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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Trade-offs of the opto-electrical properties of a-Si:H solar cells based on MOCVD BZO films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) films, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been widely used as front electrodes in thin-film solar cells due to their native pyramidal surface structure, which results in efficient light trapping. This light trapping effect can enhance the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of solar cells. However, nanocracks or voids in the silicon active layer may form when the surface morphology of the BZO is too sharp; this usually leads to degraded electrical properties of the cells, such as open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the fill factor (FF), which in turn decreases efficiency (Eff) [Bailat et al., Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on. IEEE, 2006, vol. 2, pp. 1533-1536]. In this paper, an etching and coating method was proposed to modify the sharp "pyramids" on the surface of the BZO films. As a result, an evident enhancement was achieved for these modified, BZO-based cells' Voc, FF, and Eff, although the Jsc exhibited a small decrease. In order to increase the Jsc and maintain the improved electrical properties (Voc, FF) of the cell, a thin BZO coating, deposited by MOCVD, was introduced to coat the sputtering-treated BZO film. Finally, we optimized the trade-off among the Voc, FF, and Jsc, that is, we identified a regime with an increase of the Jsc as well as a further improvement of the other electrical properties.
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[Investigation of clinical features and detection of 79 known deafness genes in a large Chinese family with dominant non-syndromic hearing loss].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of a large family with late-onset, progressive autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss.
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[Advances of Driver Gene and Targeted Therapy of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the worldwide. The discovery of drive gene makes tumor treatment is no longer "one-size-fits-all". Targeted therapy to change the present situation of cancer drugs become "bullet" with eyes, the effect is visible and bring a revolution in the treatment of lung cancer. The diver gene and targeted therapy have became the new cedule of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has showed 11 kinds of diver genes. Here, we review the functional and structural characteristics and the targeted therapy in the 11 kinds of driver gene mutations.
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[Effect of nasal instillation of vitamin D3 on patient with allergic rhinitis symptoms].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate the effect of nasal instillation of vitamin D3 on patients with allergic rhinitis symptoms including nasal itching, sneezing, clear nasal discharge, and nasal congestion.
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Amorphization of itraconazole by inorganic pharmaceutical excipients: comparison of excipients and processing methods.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of solid carriers and processing routes on the properties of amorphous solid dispersions of itraconazole. Three solid carriers with a range of surface properties were studied, (1) a mesoporous silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate (Neusilin US2), (2) a nonporous silicate of corresponding composition (Veegum) and (3) a non-silicate, inorganic excipient, calcium phosphate dibasic anhydrous (A-TAB). The drug was incorporated via either solvent-deposition or ball milling. Both the maximum drug deposited by solvent-based method that produced an amorphous composite and the time for complete amorphization by co-milling was determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Changes in the drug and excipients were monitored by nitrogen adsorption and wettability of the powder. The ability of the excipients to amorphize the drug and enhance its dissolution was related to the powder characteristics. Neusilin provided the fastest amorphization time in the mill and highest drug loading by solvent-deposition, compared with the other two excipients. Solvent-deposition provided greater dissolution enhancement than milling, due to the reduction in Neusilin porosity during high energy milling.This study confirms that substrates as well as the processing routes have notable influence on the drug deposition, amorphization, physical stability and drug in vitro release.
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CMG helicase and DNA polymerase ? form a functional 15-subunit holoenzyme for eukaryotic leading-strand DNA replication.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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DNA replication in eukaryotes is asymmetric, with separate DNA polymerases (Pol) dedicated to bulk synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. Pol ?/primase initiates primers on both strands that are extended by Pol ? on the leading strand and by Pol ? on the lagging strand. The CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase surrounds the leading strand and is proposed to recruit Pol ? for leading-strand synthesis, but to date a direct interaction between CMG and Pol ? has not been demonstrated. While purifying CMG helicase overexpressed in yeast, we detected a functional complex between CMG and native Pol ?. Using pure CMG and Pol ?, we reconstituted a stable 15-subunit CMG-Pol ? complex and showed that it is a functional polymerase-helicase on a model replication fork in vitro. On its own, the Pol2 catalytic subunit of Pol ? is inefficient in CMG-dependent replication, but addition of the Dpb2 protein subunit of Pol ?, known to bind the Psf1 protein subunit of CMG, allows stable synthesis with CMG. Dpb2 does not affect Pol ? function with CMG, and thus we propose that the connection between Dpb2 and CMG helps to stabilize Pol ? on the leading strand as part of a 15-subunit leading-strand holoenzyme we refer to as CMGE. Direct binding between Pol ? and CMG provides an explanation for specific targeting of Pol ? to the leading strand and provides clear mechanistic evidence for how strand asymmetry is maintained in eukaryotes.
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[Association between early life exposure to famine and damaging the liver and kidney function].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To examine how early life exposure to famine would impact on liver and kidney functions and related chronic metabolic diseases during adulthood.
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[Inhibitory effect of taurine in hypoxia-induced rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and signal transduction mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To discuss the effect of taurine (Tau) on the proliferation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and study whether the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signal pathway participated in the Tau-inhibited PASMC proliferation process and the possible molecular mechanism.
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Cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring of ovarian hyperstimulated women and effects of estradiol and progesterone: a retrospective cohort study and proteomics analysis.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Context: The cardiovascular dysfunction in children born with assisted reproductive technologies has been widely concerned. However, the association of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a complication of assisted reproductive technologies, with worse cardiovascular functions and underlying mechanism remain unknown. Objectives: To assess the cardiovascular functions of children born to mothers with OHSS and investigate the underlying regulator(s). Design and Setting: This was a retrospective cohort recruited in a university hospital. Participants and Methods: We assessed cardiovascular functions by Doppler echography in 42 children born to OHSS women, 34 children of mothers with non- OHSS In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and 48 spontaneously conceived (SC) children (mean age about 4.5 years). Groups were matched for gestational age at delivery and birth weight. An iTRAQ labeled proteomics analysis was performed with another set of umbilical arteries from OHSS and SC pregnancies (n=3 for both groups). Results: Children of OHSS mothers showed a significantly decreased mitral E/A ratio, reduced systolic and diastolic diameters of common carotid arteries and impaired flow-mediated dilation compared with non-OHSS IVF and SC children. Intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness indices were similar in three groups. In proteomics study, 1640 proteins were identified from OHSS and SC umbilical arteries, and, 40 differentially expressed proteins were selected for further analysis. Estradiol and progesterone were identified as activated upstream regulators. Conclusions: Children born to ovarian hyperstimulated women displayed cardiovascular dysfunctions. The underlying mechanisms may involve the effects of supraphysiological estradiol and progesterone levels.
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Research on chemotherapy efficacy of twist gene on cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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The silent Twist gene may increase the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells chemotherapy to paclitaxel, thus was a new idea to improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The aim was to explore chemotherapy sensitivity of silent Twist gene increased cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel through study the proliferation and apoptosis of cervical cancer Twist gene after paclitaxel treatment. Cervical carcinoma Caski cells and Hela cells was cultured in vitro, mRNA gene expression was detected by using semi-quantitative, fluorescence quantitative PCR, and transferred to Caski cells transiently, and affected with paclitaxel solution of five kinds of different concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 umol/L respectively. Then the results of <0.05). Every 12h after 36h, the expression inhibition rate in two groups of Caski cells that has transfected this study was Twist gene expression in Caski cells was higher than in Hela cells, which was of significant difference (p siRNA1 and siRNA2 were 20.3%, 38.2%, 33%, 24%, 68.6%, 50.8% respectively. After 48h in five different concentrations of paclitaxel effect, the cell growth inhibition rate of group siRNA2 with the best transfection efficiency was obviously higher than that of negative control group and blank control group, and the growth inhibition rates showed concentration dependence (p<0.05). It can be concluded that Twist gene in Caski cell was of high expression and the silent Twist gene could inhibit Caski cell proliferation and promote its apoptosis, thus to improve the chemotherapy sensitivity of Caski cells.
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The effect of clopidogrel on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its metabolite in rats.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clopidogrel (CLO) on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine (IVA) and its metabolite in rats and develop a reliable method to determine IVA and its metabolite N-demethyl ivabradine in serum. Healthy male SD rats were randomized to be given 0.8?mg/kg IVA or IVA combined with 8?mg/kg CLO. Blood samples were collected at 0.083, 0.16, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24?h after administration. The serum concentrations of IVA and N-demethyl ivabradine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using DASver3.0 software. The parameters of AUC(0?-?t), AUC(0?-??), and Cmax for IVA in the group of IVA?+?CLO were significantly higher than those in the group of IVA (p?
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Anti-inflammatory amide alkaloids from the stems of Clausena emarginata.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Two new amide alkaloids, clauemaramide A (1) and clauemaramide B (2), and three known analogs were isolated from the stems of Clausena emarginata. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were confirmed by CD spectroscopy. Compound 3 showed moderate inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production (IC?? value = 4.9 ?M).
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Different effects of LDH-A inhibition by oxamate in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Higher rate of glycolysis has been long observed in cancer cells, as a vital enzyme in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) has been shown with great potential as an anti-cancer target. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of LDH-A induces apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in cancer cells. To date, it's still unclear that whether autophagy can be induced by LDH-A inhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of oxamate, one classic inhibitor of LDH-A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells as well as normal lung epithelial cells. The results showed that oxamate significantly suppressed the proliferation of NSCLC cells, while it exerted a much lower toxicity in normal cells. As previous studies reported, LDH-A inhibition resulted in ATP reduction and ROS (reactive oxygen species) burst in cancer cells, which lead to apoptosis and G2/M arrest in H1395 cells. However, when being exposed to oxamate, A549 cells underwent autophagy as a protective mechanism against apoptosis. Furthermore, we found evidence that LDH-A inhibition induced G0/G1 arrest dependent on the activation of GSK-3? in A549 cells. Taken together, our results provide useful clues for targeting LDH-A in NSCLC treatment and shed light on the discovery of molecular predictors for the sensitivity of LDH-A inhibitors.
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[Effects of hepatitis C virus core protein on activity of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To explore the effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein on the activity of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR).
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Selective recognition of parallel and anti-parallel thrombin-binding aptamer G-quadruplexes by different fluorescent dyes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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G-quadruplexes (G4) have been found increasing potential in applications, such as molecular therapeutics, diagnostics and sensing. Both Thio?avin T (ThT) and N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) become fluorescent in the presence of most G4, but thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) has been reported as the only exception of the known G4-forming oligonucleotides when ThT is used as a high-throughput assay to identify G4 formation. Here, we investigate the interactions between ThT/NMM and TBA through fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking simulation experiments in the absence or presence of cations. The results display that a large ThT ?uorescence enhancement can be observed only when ThT bind to the parallel TBA quadruplex, which is induced to form by ThT in the absence of cations. On the other hand, great promotion in NMM fluorescence can be obtained only in the presence of anti-parallel TBA quadruplex, which is induced to fold by K(+) or thrombin. The highly selective recognition of TBA quadruplex with different topologies by the two probes may be useful to investigate the interactions between conformation-specific G4 and the associated proteins, and could also be applied in label-free fluorescent sensing of other biomolecules.
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Pharmacokinetics of peramivir after single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Abstract 1.?The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of peramivir after single intravenous (i.v.) doses in healthy Chinese subjects. 2.?In a cross-over study, 12 subjects were given 300 and 600?mg peramivir by i.v. infusion. Blood and urine samples were collected at 17 designated time points and 7 designated intervals up to 36?h post-dose. Plasma and urine concentrations of peramivir were quantified by LC-MS/MS. 3.?After single i.v. doses of 300 and 600?mg peramivir, Cmax and AUC0-t of peramivir were 21.4?±?3.7, 41.1?±?5.3?mg?L(-1) and 55.90?±?10.62, 112.1?±?13.2?mg?h?L(-1), respectively. Cmax and AUC increased in proportion to the dose. Within 12?h, accumulative urinary recoveries of peramivir after single i.v. doses of 300 and 600?mg peramivir were 84.31?±?11.75% and 88.10?±?7.39%, respectively. 4.?In healthy Chinese subjects, peramivir displayed linear pharmacokinetics in the range of 300-600?mg, and was primarily excreted via urine as unchanged drug.
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Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes age-related endometrial atrophy through cross-talk with transforming growth factor beta signal transduction pathway.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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It is widely believed that endometrial atrophy in postmenopausal women is due to an age-related reduction in estrogen level. But the role of high circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in postmenopausal syndrome is not clear. Here, we explored the role of high circulating FSH in physiological endometrial atrophy. We found that FSH exacerbated post-OVX endometrial atrophy in mice, and this effect was ameliorated by lowering FSH with Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). In vitro, FSH inhibited endometrial proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of primary cultured endometrial cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, upregulation of caspase3, caspase8, caspase9, autophagy-related proteins (ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12 and LC3) and downregulation of c-Jun were also observed in endometrial adenocytes. Furthermore, smad2 and smad3 showed a time-dependent activation in endometrial cells which can be partly inhibited by blocking the transforming growth factor beta receptor II (T?RII). In conclusion, FSH regulated endometrial atrophy by affecting the proliferation, autophagy and apoptosis of endometrial cells partly through activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) pathway.
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High electrochemical performance based on the TiO2 nanobelt@few-layered MoS2 structure for lithium-ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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We report a facile approach to prepare MoS2 nanosheet coated TiO2 nanobelts. The TiO2@MoS2 structure exhibits a reversible capacity of 710 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles with highly stable capacity retention, and bears good rate capability with a reversible capacity of 417 mA h g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1).
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FLZ inhibited ?-secretase selectively and decreased A? mitochondrial production in APP-SH-SY5Y cells.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid-beta (A?) in mitochondria comes from APP mitochondrial metabolism or from the uptake A? from outside of mitochondria. It has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathways through which A? causes neuronal dysfunction. The accumulated A? in mitochondria decreases the level of cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV) and attenuates the ATP production consequently. FLZ is a synthetic cyclic derivative of squamosamide from Annona glabra. In this study, the effect of FLZ on APP processing in mitochondria was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells over-expressing APP695 (wt/Swe). FLZ treatment attenuated APP processing and decreased A? production in mitochondria. The mitochondrial function was increased with the upregulation of COX IV both at protein and activity levels. ATP production was also increased after FLZ treatment. The mechanistic study showed that FLZ inhibited ?-secretase activity by decreasing C-terminal fragment protein level of presenilin, the active center of ?-secretase. The effect of FLZ differs from DAPT (a non-selective ?-secretase inhibitor), suggesting FLZ is a selective ?-secretase inhibitor. FLZ selectively inhibited ?-secretase in the cleavage of recombinant C terminus of APP in vitro, without specifically modulating the processing of recombinant Notch intracellular domain. These results indicate that FLZ decreases A? accumulation in mitochondria by selectively inhibiting ?-secretase. We propose that FLZ is a potential anti-AD drug candidate, and its mechanism may be improving mitochondrial function by reducing the A? burden in mitochondria.
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Increased Intake of Vegetables, But Not Fruit, Reduces Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The anti-cancer effects of vegetables and fruit have been investigated extensively, but the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been quantified. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to clarify the association.
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Fabrication of nickel-foam-supported layered zinc-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes for high electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Nickel foam supported Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes were fabricated by a facile solvothermal method. Benefited from the unique structure of Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes on a nickel foam substrate, the as prepared materials exhibited an excellent specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) and remarkable cycling stability as electrode materials in supercapacitors.
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Polyploid giant cancer cells with budding and the expression of cyclin E, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, stathmin associated with the grading and metastasis in serous ovarian tumor.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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We previously reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) exhibit cancer stem cell properties and express cell cycle-related proteins. HEY PGCCs induced by cobalt chloride generated daughter cells and the daughter cells had a strong migratory and invasive ability. This study is to compare the expression of cyclin E, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2), and stathmin between PGCCs with budding and control HEY cells, and determine the clinicopathological significance of cell cycle-related protein expression in ovarian tumors.
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Tts1, the fission yeast homologue of the TMEM33 family, functions in NE remodeling during mitosis.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes "closed" mitosis in which the nuclear envelope (NE) stays intact throughout chromosome segregation. Here we show that Tts1, the fission yeast TMEM33 protein that was previously implicated in organizing the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also functions in remodeling the NE during mitosis. Tts1 promotes insertion of spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in the NE at the onset of mitosis and modulates distribution of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) during mitotic NE expansion. Structural features that drive partitioning of Tts1 to the high-curvature ER domains are crucial for both aspects of its function. An amphipathic helix located at the C-terminus of Tts1 is important for ER shaping and modulating the mitotic NPC distribution. Of interest, the evolutionarily conserved residues at the luminal interface of the third transmembrane region function specifically in promoting SPB-NE insertion. Our data illuminate cellular requirements for remodeling the NE during "closed" nuclear division and provide insight into the structure and functions of the eukaryotic TMEM33 family.
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Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case.
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Potential roles of GPR120 and its agonists in the management of diabetes.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Free fatty acids (FFAs) serve not only as nutrients that provide energy but also as extracellular signaling molecules that manipulate intracellular physiological events through FFA receptors (FFARs) such as FFAR4. FFAR4 is also known as G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120). The main role of GPR120 is to elicit FFA regulation on metabolism homeostasis. GPR120 agonism correlates with prevention of the occurrence and development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. GPR120 activation directly or indirectly inhibits inflammation, modulates hormone secretion from the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, and regulates lipid and/or glucose metabolism in adipose, liver, and muscle tissues, which may help prevent obesity and diabetes. This review summarizes recent advances in physiological roles of GPR120 in preventing insulin resistance and protecting pancreatic islet function, and examines how resident GPR120 in the pancreas may be involved in modulating pancreatic islet function.
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Gd-Al co-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with Ru(bpy)?²? as a dual-modality probe for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were co-doped with Gd(3+) and Al(3+) and then loaded with Ru(bpy)3(2+) by ion-exchange to prepare Ru/Gd-Al@MSNs. The as-prepared Ru/Gd-Al@MSNs were applied as contrast agents for in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) dual-modality imaging with a mouse as a model. The effects of Al(3+) and MSNs on longitudinal relaxivity (r1) and fluorescence were investigated using a series of Gd-containing silica nanoparticles, including Gd@MSNs, Gd-Al@MSNs, and Ru/Gd-Al@nonporous silica nanoparticles. Co-doping with Al(3+) improved the loading of Gd(3+); the mesoporous structure improved the water exchange rate. The improvement enhanced the MR imaging efficiency of the Ru/Gd-Al@MSN probe. A higher relaxivity (19.2 mM(-1) s(-1)) was observed compared to that from a commercial contrast agent, Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Importantly, the mesoporous structure provided a large specific surface area for the loading of Ru(bpy)3(2+) by a simple ion-exchange procedure. Intense red fluorescence was observed from Ru/Gd-Al@MSN probes. The versatility of Ru/Gd-Al@MSNs for dual-modality imaging was demonstrated using in vivo fluorescence imaging and T1-weighted MR imaging with a mouse model. The nanoparticles are biocompatible and may be attractive for clinical applications.
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[Determination of amino acids in Galli Gigerii endothelium corneum by HPLC with pre-column derivatization].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Hydrolytic amino acids were extracted by acid hydrolysis method, then derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC). And the samples were analysed by HPLC on an Ultimate Prime C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with gradient elution of 0.1 mol x L(-1) sodium acetate buffer solution (adjusted to pH 6. 5)-acetonitrile (93:7) (A) and acetonitrile-water (8:2) (B) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). Column temperature was 40 degrees C and the detected wavelength was 254 nm. Amino acids derivative solution remained stable in 36 hours. The response was linear for 16 amino acids with a correlation coefficient r > 0.999 5. The average recoveries were 98.01% -101.8%. The method is reliable with good accuracy and repeatability, which is useful for the determination of amino acids in Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum.
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Rapid molecular screening for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a resource-limited region of China.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To investigate the molecular characteristics of MDR and XDR strains circulating in Chongqing, China.
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Polyanion binding accelerates the formation of stable and low-toxic aggregates of ALS-linked SOD1 mutant A4V.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The toxic property thus far shared by both ALS-linked SOD1 variants and wild-type SOD1 is an increased propensity to aggregation. However, whether SOD1 oligomers or aggregates are toxic to cells remains to be well defined. Moreover, how the toxic SOD1 species are removed from intra- and extracellular environments also needs to be further explored. The DNA binding has been shown to be capable of accelerating the aggregatio\n of wild-type and oxidized SOD1 forms under acidic and neutral conditions. In this study, we explore the binding of DNA and heparin, two types of essential life polyanions, to A4V, an ALS-linked SOD1 mutant, under acidic conditions, and its consequences. The polyanion binding alters the A4V conformation, neutralizes its local positive charges, and increases its local concentrations along the polyanion chain, which are sufficient to lead to acceleration of the pH-dependent A4V aggregation. The accelerated aggregation, which is ascribed to the polyanion binding-mediated removal or shortening of the lag phase in aggregation, contributes to the formation of amorphous A4V nanoparticles. The prolonged incubation with polyanions not only results in the complete conversion of likely soluble toxic A4V oligomers into non- and low-toxic SDS-resistant aggregates, but also increases their stability. Although this is only an initial step toward reducing the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, the accelerating role of polyanions in protein aggregation might become one of the rapid pathways that remove toxic forms of SOD1 mutants from intra- and extracellular environments. Proteins 2014; 82:3356-3372. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Scavenger receptor on astrocytes and its relationship with neuroinflammation.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Neuroinflammation in central nervous system,featured by glial cells activation,can always be found during the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocytes,the most abundant glial cells in the brain,can release both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors,thus playing a crucial role in the neuroinflammation. A variety of pattern-recognition receptors on astrocytes are involved in the inflammatory response,particularly the scavenger receptor. Scavenger receptor is a cell surface glycoprotein and can identify diverse ligands. With a variety of biological functions,it may activate many signal pathways related to neuroinflammation,regulate the host defense and the development of neuroinflammation,and eventually regulate the process of neuroinflammation. Thus,it play a key role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and many other conditions. This review summarizes the scavenger receptor expressed on astrocytes and how it regulates signal transduction pathways associated with neuroinflammation and thus participates in regulating neuroinflammation.
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Small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) is a modulator of endometrial remodeling during endometrial growth.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Small-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel 3 (SK3) has been shown to be expressed in porcine endometrium. However, the roles of SK3 in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy are unknown.
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Maternal periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: A meta-analysis.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Research on the association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia has generated inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia. A literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed to identify relevant papers published before March 2013. Only observational studies that assessed maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia were selected. Patients' periodontal status was examined at different time points during pregnancy or after delivery (at 14-32 weeks of gestation, within 48 h prior to or within 5 days after delivery). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for cases and controls. Cases were defined as women with concurrent hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Eleven studies involving 1118 women with preeclampsia and 2798 women without preeclampsia were identified and analyzed. Women with periodontal disease before 32 weeks of gestation had a 3.69-fold higher risk of developing preeclampsia than their counterparts without periodontal disease (OR=3.69; 95% CI=2.58-5.27). Periodontal disease within 48 h prior to delivery was associated with a 2.68-fold higher risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.68; 95% CI=1.39-5.18). Pregnant women with periodontal disease within 5 days after delivery had a 2.22-fold higher risk of preeclampsia than women without periodontal disease (OR=2.22; 95% CI=1.16-4.27). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that maternal periodontal disease is an independent predictor of preeclampsia.
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[The basic functions of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase and its application in drug discovery].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a key enzyme of de novo GMP biosynthesis. The expression and activity of IMPDH can be affected by diseases and physiological process. It is the drug target for anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial and immunosuppressive therapeutics. Not only catalytic action but the other biological functions of IMPDH also play an important role in diseases. The basic functions, mechanism of catalysis, classification of inhibitors, biological functions and the latest advances to IMPDH will be illustrated in this review. It is expected to be helpful to the discovery of new inhibitors and biological functions of IMPDH.
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Catalytic Asymmetric Functionalization of Aromatic C?H Bonds by Electrophilic Trapping of Metal-Carbene-Induced Zwitterionic Intermediates.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Asymmetric functionalization of aromatic C?H bonds of N,N-disubstituted anilines with diazo compounds and imines is reported for the efficient construction of ?,?-diaryl benzylic quaternary stereocenters in good yields with high diastereoselectivities and excellent enantioselectivities. This Rh(II) /chiral phosphoric acid cocatalyzed transformation is proposed to proceed through a metal-carbene-induced zwitterionic intermediate which undergoes electrophilic trapping. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first asymmetric example of metal carbene-induced intermolecular functionalization of aryl C?H bonds.
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An ESIPT fluorescent probe sensitive to protein ?-helix structures.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A large majority of membrane proteins have one or more transmembrane regions consisting of ?-helices. Membrane protein levels differ from one type of cell to another, and the expression of membrane proteins also changes from normal to diseased cells. For example, prostate cancer cells have been reported to have downregulated expression of membrane proteins, including zinc transporters, compared with normal prostate cells. These reports inspired us to design a fluorescence probe sensitive to protein ?-helical structures to discriminate individual prostate cancer cells from normal ones. A benzazole derivative ( in this study) was observed to emit strong fluorescence resulting from an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in protein ?-helical environments. The intensity of ESIPT fluorescence of was observed to be positively correlated with the ?-helix content of proteins. The molecular docking simulation suggested that it had low energy for the binding of to proteins when the binding sites were localized within the ?-helical regions of protein via H-bonds. Furthermore, was found to be localized in cell membranes through binding to transmembrane ?-helical regions of membrane proteins, and was capable of probing differences in the ?-helix contents of membrane proteins between normal and cancerous prostate cells through changes in the ESIPT emission intensity. These results indicated that could distinguish individual prostate cancer cells from normal ones, as the changes in the ESIPT fluorescence intensity of could reflect the regulation in expression of the membrane proteins including zinc transporters. This recognition strategy of individual prostate cancer cells might contribute to early diagnosis techniques for prostate cancer.
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Closed-form fiducial confidence intervals for some functions of independent binomial parameters with comparisons.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Approximate closed-form confidence intervals (CIs) for estimating the difference, relative risk, odds ratio, and linear combination of proportions are proposed. These CIs are developed using the fiducial approach and the modified normal-based approximation to the percentiles of a linear combination of independent random variables. These confidence intervals are easy to calculate as the computation requires only the percentiles of beta distributions. The proposed confidence intervals are compared with the popular score confidence intervals with respect to coverage probabilities and expected widths. Comparison studies indicate that the proposed confidence intervals are comparable with the corresponding score confidence intervals, and better in some cases, for all the problems considered. The methods are illustrated using several examples.
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Rapid resolution of subdural hematoma after targeted epidural blood patch treatment in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common complication of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). To date, the management of SDH caused by SIH remains controversial. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical course of SDH in patients with SIH, and discuss the underlying mechanism and attributing factors for rapid resolution of subdural hematomas after epidural blood patch (EBP) surgery.
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C392T polymorphism of the Wnt10a gene in non-syndromic oral cleft in a northeastern Chinese population.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Non-syndromic oral cleft is one of the most common congenital malformations, and more than 40 genes may be involved in its aetiology. Recent studies have shown that the Wnt10a gene may also contribute. We recruited 198 patients with non-syndromic oral clefts, comprising 96 elementary families (restricted to the patients and their parents) and 187 controls, to investigate their associations with the risk of such clefts and their subgroups in a Chinese Han population. The variant evaluated in this study was a single nucleotide polymorphism - specifically, a missense mutation C392T of Wnt10a. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to genotype the marker, and case-control and family-based associations were analysed. Although in the case-control study there were no significant differences in frequency distributions of genotypes or alleles between cases and controls in the groups with cleft palate and cleft lip and palate, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of C392T in the total groups and the group with cleft lip alone differed significantly from those in the controls (p=0.04, and 0.01, respectively). A transmission disequilibrium test showed a transmitted disequilibrium in C392T. In conclusion, we found an association between the C392T variant and non-syndromic oral clefts.
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The role of the reduction of spiral artery remodeling and heme oxygenase 1 in mediating AT1-AA-induced hypertension and intrauterine growth restriction in pregnant rats.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Recently, emerging evidence has indicated that preeclamptic women who have angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), these antibodies contribute to features of the disease.
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Association of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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To study the expression of insulin signaling-related genes and oxidative stress markers in the visceral adipose tissue obtained from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy control subjects and to investigate the relationships among abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress at the tissue level.
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Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on cholesterol gallstone formation in C57BL/6J mice.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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The present study investigated the preventive effect of ??3 fatty acids against cholesterol gallstone (CG) formation. CG formation was induced in C57BL/6J mice using a lithogenic diet (LD). The mice were divided into four treatment groups: i) LD, ii) LD plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), iii) LD plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iv) LD plus EPA plus DHA. Subsequent to feeding the mice the LD for four weeks, EPA and/or DHA (70 mg/kg/day) were orally administered for eight weeks. The mice in the EPA treatment groups exhibited significantly less gallstone formation than those in the LD group. By contrast, DHA treatment only slightly suppressed gallstone formation. The expression of mucin 2, 5AC, 5B and 6 was significantly decreased in the gallbladders of mice in the EPA groups (70?90%) and the LD plus DHA group (30?50%), compared with that in the mice in the LD group. In addition, the mRNA expression of 3?hydroxy?3?methylglutaryl?coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased in the livers of mice in the EPA treatment group compared with that in the livers of mice in the LD group. In conclusion, EPA was found to have a dominant anti?lithogenic effect in C57BL/6J mice.
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The effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on type 2 diabetes mellitus with vascular complications in Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase plays an important role in folate metabolism. Individuals who are type 2 diabetes mellitus have greatest risk for the development of vascular complications. The results of studies which assessed the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM with vascular complications were inconsistent in the Chinese Han population. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the associations between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and T2DM with vascular complications in the Chinese Han population. We collected all relevant articles on MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and T2DM with vascular complications in the Chinese Han population in multiple electronic databases which were searched to December 2013. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to assess the odds ratios (ORs). Stratified Analysis, sensitivity Analysis and publication bias were examined. A total of 1984 diabetic patients with vascular complications and 1703 single diabetic patients were found in meta-analysis. There was a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and T2DM with vascular complications under recessive genetic model, dominant genetic model, homozygous genetic model, heterozygous genetic model and allele comparison. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the overall result was dependable. Our meta-analysis suggests the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms is associated with T2DM with vascular complications in the Chinese Han population.
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Role of p38 MAPK in enhanced human cancer cells killing by the combination of aspirin and ABT-737.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Regular use of aspirin after diagnosis is associated with longer survival among patients with mutated-PIK3CA colorectal cancer, but not among patients with wild-type PIK3CA cancer. In this study, we showed that clinically achievable concentrations of aspirin and ABT-737 in combination could induce a synergistic growth arrest in several human PIK3CA wild-type cancer cells. In addition, our results also demonstrated that long-term combination treatment with aspirin and ABT-737 could synergistically induce apoptosis both in A549 and H1299 cells. In the meanwhile, short-term aspirin plus ABT-737 combination treatment induced a greater autophagic response than did either drug alone and the combination-induced autophagy switched from a cytoprotective signal to a death-promoting signal. Furthermore, we showed that p38 acted as a switch between two different types of cell death (autophagy and apoptosis) induced by aspirin plus ABT-737. Moreover, the increased anti-cancer efficacy of aspirin combined with ABT-737 was further validated in a human lung cancer A549 xenograft model. We hope that this synergy may contribute to failure of aspirin cancer therapy and ultimately lead to efficacious regimens for cancer therapy.
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Increased risk of gonadal malignancy and prophylactic gonadectomy: a study of 102 phenotypic female patients with Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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What is the optimal protocol of management for phenotypic female patients with Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences, in particular for adult patients?
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Asymmetric cell division in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Asymmetric cell division is critical for generating cell diversity in low eukaryotic organisms. We previously have reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) induced by cobalt chloride demonstrate the ability to use an evolutionarily conserved process for renewal and fast reproduction, which is normally confined to simpler organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which reproduces by asymmetric cell division, has long been a model for asymmetric cell division studies. PGCCs produce daughter cells asymmetrically in a manner similar to yeast, in that both use budding for cell polarization and cytokinesis. Here, we review the results of recent studies and discuss the similarities in the budding process between yeast and PGCCs.
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Changes of serum omentin-1 levels in normal subjects, type 2 diabetes and type 2 diabetes with overweight and obesity in Chinese adults.
Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Omentin-1 has been identified as interesting novel adipokines that may modulate insulin action. Its exact biological function is unclear. The aim of this study is to assay the levels of serum omentin-1 in normal subjects and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with normal weight, overweight and obesity and to analyze the relationship between serum omentin-1 levels with body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma glucose, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and serum lipid levels.
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Quantification of strontium in human serum by ICP-MS using alternate analyte-free matrix and its application to a pilot bioequivalence study of two strontium ranelate oral formulations in healthy Chinese subjects.
J Trace Elem Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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A rapid, sensitive and accurate ICP-MS method using alternate analyte-free matrix for calibration standards preparation and a rapid direct dilution procedure for sample preparation was developed and validated for the quantification of exogenous strontium (Sr) from the drug in human serum. Serum was prepared by direct dilution (1:29, v/v) in an acidic solution consisting of nitric acid (0.1%) and germanium (Ge) added as internal standard (IS), to obtain simple and high-throughput preparation procedure with minimized matrix effect, and good repeatability. ICP-MS analysis was performed using collision cell technology (CCT) mode. Alternate matrix method by using distilled water as an alternate analyte-free matrix for the preparation of calibration standards (CS) was used to avoid the influence of endogenous Sr in serum on the quantification. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, carry-over, matrix effects, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, precision and accuracy, and stability. Instrumental linearity was verified in the range of 1.00-500ng/mL, corresponding to a concentration range of 0.0300-15.0?g/mL in 50?L sample of serum matrix and alternate matrix. Intra- and inter-day precision as relative standard deviation (RSD) were less than 8.0% and accuracy as relative error (RE) was within ±3.0%. The method allowed a high sample throughput, and was sensitive and accurate enough for a pilot bioequivalence study in healthy male Chinese subjects following single oral administration of two strontium ranelate formulations containing 2g strontium ranelate.
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Hiwi downregulation, mediated by shRNA, reduces the proliferation and migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The Piwi subfamily is one of two Argonaute family proteins, which are characterized by the presence of Piwi and Piwi?Argonaute?Zwille domains, and are well known for their role in RNA silencing. Hiwi, a human member of the Piwi subfamily, is restricted to the germ line, where it binds Piwi?interacting RNAs and functions in stem cell self?renewal and gametogenesis. Previous reports have indicated that abnormal Hiwi expression may be associated with a poor prognosis of numerous types of human cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is currently known about the oncogenic role of Hiwi in HCC. In the present study, it was confirmed that Hiwi is overexpressed at both the mRNA and protein level, in HCC specimens, as well as in MHCC97L and MHCC97H HCC cell lines. A lentivirus?mediated small hairpin rna (shRNA) targeting Hiwi was constructed and used to infect MHCC97L and MHCC97H cells. Relative Hiwi mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined using cell count, scratch and Transwell assays, respectively. Hiwi mRNA and protein expression was significantly downregulated in HCC cells in response to transduction with the lentivirus?mediated shRNA. Furthermore, the proliferative, migrative and invasive properties of the shRNA?transduced cells were significantly decreased. Therefore, Hiwi downregulation mediated by shRNA, may reduce the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. These results indicate that Hiwi may have an important role in the progression of HCC and may be a target for anticancer therapy.
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Number of polyploid giant cancer cells and expression of EZH2 are associated with VM formation and tumor grade in human ovarian tumor.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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To investigate the associations among the number of polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) and vasculogenic mimicry (VM), EZH2 expression, and serous ovarian tumor grade, a total of 80 paraffin-embedded serous ovarian tumor samples including 21 cases of primary carcinoma and their metastatic tumors, 26 cases of primary carcinoma without metastasis, and 12 cases of serous borderline cystadenoma were analyzed. PGCCs and VM were detected in human serous ovarian tumor. The metastatic foci of ovarian carcinoma had the highest number of PGCCs and VM. The number of PGCCs and VM increased with the grade of ovarian carcinomas. PGCCs generated erythrocytes via budding and together they formed VM. Tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts were positive for EZH2 immunohistochemical staining. The tumor cells and cancer associated fibroblasts in the metastatic foci had the highest staining index of EZH2 staining. Both tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts express EZH2 which then contributes to the malignant grade of serous ovarian tumor.
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Determination of imidocarb in animal biosamples using simple high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for detection of imidocarb [1,3-bis[3-(4,5-dihydro-1h-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]urea] in beef and milk using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD). Imidocarb was separated on a reversed-phase column (4.6×250 mm, 5 ?m) with a mobile phase consisting of 85:15 (v/v) 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 ml/min, and the column temperature was maintained at 20°C. Detection was carried out at 260 nm using a DAD detector. The analytical samples were extracted using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r?0.998). Limits of quantifications (LOQs) were 0.15 mg/kg in beef and 0.025 mg/kg in milk. Intra- and inter-day precisions were 3.2-6.1 and 1.4-6.9%, respectively, and the accuracy (recovery) was 80.4-82.2% and 80.1-89.5% in beef and milk, respectively. Thus, an analytical protocol using SPE extraction followed by HPLC with DAD was successfully developed, which demonstrated acceptable precision and recovery.
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Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes to identify genomic regions associated with protein content and water-soluble protein content in soybean.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Four major SPC-specific loci were identified, and these accounted for 8.5-15.1 % of the phenotypic variation, thus explaining why certain soybean varieties have a high PC but a low SPC. Water-soluble protein content (SPC) is a critical factor in both food quality and the production of isolated soybean proteins. However, few data are available regarding the genetic control and the mechanisms contributing to elevated SPC. In this study, a soybean collection of 192 accessions from a wide geographic range was used to identify genomic regions associated with soybean protein content (PC) and SPC using an association mapping approach employing 1,536 SNP makers and 232 haplotypes. The diverse panel revealed a large genetic variation in PC and SPC. Association mapping was performed using three methods to minimize false-positive associations. This resulted in 4/8 SNPs and 3/6 haplotypes that were significantly associated with soybean PC/SPC in two or more environments based on the mixed model. An SNP that was highly significantly associated with PC, BARC-021267-04016, was localized 0.28 cM away from a published glycinin gene, G7, and was detected across all four environments. Four major SPC-specific loci, BARC-029149-06088, BARC-018023-02499, BARC-041663-08059 and haplotype 15 (hp15), were stably identified on chromosomes five and eight and explained 8.5-15.1 % of the phenotypic variation. Moreover, a glutelin type-B 2-like gene was identified on chromosome eight and may be related to soybean protein solubility. These markers, which are located in previously reported QTL, reconfirmed previous findings and may be important targets for the identification of protein-related genes. These novel SNPs and haplotypes are important for further understanding the genetic basis of PC and SPC. In addition, by comparing the correlation and genetic loci between PC and SPC, we provide new insights into why certain soybean varieties have a high protein content but a low SPC.
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Soluble Expression of Bladder Cancer Biomarker Matrix Metalloproteinase 1.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) has been shown as a novel unique biomarker of bladder cancer in urine. MMP1 can only be detected using conventional and time-consuming methods, such as ELISA and Western. Refolded MMP1 has been achieved and used in probe screen for many years, while there is no clinical application for MMP1 detection until now. Soluble expression of MMP1 is necessary in urine detection.
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Auricular acupressure reduces anxiety levels and improves outcomes of in vitro fertilization: a prospective, randomized and controlled study.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The study was to explore whether auricular acupressure (AA) can relieve anxiety during the period from trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval to the embryo transfer in IVF treatment and whether AA can improve the outcomes of IVF. 305 infertile patients with tubal blockage who were referred for IVF were included. The women were randomized into a control group with 102 cases, a Sham-AA group with 102 cases and an AA group with 101 cases. The anxiety levels were rated with Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. Data of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR) and live birth rate (LBR) were obtained. The levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the follicular fluids were detected with ELISA. After treatment, in AA group, the levels of state anxiety, preoperative anxiety and need-for-information were significantly lower, whereas CPR, IR, LBR and NPY levels in the follicular fluids were markedly higher than Sham-AA group and control group. We concluded that AA could help to reduce anxiety levels associated with IVF and improves the outcomes of IVF partly through increasing the levels of NPY in the follicular fluids.
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Mechanism of asymmetric polymerase assembly at the eukaryotic replication fork.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Eukaryotes use distinct polymerases for leading- and lagging-strand replication, but how they target their respective strands is uncertain. We reconstituted Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication forks and found that CMG helicase selects polymerase (Pol) ? to the exclusion of Pol ? on the leading strand. Even if Pol ? assembles on the leading strand, Pol ? rapidly replaces it. Pol ?-PCNA is distributive with CMG, in contrast to its high stability on primed ssDNA. Hence CMG will not stabilize Pol ?, instead leaving the leading strand accessible for Pol ? and stabilizing Pol ?. Comparison of Pol ? and Pol ? on a lagging-strand model DNA reveals the opposite. Pol ? dominates over excess Pol ? on PCNA-primed ssDNA. Thus, PCNA strongly favors Pol ? over Pol ? on the lagging strand, but CMG over-rides and flips this balance in favor of Pol ? on the leading strand.
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Genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a resource-limited region of China.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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To gain an insight into the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Chongqing Municipality, an MDR tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic region of China.
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Prognostic factors of patients with spinal chondrosarcoma: a retrospective analysis of 98 consecutive patients in a single center.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Chondrosarcoma (CHS) in the spine is relatively rare and minimal information has been published in the literature regarding this subject. The objective of our study was to discuss the factors that may affect outcomes of patients with spinal CHS.
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Pulmonary tuberculosis combined with hepatic tuberculosis: a case report and literature review.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, may invade all organs but mainly affect lungs. Most hepatic tuberculosis could be a part of systemic miliary tuberculosis.
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Acupuncture-moxibustion in treating irritable bowel syndrome: how does it work?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional intestinal disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. It has drawn great attention because of its high prevalence, reoccurring symptoms, and severe influence on patients' lives. Many clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of acupuncture-moxibustion in treating IBS. Increasing attention has been paid to research regarding the action mechanisms of acupuncture-moxibustion for IBS, and the adoption of modern techniques has achieved some progress. This article reviews the latest advances among action mechanism studies from the perspectives of gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, the brain-gut axis, the neuroendocrine system, and the immune system. It is shown that acupuncture-moxibustion can effectively regulate the above items, and thus, this treatment should have a high efficacy in the treatment of IBS. This article also identifies existing problems in current mechanism research and raises several ideas for future studies. Further revelations regarding these action mechanisms will promote the application of acupuncture-moxibustion in treating IBS.
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Occurrence, Distribution and Sources of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Surface Sediments from the Lijiang River, a Typical Karst River of Southwestern China.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The Lijiang River is a typical karst river of southwestern China. Karst-aquifer systems are more vulnerable to contamination compared to other types of aquifers. The occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Lijiang River were investigated to evaluate their potential ecological risks. The total concentrations of them in sediments ranged from 0.80 to 18.73 ng/g dry weight (dw) (mean 6.83 ng/g dw). The residue levels of OCPs varied in the order of HCB > HCHs > DDTs. Compositional analyses of OCPs showed that HCHs and DDTs were mainly from historical usage. The ecological risk assessment suggested that HCHs and DDTs in Lijiang River sediments may cause adverse ecological risks, particularly at sites near agricultural areas.
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Enhanced poly(?-glutamic acid) fermentation by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 immobilized in an aerobic plant fibrous-bed bioreactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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To enhance poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) production, a novel aerobic plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (APFB) was constructed for immobilized fermentation. Based on the analysis of the kinetics of immobilized-cell fermentation using the APFB and conventional free-cell fermentation, immobilized-cell fermentation exhibited more efficient PGA production. Furthermore, repeated fed-batch cultures for PGA production were conducted to evaluate the stability of the APFB system. Average final PGA concentration and productivity of 71.21±0.83g/L and 1.246±0.008g/L/h were respectively achieved by cells immobilized in bagasse during APFB, which was reused eight times over a period of 457±18h. Analysis of the membrane phospholipids and the key enzyme activities indicated that APFB-adapted cells had better productivity than original cells. Thus, this study demonstrated the significant potential of the APFB culture system in future industrial applications.
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Resting-state functional connectivity in anterior cingulate cortex in normal aging.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Growing evidence suggests that normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and well-maintained emotional well-being. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important brain region involved in emotional and cognitive processing. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of two ACC subregions in 30 healthy older adults vs. 33 healthy younger adults, by parcellating into rostral (rACC) and dorsal (dACC) ACC based on clustering of FC profiles. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater connection between rACC and anterior insula, suggesting that older adults recruit more proximal dACC brain regions connected with insula to maintain a salient response. Older adults also demonstrated increased FC between rACC and superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, decreased integration between rACC and default mode, and decreased dACC-hippocampal and dACC-thalamic connectivity. These altered FCs reflected rACC and dACC reorganization, and might be related to well emotion regulation and cognitive decline in older adults. Our findings provide further insight into potential functional substrates of emotional and cognitive alterations in the aging brain.
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Prevalence of suicidal ideation in chinese college students: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students.
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Serum unsaturated free Fatty acids: potential biomarkers for early detection and disease progression monitoring of non-small cell lung cancer.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lung cancer (LC) is the deadliest cancer, with earlier stage patients having a better opportunity of long-term survival. The goal of this study is to screen less-invasive and efficient biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell LC (NSCLC).
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P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits the transport of the novel anti-Parkinson's disease candidate drug FLZ across the physiological and PD pathological in vitro BBB models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport.
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Bisindole Alkaloids with Neural Anti-inflammatory Activity from Gelsemium elegans.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Three new trace bisindole alkaloids geleganimines A and B (1, 2) and geleganamide (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Gelsemium elegans. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy, particularly from their carbon-proton coupling constants, and electronic circular dichroism. Compounds 1-3 are the first bisindole alkaloids discovered from the genus Gelsemium. Geleganimine B exhibited anti-inflammatory activity indirectly by suppressing lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory factors in BV2 microglial cells with an IC50 value of 10.2 ?M. These findings confirm the importance of bioactive trace components in medicinal plant research.
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Squamosamide derivative FLZ protected dopaminergic neuron by activating Akt signaling pathway in 6-OHDA-induced in vivo and in vitro Parkinsons disease models.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in experimental PD models. In this study, we carried out a set of in vitro and in vivo experiments to address the neuroprotective effect of FLZ and related mechanism. The results showed that FLZ significantly improved motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal loss of rats injured by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Mechanistic study showed that FLZ protected TH activity and dopaminergic neurons through decreasing ?-synuclein (?-Syn) expression and the interaction between ?-Syn and TH. Further studies indicated the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in the protective effect of FLZ since it showed that blocking PI3K/Akt signaling pathway prevented the expression of ?-Syn and attenuated the neuroprotection of FLZ. In addition, FLZ treatment reduced the expression of RTP801, an important protein involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Taken together, these results revealed that FLZ suppressed ?-Syn expression and elevated TH activity in dopaminergic neuron through activating Akt survival pathway in 6-OHDA-induced PD models. The data also provided evidence that FLZ had potent neuroprotecive effects and might become a new promising agent for PD treatment.
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Identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase gene family and MKK-MAPK interaction network in maize.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in important processes, including stress signaling and development. MAPK kinases (MAPKK, MKK) have been investigated in several plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa, and Brachypodium distachyon. In the present study, nine putative maize MKK genes have been identified. Analysis of the conserved protein motifs, exon-intron junctions and intron phase has revealed high levels of conservation within the phylogenetic groups. Next, we defined four new ZmMKK-ZmMPK interactions using yeast two-hybrid. Finally, we examined the biological functions of the ZmMKK4 gene. Overexpression of ZmMKK4 in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to oxidative stress by increased germination rate and early seedling growth compared with WT plants. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the MKK gene family in maize genome and our data provide an important foundation for further functional study of MAPK and MKK families in maize.
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Hsp70-Hsp40 chaperone complex functions in controlling polarized growth by repressing Hsf1-driven heat stress-associated transcription.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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How the molecular mechanisms of stress response are integrated at the cellular level remains obscure. Here we show that the cellular polarity machinery in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes dynamic adaptation to thermal stress resulting in a period of decreased Cdc42 activity and altered, monopolar growth. Cells where the heat stress-associated transcription was genetically upregulated exhibit similar growth patterning in the absence of temperature insults. We identify the Ssa2-Mas5/Hsp70-Hsp40 chaperone complex as repressor of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Cells lacking this chaperone activity constitutively activate the heat-stress-associated transcriptional program. Interestingly, they also exhibit intermittent monopolar growth within a physiological temperature range and are unable to adapt to heat stress. We propose that by negatively regulating the heat stress-associated transcription, the Ssa2-Mas5 chaperone system could optimize cellular growth under different temperature regiments.
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[Efficiency of postoperative ovulation induction on infertile women with minimal-mild endometriosis].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To investigate the efficacy of timely ovulation induction on Infertility women with minimal-mild endometriosis (EMS) after laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.