The manganese peroxidase gene family (mnps) is a part of the ligninolytic system of Pleurotus ostreatus. This gene family is comprised of nine members, mnp1-9, encoding short manganese peroxidases (short-MnPs) or versatile peroxidases (VPs). We show that unlike in Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone (GP) medium, where redundancy among mnps was reported, in Mn(2+)-deficient GP medium mnp4 [encoding versatile peroxidase isoenzyme 4 (VP4)] has a key and nonredundant function. The abundance of mnps transcripts at time points corresponding to the tropophase (active growth), early idiophase, and idiophase indicates that mnp4 is the predominantly expressed mnp gene and that its relative predominance is dependent on the age of the culture. In this medium, azo dye, Orange II (OII) decolorization occurs only during the idiophase and a ?mnp4 strain showed a drastic reduction in this decolorization. Three degradation metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), indicating both asymmetric and symmetric enzymatic cleavage of the azo-bond. In addition, the culture filtrate of ?mnp4 showed negligible values of oxidation capability of four typical VP substrates: Mn(2+), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, phenol red, and Reactive Black 5 (RB5), compared to the wild-type strain PC9. We concluded that under Mn(2+)-deficient GP culture, VP4 (encoded by mnp4) is the main active ligninolytic enzyme able to oxidize Mn(2+) as well as high and low redox potential aromatic substrate, including dyes. Furthermore, other VPs/MnPs do not compensate for the lack of VP4 activity.
Lignin biodegradation by white-rot fungi is pivotal to the earths carbon cycle. Manganese peroxidases (MnPs), the most common extracellular ligninolytic peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi, are considered key in ligninolysis. Pleurotus ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a preferential lignin degrader occupying niches rich in lignocellulose such as decaying trees. Here, we provide direct, genetically based proof for the functional significance of MnP to P.?ostreatus ligninolytic capacity under conditions mimicking its natural habitat. When grown on a natural lignocellulosic substrate of cotton stalks under solid-state culture conditions, gene and isoenzyme expression profiles of its short MnP and versatile peroxidase (VP)-encoding gene family revealed that mnp2 was predominately expressed. mnp2, encoding the versatile short MnP isoenzyme 2 was disrupted. Inactivation of mnp2 resulted in three interrelated phenotypes, relative to the wild-type strain: (i) reduction of 14% and 36% in lignin mineralization of stalks non-amended and amended with Mn(2+) , respectively; (ii) marked reduction of the bioconverted lignocellulose sensitivity to subsequent bacterial hydrolyses; and (iii) decrease in fungal respiration rate. These results may serve as the basis to clarify the roles of the various types of fungal MnPs and VPs in their contribution to white-rot decay of wood and lignocellulose in various ecosystems.
Although the minority population of the United States is projected to increase, the number of minority students in medical schools remains stagnant. The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (PSOM) matriculates students underrepresented in medicine (URM) above the national average. To identify potential strategies through which medical schools can support the success of URM medical students, interviews with URM students/graduates were conducted.
Manganese peroxidases (MnPs) are key players in the ligninolytic system of white rot fungi. In Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) these enzymes are encoded by a gene family comprising nine members, mnp1 to -9 (mnp genes). Mn(2+) amendment to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds (such as the azo dye orange II) and lignin. In Mn(2+)-amended glucose-peptone medium, mnp3, mnp4, and mnp9 were the most highly expressed mnp genes. After 7 days of incubation, the time point at which the greatest capacity for orange II decolorization was observed, mnp3 expression and the presence of MnP3 in the extracellular culture fluids were predominant. To determine the significance of MnP3 for ligninolytic functionality in Mn(2+)-sufficient cultures, mnp3 was inactivated via the ?ku80 strain-based P. ostreatus gene-targeting system. In Mn(2+)-sufficient medium, inactivation of mnp3 did not significantly affect expression of nontargeted MnPs or their genes, nor did it considerably diminish the fungal Mn(2+)-mediated orange II decolorization capacity, despite the significant reduction in total MnP activity. Similarly, inactivation of either mnp4 or mnp9 did not affect orange II decolorization ability. These results indicate functional redundancy within the P. ostreatus MnP gene family, enabling compensation upon deficiency of one of its members.
We have recently demonstrated that polysaccharides from fruiting body extract (FBE) or mycelia extract (ME) of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius exert antiproliferative effects in intestinal cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of fungal FBE and ME in colon carcinogenesis.
One of the central tenets of Abraham Flexners seminal report of 1910 was his firm belief that the medical school should be located within a university setting. He made this recommendation in the context of his era, when universities offered the best opportunities for ensuring that medical education would be firmly grounded in science and the scientific method of inquiry. Like many of Flexners ideas, the organization of medical schools, including the new schools being developed today, continues in the image he propounded. At the same time, over the past decade, many reports have articulated the growing challenges of integrating medical schools-and, perhaps more important, academic medical centers-within the university. Is this relationship, once considered so crucial to the quality of medical education, still a mutually beneficial and symbiotic one? On the 100th anniversary of Flexners report, the authors of this article explore the relevance and importance of the university-medical school relationship to the quality of medical education and consider the advantages and disadvantages for both medical schools and universities. A century later, the embedding of medical schools within university settings continues to offer unique and highly relevant opportunities to reclaim the foundation on which medical education must rest and to adhere to fundamental ideals that are too often threatened by contemporary challenges.
Polysaccharides are one of the most potent mushroom-derived substances exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The aims of the present study were to determine whether orally administered glucans from the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice. Colonic inflammation was induced in mice by treatment with 3.5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 18 d. Before or after DSS administration, mice were given hot water solubles (HWS) or mycelium extract (ME) (2 or 20 mg per mouse) daily in their food. Colonic damage was macroscopically and histologically evaluated. Inflammation was assessed by changes in colon length, TNF-alpha levels released by colonic samples in organ culture and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1beta) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in colonic samples were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. P. pulmonarius glucans attenuated and prevented the development of symptoms associated with DSS-induced colitis. High doses of HWS and ME blocked colon shortening, suppressed MPO activity and improved macroscopic score in all treatment groups. In addition, histological damage from colitis was reduced by HWS and ME at all doses. The tissue levels of TNF-alpha protein were significantly decreased and correlated with degree of inflammation and macroscopic score. All treatments significantly attenuated the increased DSS-mediated expression levels of IL-1beta. We conclude that the different glucan preparations (HWS or ME) harvested from P. pulmonarius when orally administered to DSS-treated mice attenuate the development of colonic inflammation, suggesting putative clinical utility for these extracts in the treatment of colitis.
Mushroom polysaccharides are potent substances that exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. Studies comparing the chemical composition and antitumor-related activities of polysaccharides released by fungal strains under different growth conditions are not available. Thus, the present study compared polysaccharides extracts produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius from mycelium grown in liquid culture (ME) or fruiting bodies (FBE). Polysaccharides of both ME and FBE had a relatively high molecular mass. NMR spectroscopy indicated that ME glucan is an alpha-glucan whereas FBE glucan is a mixture of both alpha- and beta-glucans. Glucose and galactose where the most prominent monosaccharide in both glucans. Treatment of several colon cancer cell lines expressing varying amounts of galectin-3 with the two fungal glucans inhibited their viability and significantly reduced their ability to adhere to the key component of the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, and to a human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer, in a time- and dose-dependent manner mainly in those cell lines expressing high amounts of galectin-3. We conclude that ME and FBE glucans may exert a direct antiproliferative effect on cancer cells expressing high galectin-3 concentrations and concomitantly downregulate tumor cell adherence, the latter being directly related to cancer progression and metastasis.
The versatile-peroxidase (VP) encoded by mnp4 is one of the nine members of the manganese-peroxidase (MnP) gene family that constitutes part of the ligninolytic system of the white-rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom). VP enzymes exhibit dual activity on a wide range of substrates. As Mn(2+) supplement to P. ostreatus cultures results in enhanced degradation of recalcitrant compounds and lignin, we examined the effect of Mn(2+) on the expression profile of the MnP gene family. In P. ostreatus (monokaryon PC9), mnp4 was found to be the predominantly expressed mnp in Mn(2+)-deficient media, whereas strongly repressed (to approximately 1%) in Mn(2+)-supplemented media. Accordingly, in-vitro Mn(2+)-independent activity was found to be negligible. We tested whether release of mnp4 from Mn(2+) repression alters the activity of the ligninolytic system. A transformant over-expressing mnp4 (designated OEmnp4) under the control of the ?-tubulin promoter was produced. Now, despite the presence of Mn(2+) in the medium, OEmnp4 produced mnp4 transcript as well as VP activity as early as 4 days after inoculation. The level of expression was constant throughout 10 days of incubation (about 0.4-fold relative to ?-tubulin) and the activity was comparable to the typical activity of PC9 in Mn(2+)-deficient media. In-vivo decolorization of the azo dyes Orange II, Reactive Black 5, and Amaranth by OEmnp4 preceded that of PC9. OEmnp4 and PC9 were grown for 2 weeks under solid-state fermentation conditions on cotton stalks as a lignocellulosic substrate. [(14)C]-lignin mineralization, in-vitro dry matter digestibility, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were found to be significantly higher (about 25%) in OEmnp4-fermented substrate, relative to PC9. We conclude that releasing Mn(2+) suppression of VP4 by over-expression of the mnp4 gene in P. ostreatus improved its ligninolytic functionality.
Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) and other white rot filamentous basidiomycetes are key players in the global carbon cycle. P. ostreatus is also a commercially important edible fungus with medicinal properties and is important for biotechnological and environmental applications. Efficient gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) is a fundamental tool for facilitating comprehensive gene function studies. Since the natural HR frequency in Pleurotus transformations is low (2.3%), transformed DNA is predominantly integrated ectopically. To overcome this limitation, a general gene targeting system was developed by producing a P. ostreatus PC9 homokaryon ?ku80 strain, using carboxin resistance complemented by the development of a protocol for hygromycin B resistance protoplast-based DNA transformation and homokaryon isolation. The ?ku80 strain exhibited exclusive (100%) HR in the integration of transforming DNA, providing a high efficiency of gene targeting. Furthermore, the ?ku80 strains produced showed a phenotype similar to that of the wild-type PC9 strain, with similar growth fitness, ligninolytic functionality, and capability of mating with the incompatible strain PC15 to produce a dikaryon which retained its resistance to the corresponding selection and was capable of producing typical fruiting bodies. The applicability of this system is demonstrated by inactivation of the versatile peroxidase (VP) encoded by mnp4. This enzyme is part of the ligninolytic system of P. ostreatus, being one of the nine members of the manganese-peroxidase (MnP) gene family, and is the predominantly expressed VP in Mn(2+)-deficient media. mnp4 inactivation provided a direct proof that mnp4 encodes a key VP responsible for the Mn(2+)-dependent and Mn(2+)-independent peroxidase activity under Mn(2+)-deficient culture conditions.
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