healthy controls. When those microRNAs were compared with published data from other studies, we identified three microRNAs, including miR-148b, miR-133a and miR-409-3p, whose plasma levels were significantly higher in breast cancer cases than healthy controls and were also significant in previous independent studies. In the validation phase with 50 breast cancer cases and 50 healthy controls, we validated the associations with breast cancer detection for miR-148b and miR-133a (P = 1.5×10-6 and 1.3×10-10, respectively). In the in-vitro study phase, we found that both miR-148b and miR-133a were secreted from breast cancer cell lines, showing their secretory potential and possible tumor origin. Thus, our data suggest that both miR-148b and miR-133a have potential use as biomarkers for breast cancer detection.
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Adiponectin promotes pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting apoptosis via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1? signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine with pleiotropic actions. Clinical evidence has shown that serum adiponectin levels are increased and that adiponectin can protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis, which suggests that adiponectin may play an anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on PC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Adiponectin deficiency markedly attenuated pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. We found that adiponectin significantly inhibited the apoptosis of both human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells via adipoR1, but not adipoR2. Furthermore, adiponectin can increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) of PC cells. Knockdown of AMPK or Sirt1 can increase the apoptosis in PC cells. AMPK up-regulated Sirt1, and Sirt1 can inversely phosphorylate AMPK. Further studies have shown that Sirt1 can deacetylate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), which can increase the expression levels of mitochondrial genes. Thus, adiponectin exerts potent anti-apoptotic effects on PC cells via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? signaling. Finally, adiponectin can elevate ?-catenin levels. Taken together, these novel findings reveal an unconventional role of adiponectin in promoting pancreatic cancers, and suggest that the effects of adiponectin on tumorigenesis are highly tissue-dependent.
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Distributed neural network control for adaptive synchronization of uncertain dynamical multiagent systems.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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This paper addresses the leader-follower synchronization problem of uncertain dynamical multiagent systems with nonlinear dynamics. Distributed adaptive synchronization controllers are proposed based on the state information of neighboring agents. The control design is developed for both undirected and directed communication topologies without requiring the accurate model of each agent. This result is further extended to the output feedback case where a neighborhood observer is proposed based on relative output information of neighboring agents. Then, distributed observer-based synchronization controllers are derived and a parameter-dependent Riccati inequality is employed to prove the stability. This design has a favorable decouple property between the observer and the controller designs for nonlinear multiagent systems. For both cases, the developed controllers guarantee that the state of each agent synchronizes to that of the leader with bounded residual errors. Two illustrative examples validate the efficacy of the proposed methods.
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One-pot synthesis of macro-mesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid for bone tissue engineering.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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The macro-mesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid nanofibers were synthesized via electrospun method followed by acid treatment processing. It was identified to be an effective and simple synthetic strategy to form the uniform nanofibers about 350 nm in size. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123), was used as the template for mesoporous structure (5 nm) and the macroporous structure about 10 ?m in size derived from the overlapping of the nanofibers. Furthermore, the surface hydrophilic-hydrophobic property can be adjusted by varying the amount of mesoporous bioglass precursor (MBG-p). With the outstanding structure characters and the suitable hydrophilic property, these nanofiber composites show controlled drug release and the fast hydroxyapatite (HAP) mineralization performance. Herein, the novel materials are expected to have potential application for bone tissue engineering.
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Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.
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Protective effects of protocatechuic acid on retinal ganglion cells from oxidative damage induced by H2O2.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Oxidative stress-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is one of the important factors in ocular disease such as glaucoma. The aim of this study is to investigate whether protocatechuic acid (PCA), a monomeric phenolic acid with strong free radical scavenging effects, could protect RGC from oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and provide a potential therapy drug. The viability of RGC was determined by the MTT reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The possible protective mechanism was investigated via detecting apoptosis by Hoechst staining, Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels by ELISA, caspase-3 activation and membrane potential by immunofluorescence, and caspase-3 mRNA expression by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The results showed that PCA was effective in reducing apoptotic death induced by oxidative stress, mainly through inhibiting depolarization of membrane and activation of caspase-3, down-regulating of apoptosis-related protein Bax, and up-regulating Bcl-2.
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Mo-modified Pd/Al?O? catalysts for benzene catalytic combustion.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Mo-modified Pd/Al?O? catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method and tested for the catalytic combustion of benzene. The catalysts were characterized by N? isothermal adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed desorption of NH? (NH?-TPD), H? temperature-programmed reduction (H?-TPR), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The results showed that the addition of Mo effectively improved the activity and stability of the Pd/Al?O? catalyst by increasing the dispersion of Pd active components, changing the partial oxidation state of palladium and increasing the oxygen species concentration on the surface of catalyst. In the case of the Pd-Mo/Al?O? catalyst, benzene conversion of 90% was obtained at temperatures as low as 190°C, which was 45°C lower than that for similar performance with the Pd/Al?O? catalyst. Moreover, the 1.0% Pd-5% Mo/Al?O? catalyst was more active than the 2.0% Pd/Al?O? catalyst. It was concluded that Pd and Mo have a synergistic effect in benzene catalytic combustion.
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Ceftriaxone modulates uptake activity of glial glutamate transporter-1 against global brain ischemia in rats.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Ceftriaxone(Cef) selectively increases the expression of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which was thought to be neuroprotective in some circumstances. However, the effect of Cef on glutamate uptake of GLT-1 was mostly assayed using in vitro studies such as primary neuron/astrocyte cultures or brain slices. In addition, the effect of Cef on neurons in different ischemic models was still discrepant. Therefore, this study was undertaken to observe the effect of Cef on neurons in global brain ischemia in rats, and especially to provide direct evidence of the up-regulation of GLT-1 uptake for glutamate contributing to the neuronal protection of Cef against brain ischemia. Neuropathological evaluation indicated that administration of Cef, especially pre-treatment protocols, significantly prevented delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 subregion normally induced by global brain ischemia. Simultaneously, pre-administration of Cef significantly up-regulated the expression of GLT-1. Particularly, GLT-1 uptake assay with (3) H-glutamate in living cells from adult rats showed that up-regulation in glutamate uptake accompanied up-regulated GLT-1 expression. Inhibition of GLT-1 by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or dihydrokainate significantly inhibited the Cef-induced up-regulation in GLT-1 uptake and the neuroprotective effect against global ischemia. Thus, we may conclude that Cef protects neurons against global brain ischemia via up-regulation of the expression and glutamate uptake of GLT-1. Glutamate uptake by glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is the principal way to regulate extracellular glutamate homeostasis in central nervous system. Over-accumulation of glutamate results in excitotoxicity and injures neurons after cerebral ischemia. Ceftriaxone up-regulates GLT-1 expression and uptake of glutamate, diminishes the excitotoxicity of glutamate and then protects neurons against global brain ischemia.
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Acclimation of photosynthetic tolerance to acute heat stress at elevated CO? and N.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Determining interactive effects of pre-heat-stress, CO2 and N on photosynthetic thermotolerance is necessary for predicting plant responses to global change. We grew Hordeum vulgare (barley, C3) and Zea mays (corn, C4) at current or elevated CO2 (370 and 700 ppm) and limiting or optimal soil N (0.5 and 7.5mM). We assessed basal and inducible thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn), photosystem II efficiency [Formula: see text] , photochemical quenching (qp), carboxylation efficiency (CE), and rubisco activase content. Inducible thermotolerance was measured on plants which were pre-heat-stressed (PHS) for 4h before heat stress. We also assayed content of several major heat-shock proteins (HSPs), as HSPs are primary adaptations to heat stress and affected by N. Acclimation of photosynthetic thermotolerance was dependent on species, CO2 and N treatment and the component in the photosynthetic processes. PHS had a positive effect on the production of HSP60 and sHSP in low-N barley and corn. These results indicate that stimulatory effects of elevated CO2 at normal temperatures on photosynthesis may be partly changed by the different interactive effects of CO2, heat stress and N for species with different photosynthetic pathways. Thus, PHS, CO2 and N effects on photosynthetic thermotolerance may contribute to changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.
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Acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint activates cerebral neurons in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Our previous findings have demonstrated that acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint in healthy youths can activate neurons in cognitive-related cerebral cortex. Here, we investigated whether acupuncture at this acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate neurons in these regions. Resting state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that the pinprick senstation of acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint differed significantly between elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy elderly controls. Results showed that 20 brain regions were activated in both groups of participants, including the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann areas [BA] 32, 24), left medial frontal cortex (BA 9, 10, 11), left cuneus (BA 19), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 11), left lingual gyrus (BA 18), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 11), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), left superior frontal gyrus (BA11), right cuneus (BA 19, 18), right superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), left subcallosal gyrus (BA 47), bilateral precuneus (BA 19), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 10), right superior frontal (BA 11), left cingulate gyrus (BA 32), left precentral gyrus (BA 6), and right fusiform gyrus (BA 19). These results suggest that acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate some brain regions.
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Thermal preparation of lysozyme-imprinted microspheres by using ionic liquid as a stabilizer.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Thermal preparation of lysozyme-imprinted microspheres was firstly investigated by using biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) as a thermal stabilizer. The imprinted microspheres made with IL could obtain the good recognition ability to template protein, whereas the imprinted polymer synthesized in the absence of it had a similar adsorption capacity to the non-imprinted one. Furthermore, the preparation conditions of imprinted polymers (MIPs) including the content of IL, temperature of polymerization, and types of functional monomers and crosslinkers were systematically analyzed via circular dichroism spectrum and activity assay. The results illustrated that using hydroxyethyl acrylate as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker, 5 % IL as the stabilizer, and 75 °C as the reaction temperature could retain the structure of template protein as much as possible. The obtained MIPs showed excellent recognition ability to the template protein with the separation factor and selectivity factor value of 4.30 and 2.21, respectively. Consequently, it is an effective way to accurately imprint and separate template protein by cooperatively using circular dichroism spectroscopy and activity assay during the preparation of protein MIPs. The method of utilizing IL to stabilizing protein at high temperature would offer a good opportunity for various technologies to improve the development of macromolecules imprinting.
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Coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a large updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption) was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93-1.36). In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.74) and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00-1.54), and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13-1.93). There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger's test = 0.03). Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation.
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Multifunctionalized reduced graphene oxide-doped polypyrrole/pyrrolepropylic acid nanocomposite impedimetric immunosensor to ultra-sensitively detect small molecular aflatoxin B?.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), an aflatoxin is extremely toxic among mycotoxins in contaminated food products but it is very difficult to be quantitatively detected by existing methods. Impedimetric immunosensor is an advantageously label-free and fast assay. Nevertheless, its applications are limited by low sensitivity when the target molecule is small such as AFB1 due to relatively low impedance change during detection. Herein for the first time reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is nanocomposed with polypyrrole (PPy) and pyrrolepropylic acid (PPa) as a unique sensing platform, in which rGO greatly improves the conductivity and stability, PPa provides covalent linkers for probe immobilization and PPy endows the film electroactivity from its inherent electrochemical doping/dedoping property for impedance measurements, thus significantly improving the sensitivity to detect AFB1 in a range of 10 fg mL(-1) to 10 pg mL(-1) with high specificity and good reproducibility. This work demonstrates a novel method to sensitively detect small molecule by using immunoassay.
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Acupuncture Induces Time-Dependent Remodelling Brain Network on the Stable Somatosensory First-Ever Stroke Patients: Combining Diffusion Tensor and Functional MR Imaging.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Different treatment interventions induce distinct remodelling of network architecture of entire motor system. Acupuncture has been proved to be of a promising efficacy in motor recovery. However, it is still unclear whether the reorganization of motor-related brain network underlying acupuncture is related with time since stroke and severity of deficit at baseline. The aim of study was to characterize the relation between motor-related brain organization following acupuncture and white matter microstructural changes at an interval of two weeks. We demonstrated that acupuncture induced differential reorganization of motor-related network for stroke patients as time-lapse since stroke. At the baseline, acupuncture can induce the increased functional connectivity between the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the right M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area (SMA), thalamus, and cerebellum. After two-week recovery, the increased functional connectivity of the left M1 was more widely distributed and primarily located in the insula, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and SMA. Furthermore, a significant negative relation existed between the FA value in the left M1 at the baseline scanning and node centrality of this region following acupuncture for both baseline and two-week recovery. Our findings may shed a new insight on understanding the reorganization of motor-related theory underlying motor impairments after brain lesions in stroke patients.
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Selenite reduction by the obligate aerobic bacterium Comamonas testosteroni S44 isolated from a metal-contaminated soil.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in most organisms but has to be carefully handled since there is a thin line between beneficial and toxic concentrations. Many bacteria have the ability to reduce selenite (Se(IV)) and (or) selenate (Se(VI)) to red elemental selenium that is less toxic.
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PKA phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I modulates activation and relaxation kinetics of ventricular myofibrils.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of myofibril proteins constitutes an important pathway for ?-adrenergic modulation of cardiac contractility and relaxation. PKA targets the N-terminus (Ser-23/24) of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) and titin. The effect of PKA-mediated phosphorylation on the magnitude of contraction has been studied in some detail, but little is known about how it modulates the kinetics of thin filament activation and myofibril relaxation as Ca(2+) levels vary. Troponin C (cTnC) interaction with cTnI (C-I interaction) is a critical step in contractile activation that can be modulated by cTnI phosphorylation. We tested the hypothesis that altering C-I interactions by PKA, or by cTnI phosphomimetic mutations (S23D/S24D-cTnI), directly affects thin filament activation and myofilament relaxation kinetics. Rat ventricular myofibrils were isolated and endogenous cTn was exchanged with either wild-type cTnI, or S23D/S24D-cTnI recombinant cTn. Contractile mechanics were monitored at maximum and submaximal Ca(2+) concentrations. PKA treatment of wild-type cTn or exchange of cTn containing S23D/S24D-cTnI resulted in an increase in the rate of early, slow phase of relaxation (kREL,slow) and a decrease in its duration (tREL,slow). These effects were greater for submaximal Ca(2+) activated contractions. PKA treatment also reduced the rate of contractile activation (kACT) at maximal, but not submaximal Ca(2+), and reduced the Ca(2+) sensitivity of contraction. Using a fluorescent probe coupled to cTnC (C35S-IANBD), the Ca(2+)-cTn binding affinity and C-I interaction were monitored. Ca(2+) binding to cTn (pCa50) was significantly decreased when cTnI was phosphorylated by PKA (?pCa50 = 0.31). PKA phosphorylation of cTnI also weakened C-I interaction in the presence of Ca(2+). These data suggest that weakened C-I interaction, via PKA phosphorylation of cTnI, may slow thin filament activation and result in increased myofilament relaxation kinetics, the latter of which could enhance early phase diastolic relaxation during ?-adrenergic stimulation.
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A Sesquiterpene Lactone from a Medicinal Herb Inhibits Proinflammatory Activity of TNF-? by Inhibiting Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme UbcH5.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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UbcH5 is the key ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme catalyzing ubiquitination during TNF-?-triggered NF-?B activation. Here, we identified an herb-derived sesquiterpene lactone compound IJ-5 as a preferential inhibitor of UbcH5 and explored its therapeutic value in inflammatory and autoimmune disease models. IJ-5 suppresses TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation and inflammatory gene transcription by inhibiting the ubiquitination of receptor-interacting protein 1 and NF-?B essential modifier, which is essential to I?B kinase activation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that IJ-5 preferentially binds to and inactivates UbcH5 by forming a covalent adduct with its active site cysteine and thereby preventing ubiquitin conjugation to UbcH5. In preclinical models, pretreatment of IJ-5 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-?- and D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and collagen-induced arthritis. These findings highlight the potential of UbcH5 as a therapeutic target for anti-TNF-? interventions and provide an interesting lead compound for the development of new anti-inflammation agents.
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Comparison between autologous blood transfusion drainage and no drainage/closed-suction drainage in primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Primary aim of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to compare blood loss, transfusion rate and postoperative hemoglobin levels at 24-48 h after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) between autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drainage and no drainage/closed-suction drainage and to obtain a powerful conclusion which way of drainage had the best clinical efficacy. Secondary aim was to compare the postoperative complication rates during the first year to indentify which way of drainage was safest.
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Quintuple-shelled SnO(2) hollow microspheres with superior light scattering for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Quintuple-shelled SnO2 hollow microspheres are prepared by a hard-template method. DSSCs constructed with SnO2 multi-shell photoanodes show a record photoconversion efficiency of 7.18% due to enhanced light scattering. SnO2 hollow microspheres that are utilized as a scattering layer on top of P25 films increase the DSSC photoconversion efficiency from 7.29% to 9.53%.
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Null genotype of GSTT1 contributes to increased Parkinson's disease risk in Caucasians: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Conflicting results in previous case-control studies on the association between Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) gene polymorphism and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk have been reported, so we conducted this meta-analysis. We searched and extracted data from 3 Chinese and 3 English web-based electronic databases to evaluate the associations by odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) under the recessive genetic comparison model (null genotype vs. present genotype). We also conducted subgroup analyses by ethnicity and adjusted status of OR, respectively. Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses of larger studies (sample size ?300) were also reanalyzed. When 18 eligible studies (3,963 PD cases and 5,472 controls) were pooled to analyze the association, we found no statistically significant result (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.96-1.60). In the subgroup analyses by ethnicity, there was statistically significant association between the null genotype of GSTT1 and PD risk among Caucasians, while the associations were not found among Asians and Latinos. In the subgroup analyses by adjusted status of OR, there were no significant associations both in studies with crude OR and adjusted OR. Meta-analyses and subgroup analyses of larger studies (sample size ?300) were also confirmed the associations mentioned above. Power analysis indicated only meta-analysis of Caucasians had enough evidence to claim the association. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the null genotype of GSTT1 contributes to PD risk in Caucasians, and no association in Asians is needed more studies to confirm.
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Military personnel with chronic symptoms following blast traumatic brain injury have differential expression of neuronal recovery and epidermal growth factor receptor genes.
Front Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Approximately one-quarter of military personnel who deployed to combat stations sustained one or more blast-related, closed-head injuries. Blast injuries result from the detonation of an explosive device. The mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and place military personnel at high risk for chronic symptoms of post-concussive disorder (PCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression are not elucidated.
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Identification of hepatitis B virus X gene variants between hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and pericarcinoma liver tissues in Eastern China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant tumors worldwide, especially in Eastern China where HBV infection confirmed as the most important pathological element. HBV X gene, extremely easy to mutate and integrate into hepatocytes, plays a significant role in HBV infection and HCC development. We deduced that mutations of integrated HBx gene make transformation more malignant. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there were different mutation patterns between the HCC tissues and the pericarcinoma liver tissues (PCLT) from patients with HCC in Eastern China.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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