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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular evolution of GPCRs: Somatostatin/urotensin II receptors.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Somatostatin (SS) and urotensin II (UII) are members of two families of structurally related neuropeptides present in all vertebrates. They exert a large array of biological activities that are mediated by two families of G-protein-coupled receptors called SSTR and UTS2R respectively. It is proposed that the two families of peptides as well as those of their receptors probably derive from a single ancestral ligand-receptor pair. This pair had already been duplicated before the emergence of vertebrates to generate one SS peptide with two receptors and one UII peptide with one receptor. Thereafter, each family expanded in the three whole-genome duplications (1R, 2R, and 3R) that occurred during the evolution of vertebrates, whereupon some local duplications and gene losses occurred. Following the 2R event, the vertebrate ancestor is deduced to have possessed three SS (SS1, SS2, and SS5) and six SSTR (SSTR1-6) genes, on the one hand, and four UII (UII, URP, URP1, and URP2) and five UTS2R (UTS2R1-5) genes, on the other hand. In the teleost lineage, all these have been preserved with the exception of SSTR4. Moreover, several additional genes have been gained through the 3R event, such as SS4 and a second copy of the UII, SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5 genes, and through local duplications, such as SS3. In mammals, all the genes of the SSTR family have been preserved, with the exception of SSTR6. In contrast, for the other families, extensive gene losses occurred, as only the SS1, SS2, UII, and URP genes and one UTS2R gene are still present.
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The vertebrate ancestral repertoire of visual opsins, transducin alpha subunits and oxytocin/vasopressin receptors was established by duplication of their shared genomic region in the two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplications.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Vertebrate color vision is dependent on four major color opsin subtypes: RH2 (green opsin), SWS1 (ultraviolet opsin), SWS2 (blue opsin), and LWS (red opsin). Together with the dim-light receptor rhodopsin (RH1), these form the family of vertebrate visual opsins. Vertebrate genomes contain many multi-membered gene families that can largely be explained by the two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in the vertebrate ancestor (2R) followed by a third round in the teleost ancestor (3R). Related chromosome regions resulting from WGD or block duplications are said to form a paralogon. We describe here a paralogon containing the genes for visual opsins, the G-protein alpha subunit families for transducin (GNAT) and adenylyl cyclase inhibition (GNAI), the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OT/VP-R), and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CACNA1-L).
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The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family has at least five members in the gnathostome lineage, inclucing two distinct V2 subtypes.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The vertebrate oxytocin and vasopressin receptors form a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate a large variety of functions, including social behavior and the regulation of blood pressure, water balance and reproduction. In mammals four family members have been identified, three of which respond to vasopressin (VP) named V1A, V1B and V2, and one of which is activated by oxytocin (OT), called the OT receptor. Four receptors have been identified in chicken as well, but these have received different names. Until recently only V1-type receptors have been described in several species of teleost fishes. We have identified family members in several gnathostome genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to classify OT/VP-receptors across species and determine orthology relationships. Our phylogenetic tree identifies five distinct ancestral gnathostome receptor subtypes in the OT/VP receptor family: V1A, V1B, V2A, V2B and OT receptors. The existence of distinct V2A and V2B receptors has not been previously recognized. We have found these two subtypes in all examined teleost genomes as well as in available frog and lizard genomes and conclude that the V2A-type is orthologous to mammalian V2 receptors whereas the V2B-type is orthologous to avian V2 receptors. Some teleost fishes have acquired additional and more recent gene duplicates with up to eight receptor family members. Thus, this analysis reveals an unprecedented complexity in the gnathostome repertoire of OT/VP receptors, opening interesting research avenues regarding functions such as regulation of water balance, reproduction and behavior, particularly in reptiles, amphibians, teleost fishes and cartilaginous fishes.
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Evolution of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The evolution of the IGF binding protein (IGFBP) gene family has been difficult to resolve. Both chromosomal and serial duplications have been suggested as mechanisms for the expansion of this gene family. We have identified and annotated IGFBP sequences from a wide selection of vertebrate species as well as Branchiostoma floridae and Ciona intestinalis. By combining detailed sequence analysis with sequence-based phylogenies and chromosome information, we arrive at the following scenario: the ancestral chordate IGFBP gene underwent a local gene duplication, resulting in a gene pair adjacent to a HOX cluster. Subsequently, the gene family expanded in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidization (2R) resulting in the six IGFBP types that are presently found in placental mammals. The teleost fish ancestor underwent a third tetraploidization (3R) that further expanded the IGFBP repertoire. The five sequenced teleost fish genomes retain 9-11 of IGFBP genes. This scenario is supported by the phylogenies of three adjacent gene families in the HOX gene regions, namely the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and the Ikaros and distal-less (DLX) transcription factors. Our sequence comparisons show that several important structural components in the IGFBPs are ancestral vertebrate features that have been maintained in all orthologs, for instance the integrin interaction motif Arg-Gly-Asp in IGFBP-2. In contrast, the Arg-Gly-Asp motif in IGFBP-1 has arisen independently in mammals. The large degree of retention of IGFBP genes after the ancient expansion of the gene family strongly suggests that each gene evolved distinct and important functions early in vertebrate evolution.
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Differential evolution of voltage-gated sodium channels in tetrapods and teleost fishes.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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The voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN) alpha subunits are large proteins with central roles in the generation of action potentials. They consist of approximately 2,000 amino acids encoded by 24-27 exons. Previous evolutionary studies have been unable to reconcile the proposed gene duplication schemes with the species distribution and molecular phylogeny of the genes. We have carefully annotated the complete SCN gene sequences, correcting numerous database errors, for a broad range of vertebrate species and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. We have also compared the chromosomal positions of the SCN genes relative to adjacent gene families. Our studies show that the ancestor of the vertebrates probably had a single sodium channel gene with two characteristic AT-AC introns, the second of which is unique to vertebrate SCN genes. This ancestral gene, located close to a HOX gene cluster, was quadrupled along with HOX in the two rounds of basal vertebrate tetraploidizations to generate the ancestors of the four channels SCN1A, SCN4A, SCN5A, and SCN8A. The third tetraploidization in the teleost fish ancestor doubled this set of genes and all eight are still present in at least three of four investigated teleost fish genomes. In tetrapods, the gene family expanded by local duplications before the radiation of amniotes, generating the cluster SCN5A, SCN10A, and SCN11A on one chromosome and the cluster SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A on a different chromosome. In eutherian mammals, a tenth gene, SCN7A, arose in a local duplication in the SCN1A gene cluster. The SCN7A gene has undergone rapid evolution and has lost the ability to cause action potentials-instead, it functions as a sodium sensor. The three genes in the SCN5A cluster were translocated from the HOX-bearing chromosome in a mammalian ancestor along with several adjacent genes. This evolutionary scenario is supported by the adjacent TGF-? receptor superfamily (comprised of five distinct families) and the cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein gene family as well as the HOX clusters. The independent expansions of the SCN repertoires in tetrapods and teleosts suggest that the functional diversification may differ between the two lineages.
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Evolution of the growth hormone-prolactin-somatolactin system in relation to vertebrate tetraploidizations.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Gene sequences from several species representing major vertebrate groups were used to create phylogenetic trees for the growth hormone family of peptide hormones as well as the growth hormone receptor family. These analyses show that both the peptide and receptor families were formed through local duplications in early vertebrate evolution and chromosome duplications.
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Major genomic events and their consequences for vertebrate evolution and endocrinology.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Comparative studies of proteins often face the problem of distinguishing a true orthologue (species homologue) from a paralogue (a gene duplicate). This identification task is particularly challenging for endocrine peptides and neuropeptides because they are short and usually have several invariant positions. For some peptide families, this has led to a terminology with peptide names relating to the first species where a specific peptide sequence was determined, such as chicken or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or names that highlight amino acid differences, e.g., Lys-vasopressin. With accumulating information from multiple species, such a terminology becomes almost impenetrable for nonexperts and difficult even for aficionados. The sequenced genomes offer a new way to distinguish orthologues and paralogues, namely by location of the genes relative to neighboring genes on the chromosomes. In addition, the genome databases can ideally provide a complete listing of the family members in each species. Many vertebrate gene families have expanded in the two basal tetraploidizations (2R) and the teleost fish third tetraploidization (3R), after which some vertebrate lineages have lost some of the duplicates. We review here some peptide families (neuropeptide Y, oxytocin-vasopressin, and somatostatin) where genomic information helps simplify nomenclature. This approach is useful also for other gene families, such as peptide receptors.
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The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements.
BMC Evol. Biol.
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Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species.
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Evolution of the vertebrate paralemmin gene family: ancient origin of gene duplicates suggests distinct functions.
PLoS ONE
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Paralemmin-1 is a protein implicated in plasma membrane dynamics, the development of filopodia, neurites and dendritic spines, as well as the invasiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells. However, little is known about its mode of action, or about the biological functions of the other paralemmin isoforms: paralemmin-2, paralemmin-3 and palmdelphin. We describe here evolutionary analyses of the paralemmin gene family in a broad range of vertebrate species. Our results suggest that the four paralemmin isoform genes (PALM1, PALM2, PALM3 and PALMD) arose by quadruplication of an ancestral gene in the two early vertebrate genome duplications. Paralemmin-1 and palmdelphin were further duplicated in the teleost fish specific genome duplication. We identified a unique sequence motif common to all paralemmins, consisting of 11 highly conserved residues of which four are invariant. A single full-length paralemmin homolog with this motif was identified in the genome of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and an isolated putative paralemmin motif could be detected in the genome of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae. This allows us to conclude that the paralemmin gene family arose early and has been maintained throughout vertebrate evolution, suggesting functional diversification and specific biological roles of the paralemmin isoforms. The paralemmin genes have also maintained specific features of gene organisation and sequence. This includes the occurrence of closely linked downstream genes, initially identified as a readthrough fusion protein with mammalian paralemmin-2 (Palm2-AKAP2). We have found evidence for such an arrangement for paralemmin-1 and -2 in several vertebrate genomes, as well as for palmdelphin and paralemmin-3 in teleost fish genomes, and suggest the name paralemmin downstream genes (PDG) for this new gene family. Thus, our findings point to ancient roles for paralemmins and distinct biological functions of the gene duplicates.
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Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations.
Genomics
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Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.