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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
COMET: adaptive context-based modeling for ultrafast HIV-1 subtype identification.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Viral sequence classification has wide applications in clinical, epidemiological, structural and functional categorization studies. Most existing approaches rely on an initial alignment step followed by classification based on phylogenetic or statistical algorithms. Here we present an ultrafast alignment-free subtyping tool for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) adapted from Prediction by Partial Matching compression. This tool, named COMET, was compared to the widely used phylogeny-based REGA and SCUEAL tools using synthetic and clinical HIV data sets (1 090 698 and 10 625 sequences, respectively). COMET's sensitivity and specificity were comparable to or higher than the two other subtyping tools on both data sets for known subtypes. COMET also excelled in detecting and identifying new recombinant forms, a frequent feature of the HIV epidemic. Runtime comparisons showed that COMET was almost as fast as USEARCH. This study demonstrates the advantages of alignment-free classification of viral sequences, which feature high rates of variation, recombination and insertions/deletions. COMET is free to use via an online interface.
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Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe.
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HIV-1 tropism determination using a phenotypic Env recombinant viral assay highlights overestimation of CXCR4-usage by genotypic prediction algorithms for CRRF01_AE and CRF02_AG.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) entry into target cells involves binding of the viral envelope (Env) to CD4 and a coreceptor, mainly CCR5 or CXCR4. The only currently licensed HIV entry inhibitor, maraviroc, targets CCR5, and the presence of CXCX4-using strains must be excluded prior to treatment. Co-receptor usage can be assessed by phenotypic assays or through genotypic prediction. Here we compared the performance of a phenotypic Env-Recombinant Viral Assay (RVA) to the two most widely used genotypic prediction algorithms, Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and webPSSM.
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Rescue of HIV-1 long-time archived X4 strains to escape maraviroc.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Entry of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) into target cells is mediated by the CD4 receptor and a coreceptor, CCR5 or CXCR4. Maraviroc interferes with HIV entry by binding the CCR5 coreceptor. Virological failure to maraviroc-containing regimens can occur through the emergence of resistance, or through tropism evolution and broadened coreceptor usage. In the latter case, the physiological relevance of minority strains is a major concern. Here we report a retrospective analysis of coreceptor-usage and evolution based on 454-ultra-deep-sequencing of plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC)-derived envelope V3-loops, accounting for coreceptor usage, from a patient who failed a maraviroc-containing regimen through the emergence of X4 strains. The X4 maraviroc-escape variant resulted from recombination between a long time archived proviral sequence from 2003 (5-portion, including the V3-loop) and the dominant R5 strains circulating in plasma at the time of maraviroc-treatment initiation (3-portion). Phylogenetic analyses and BEAST modeling highlighted that an early diverse viral quasispecies underwent a severe bottleneck following reinitiation of HAART and repeated IL-2 cycles between 1999 and 2001, leading to the transient outgrowth and archiving of one highly homogeneous X4 population from plasma, and to the expansion in plasma of one PBMC-derived R5 strain. Under maraviroc selective pressure, the early, no longer detectable X4 strains archived in PBMC were partially rescued to provide X4-determinants to the main circulating strain.
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Antiretroviral therapy optimisation without genotype resistance testing: a perspective on treatment history based models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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Although genotypic resistance testing (GRT) is recommended to guide combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), funding and/or facilities to perform GRT may not be available in low to middle income countries. Since treatment history (TH) impacts response to subsequent therapy, we investigated a set of statistical learning models to optimise cART in the absence of GRT information.
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Only slight impact of predicted replicative capacity for therapy response prediction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Replication capacity (RC) of specific HIV isolates is occasionally blamed for unexpected treatment responses. However, the role of viral RC in response to antiretroviral therapy is not yet fully understood.
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Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 is stabilizing in Europe.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4%-9.5%), the prevalence of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance was 4.7% (125 of 2687 patients; 95% CI, 3.9%-5.5%), the prevalence of nonucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was 2.3% (62 of 2687 patients; 95% CI, 1.8%-2.9%), and the prevalence of protease inhibitor (PI) resistance was 2.9% (79 of 2687 patients; 95% CI, 2.4%-3.6%). There was no time trend in the overall TDR or in NRTI resistance, but there was a statistically significant decrease in PI resistance (P = .04) and in NNRTI resistance after an initial increase (P = .02). We found that TDR appears to be stabilizing in Europe, consistent with recent reports of decreasing drug resistance and improved viral suppression in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.
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Investigation of expert rule bases, logistic regression, and non-linear machine learning techniques for predicting response to antiretroviral treatment.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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The extreme flexibility of the HIV type-1 (HIV-1) genome makes it challenging to build the ideal antiretroviral treatment regimen. Interpretation of HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance is evolving from rule-based systems guided by expert opinion to data-driven engines developed through machine learning methods.
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Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients.
Retrovirology
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The effect of drug resistance transmission on disease progression in the newly infected patient is not well understood. Major drug resistance mutations severely impair viral fitness in a drug free environment, and therefore are expected to revert quickly. Compensatory mutations, often already polymorphic in wild-type viruses, do not tend to revert after transmission. While compensatory mutations increase fitness during treatment, their presence may also modulate viral fitness and virulence in absence of therapy and major resistance mutations. We previously designed a modeling technique that quantifies genotypic footprints of in vivo treatment selective pressure, including both drug resistance mutations and polymorphic compensatory mutations, through the quantitative description of a fitness landscape from virus genetic sequences.
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Automated sequence analysis and editing software for HIV drug resistance testing.
J. Clin. Virol.
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Access to antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited-settings is inevitably paralleled by the emergence of HIV drug resistance. Monitoring treatment efficacy and HIV drugs resistance testing are therefore of increasing importance in resource-limited settings. Yet low-cost technologies and procedures suited to the particular context and constraints of such settings are still lacking. The ART-A (Affordable Resistance Testing for Africa) consortium brought together public and private partners to address this issue.
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Bioinformatics as a driver, not a passenger, of translational biomedical research: Perspectives from the 6th Benelux bioinformatics conference.
J Clin Bioinforma
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The 6th Benelux Bioinformatics Conference (BBC11) held in Luxembourg on 12 and 13 December 2011 attracted around 200 participants, including internationally-renowned guest speakers and more than 100 peer-reviewed submissions from 3 continents. Researchers from the public and private sectors convened at BBC11 to discuss advances and challenges in a wide spectrum of application areas. A key theme of the conference was the contribution of bioinformatics to enable and accelerate translational and clinical research. The BBC11 stressed the need for stronger collaborating efforts across disciplines and institutions. The demonstration of the clinical relevance of systems approaches and of next-generation sequencing-based measurement technologies are among the existing opportunities for increasing impact in translational research. Translational bioinformatics will benefit from research models that strike a balance between the importance of protecting intellectual property and the need to openly access scientific and technological advances. The full conference proceedings are freely available at http://www.bbc11.lu.
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Efficacy of antiretroviral therapy switch in HIV-infected patients: a 10-year analysis of the EuResist Cohort.
Intervirology
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to be effective in many recent trials. However, there is limited data on time trends of HAART efficacy after treatment change.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.