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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The clinical significance of patients' sex in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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We examined the prognostic influence of gender in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Data from four randomized trials (involving 1821 patients) and three registration studies of stage-A disease (involving 1299 patients) were analyzed. Overall survival at 10 years was better for women than men in all trials (27% versus 15%; P=0.0001) and in the registration series (55% versus 43%; P<0.0001). More women than men in the trials were Binet stage A-progressive (26% versus 15%), but gender was an independent predictor of survival in multivariate analysis of clinical variables (P<0.0001). Women responded better to treatment (overall response 83%) than men (71%; P<0.0001), within each stage and age group, although fewer women than men received the full treatment dose (79% versus 85%; P=0.01). Women were more likely than men to experience toxicity (85% versus 78%, P=0.01), particularly gastro-intestinal toxicity (57% versus 42%, P<0.0001). Laboratory markers in the LRF CLL4 trial showed a significantly lower incidence in women than men of unmutated IGHV genes, raised beta-2 microglobulin, CD38 and Zap-70 positivity and TP53 deletions/mutations and/or 11q deletions. We also highlight the higher male:female ratios in randomized trials versus studies of early chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in women runs a more benign clinical course than in men. Gender was also an independent predictor of response, suggesting that pharmacokinetic differences between the sexes and a possible effect of estrogens may contribute to the better outcome. Understanding the reasons for the different outcome by gender may improve patients' management. (LRF CLL4 controlled-trials.com identifier: ISRCTN58585610).
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ATM mutation rather than BIRC3 deletion and/or mutation predicts reduced survival in 11q-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia: data from the UK LRF CLL4 trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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ATM mutation and BIRC3 deletion and/or mutation have independently been shown to have prognostic significance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the relative clinical importance of these abnormalities in patients with a deletion of 11q encompassing the ATM gene has not been established. We screened a cohort of 166 patients enriched for 11q-deletions for ATM mutations and BIRC3 deletion and mutation and determined the overall and progression-free survival among the 133 of these cases treated within the UK LRF CLL4 trial. SNP6.0 profiling demonstrated that BIRC3 deletion occurred in 83% of 11q-deleted cases and always co-existed with ATM deletion. For the first time we have demonstrated that 40% of BIRC3-deleted cases have concomitant deletion and mutation of ATM. While BIRC3 mutations were rare, they exclusively occurred with BIRC3 deletion and a wild-type residual ATM allele. In 11q-deleted cases, we confirmed that ATM mutation was associated with a reduced overall and progression-free survival comparable to that seen with TP53 abnormalities, whereas BIRC3 deletion and/or mutation had no impact on overall and progression-free survival. In conclusion, in 11q-deleted patients treated with first-line chemotherapy, ATM mutation rather than BIRC3 deletion and/or mutation identifies a subgroup with a poorer outcome.
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CYP2B6*6 is an independent determinant of inferior response to fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (FC) is the chemotherapy backbone of modern chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment. CYP2B6 is a polymorphic cytochrome P450 isoform that converts cyclophosphamide to its active form. This study investigated the possible impact of genetic variation in CYP2B6 on response to FC chemotherapy in CLL. Available DNA samples from the LRF CLL4 trial, which compared chlorambucil, fludarabine, and FC, were screened by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for CYP2B6 SNPs c.516G>T and c.785A>G, which define the most common variant allele (*6). Among the 455 samples successfully genotyped, 265 (58.2%), 134 (29.5%), and 29 (6.4%) were classified as *1/*1, *1/*6, and *6/*6, respectively. Patients expressing at least one *6 allele were significantly less likely to achieve a complete response (CR) after FC (odds ratio 0.27; P = .004) but not chlorambucil or fludarabine. Analysis of individual response indicators confirmed that this inferior response resulted from impaired cytoreduction rather than delayed hemopoietic recovery. Multivariate analysis controlling for age, gender, stage, IGHV mutational status, 11q deletion, and TP53 deletion/mutation identified CYP2B6*6 and TP53 mutation/deletion as the only independent determinants of CR attainment after FC. Our study provides the first demonstration that host pharmacogenetics can influence therapeutic response in CLL. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Control Trial, number NCT 58585610 at www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL.
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rs2072135, a low-penetrance variant for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Recent multi-stage genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are robustly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) risk. Given that most of these SNPs map to non-coding regions of the genome, it suggests that the functional basis of many GWAS signals will be through differential gene expression. By referencing publically accessible expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) we have globally demonstrated an association between GWAS P-values and eQTLs, consistent with much of the variation in CLL risk being defined by variants impacting on gene expression. To explore using eQTL data to select GWAS SNPs for replication, we genotyped rs2072135 (GWAS P-value = 0·0024, eQTL P-value = 1·510(-19)) in five independent case-control series totalling 1968 cases and 3538 controls. While not attaining statistical significance (combined P-value = 1 × 10(-4)), rs2072135 defines a promising risk locus for CLL. Incorporating eQTL information offers an attractive strategy for selecting SNPs from GWAS for validation.
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Revised guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hairy cell leukaemia and hairy cell leukaemia variant*.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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The British Committee for Standards in Haematology first produced guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hairy cell leukaemia and hairy cell leukaemia variant in 2000. This revision updates those guidelines and covers the areas of diagnosis, treatment and assessment of response to therapy.
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Alemtuzumab therapy in T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: comparing efficacy in a series treated intravenously and a study piloting the subcutaneous route.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Intravenous alemtuzumab is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). Alemtuzumab given intravenously as first-line treatment in 32 patients resulted in an overall response rate of 91% with 81% complete responses. Studies in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia have shown subcutaneous alemtuzumab to be equally as effective as intravenous alemtuzumab. The UKCLL05 pilot study examined the efficacy and toxicity of this more convenient method of administration in 9 previously untreated patients with T-PLL. Only 3 of 9 patients (33%) responded to treatment. Furthermore, 2 of 9 patients (22%) died while on treatment. Recruitment was terminated because of these poor results. After rescue therapy with intravenous alemtuzumab and/or pentostatin, median progression-free survival and overall survival were similar to the intravenous group. Alemtuzumab delivered intravenously, but not subcutaneously, remains the treatment of choice for previously untreated T-PLL.
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Association between single nucleotide polymorphism-genotype and outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a randomized chemotherapy trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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There is variability in the outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with apparently the same stage of disease. Identifying genetic variants that influence patients outcome and response to treatment may provide important insights into the biology of the disease.
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Long-term results for pentostatin and cladribine treatment of hairy cell leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Over the past 25 years we have collected data at our institution from 242 patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), treated with pentostatin (n?=?188) or cladribine (n?=?54), with a median follow-up of 16 years. From this we have been able to conclude that there is no significant difference in outcome between the two agents either at first or subsequent lines of therapy. Overall, the complete response (CR) rate is 81% and the median disease-free survival (DFS) is 16 years. After relapse or non-response patients can be successfully retreated with pentostatin or cladribine achieving a lower rate of CRs with each line of therapy, although these remain equally durable. Complete response and pretreatment counts of hemoglobin?>10 g/dL together with platelets?>100?×?10(9)/L are associated with the longest DFS. Importantly, for patients achieving a CR the DFS is five times as long as for those achieving a partial response (PR). Patients still in CR at 5 years have only a 25% risk of relapse by 15 years. Outcomes for patients with recurrent disease have improved with the addition of rituximab to either purine analog. Overall, only eight patients have died of HCL-related causes. Patients with HCL who achieve a CR can expect a normal lifespan.
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Common genetic variation at 15q25.2 impacts on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia risk.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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A genome-wide association study of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) suggested that common variants at 15q25.2 (rs783540) and 18q21.1 (rs1036935) influence CLL. To validate these associations and explore their relationship with CLL risk we genotyped case-control datasets from Poland, UK and Italy totalling 1428 cases and 1920 controls. Combined data from these and previously genotyped series (2503 cases and 5789 controls) provided evidence for an association between 15q25.2 and 18q21.1 loci and CLL risk (P(combined) = 1·10 × 10(-7) and 1·30 × 10(-5) respectively). These data provide further evidence for the involvement of common genetic variants in CLL risk and insight into the biological basis of disease development.
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Rituximab with pentostatin or cladribine: an effective combination treatment for hairy cell leukemia after disease recurrence.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The purine analogs pentostatin and cladribine are effective treatments for hairy cell leukemia (HCL). However, alternative treatments are needed for patients with recurrent disease. We reviewed retrospectively data from 18 patients who were retreated with either pentostatin (n?=?12) or cladribine (n?=?6) in combination with rituximab, after 1-6 (median 2) previous treatments with either purine analog as a single agent. All 18 patients responded to therapy, with a complete response (CR) rate of 89%. This compared favorably with CR rates of 68% after second-line therapy and 47% after third-line therapy in 88 patients retreated one or more times with a purine analog alone. Toxicity with the combination treatment was minimal. At a median follow-up of 36 months (range 5-83 months) all 16 complete responders remained in CR, while one partial responder developed recurrent disease at 10 months. The estimated recurrence rate at 3 years was 7%. This compares with 21% after second-line therapy and 42% after third-line therapy in the 88 patients retreated with a purine analog alone. Furthermore, it was a marked improvement on the 55% recurrence at 3 years previously seen in these same 18 patients after their own first-line treatment with single-agent pentostatin or cladribine (p?=?0.006). The combination of a purine analog with rituximab was safe and effective for patients with recurrent HCL. The results suggest an added benefit compared with single-agent purine analog therapy.
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Mutational status of the TP53 gene as a predictor of response and survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from the LRF CLL4 trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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TP53 mutations have been described in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and have been associated with poor prognosis in retrospective studies. We aimed to address the frequency and prognostic value of TP53 abnormalities in patients with CLL in the context of a prospective randomized trial.
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Chlorambucil--still not bad: a reappraisal.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Although chlorambucil has been used in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) for 55 years, the optimal dose and treatment duration have not been established. We summarized data from 4 UK randomized CLL trials over the past 30 years in which chlorambucil, as a single agent, was one of the study arms. Overall response rates (ORR) ranged from 57% to 75% when using doses of 60-70 mg/m(2) per 28-day cycle. This compares favorably with an ORR of 31% to 55% in other studies that used lower doses. Response rates improved when patients received 6 or more courses. Studies that used chlorambucil as a comparator, at lower doses or with fewer courses, resulted in consistently lower ORR. Comparisons with single-agent fludarabine in 2 randomized trials (LRF CLL4 and German CLL5) showed similar progression-free survival. Chlorambucil compares favorably with fludarabine and bendamustine with respect to myelotoxicity, neutropenia, and fever, even at 70 mg/m(2) per cycle and in the elderly. Resistance to chlorambucil does not preclude a good response to newer treatments used as second-line treatment, which explains the good survival after progression observed in patients randomized to chlorambucil in LRF CLL4. Chlorambucil is currently being combined with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in several phase II and III trials. It remains a useful drug for patients unfit to receive more intensive combinations. However, both the dose and duration of treatment are important.
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of European intergroup randomized trial comparing autografting versus observation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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We present results of a phase 3 randomized trial of autografting in chronic lymphocytic leukemia versus observation for responding patients after first- or second-line treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate that autografting improves the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) from 30% to 50%. There were 223 enrolled patients, 72% men and 28% women, 83% after first and 17% after second-line treatment. Binet stages were progressive A 13%, B 67%, C 20%; at randomization, 59% were in complete remission, and 41% in less than complete remission. Patients were randomized between autografting (n = 112) and observation (n = 111). Median EFS was 24.4 months (range, 16.7-32 months) in the observation group and 51.2 months (39.8-62.5 months) in the autografting group; the 5-year EFS was 24% and 42%, respectively (P < .001). Accordingly, the 5-year relapse incidence was 76% versus 54% (P < .001). Median time to relapse requiring therapy or death was 40 months (25-56 months) in the observation arm and 65 months (59-71 months) after autografting (P = .002). Cox modeling confirmed that autografting significantly improved EFS (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.65; P < .001). At 5 years, the probability of OS was 85.5% and 84.3% for autografting and observation, respectively (P = .77). In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, consolidating autografting reduces the risk of progression by more than 50% but has no effect on overall survival.
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Inherited genetic susceptibility to monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is detectable in > 3% of the general population. Recent data are compatible, at least in a proportion of cases, with MBL being a progenitor lesion for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and a surrogate for inherited predisposition. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 2q13 (rs17483466), 2q37.1 (rs13397985), 2q37.3 (rs757978), 6p25.3 (rs872071), 8q24.21 (rs2456449), 11q24.1 (rs735665), 15q21.3 (rs7169431), 15q23 (rs7176508), 16q24.1 (rs305061), and 19q13.32 (rs11083846) have been shown to confer a modest but significant increase in CLL risk. To examine the impact of these 10 SNPs on MBL, we analyzed 3 case-control series totaling 419 cases and 1753 controls. An association between genotype and MBL risk was seen for 9 SNPs, 6 of which were statistically significant: rs17483466 (odds ratio [OR] =1.27; P = .02), rs13397985 (OR = 1.40; P = 1.72 × 10(-3)), rs757978 (OR = 1.38; P = .02), rs872071 (OR = 1.27; P = 7.75 × 10(-3)), rs2456449 (OR = 1.31; P = 3.14 × 10(-3)), and rs735665 (OR = 1.63; P = 6.86 × 10(-6)). Collectively, these data provide support for genetic variation influencing CLL risk through predisposition to MBL.
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A comparison of the efficacy and safety of oral and intravenous fludarabine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the LRF CLL4 trial.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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An oral formulation of fludarabine was introduced for use in chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 2001 following studies demonstrating the bioequivalence of a 40 mg/m(2) oral dose with a 25 mg/m(2) intravenous dose. We assessed retrospectively the efficacy of these two routes of administration in the LRF CLL4 trial.
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Diagnostic issues in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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The diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is based on clinical and laboratory features. Morphology and immunophenotype are the initial diagnostic investigations. In atypical cases, these tests should be complemented with molecular genetics and/or histology to exclude other B-cell disorders of small lymphocytes. Morphologically, CLL can be classified into typical and atypical. Immunophenotyping is the only method that can establish or confirm the diagnosis as CLL lymphocytes have a distinct immunophenotypic signature. A scoring system compounding the results with a set of markers allows firming up the diagnosis. Other immunological markers such as CD38 and ZAP-70 have an important prognostic impact. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, chiefly by detecting 17p (TP53 locus) and 11q (ATM) deletions and mutational status of the IgVH gene, also provides prognostic information and may determine the type of therapy. In atypical CLL, histology and/or molecular genetics may be required to exclude other B-cell disorders.
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Verification that common variation at 2q37.1, 6p25.3, 11q24.1, 15q23, and 19q13.32 influences chronic lymphocytic leukaemia risk.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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A recent genome wide association study of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) provided evidence that common variation at 2q13 (rs17483466), 2q37.1 (rs13397985), 6p25.3 (rs872071), 11q24.1 (rs735665), 15q23 (rs7176508) and 19q13.32 (rs11083846) affects CLL risk. To verify and further explore the relationship between these variants and CLL risk we genotyped case-control datasets from Spain and Sweden (824 cases, 850 controls). Combined data provided statistically significant support for an association between genotypes at rs13397985, rs872071, rs735665, rs7176508 and rs11083846 and CLL risk. CLL risk increased with increasing numbers of risk alleles (P(trend) = 1.40 x 10(-15)), consistent with a polygenic model of disease susceptibility. These data validate the relationship between common variation and risk of CLL.
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Prognostic factors identified three risk groups in the LRF CLL4 trial, independent of treatment allocation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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Many prognostic markers have been identified in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but there have been few opportunities to assess their relative importance in a large randomized trial. The aim of this study was to determine which of the available markers independently predicted outcome in patients requiring treatment and to use these to define new risk groups.
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Fine-scale mapping of the 6p25.3 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia susceptibility locus.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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A recent genome-wide association study of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has identified a susceptibility locus on 6p25.3 associated with a modest but highly significant increase in CLL risk. Using a set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, we generated a fine-scale map and narrowed the association signal to a 18 kb DNA segment within the 3-untranslated region (UTR) of the IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4) gene. Resequencing this segment in European subjects identified 55 common polymorphisms, including 13 highly correlated candidate causal variants. In a large case-control study, it was shown that all but four variants could be excluded with 95% confidence. These four SNPs map to a 3 kb region of the 3-UTR of IRF4, consistent with the causal basis of the association being mediated through differential IRF4 expression.
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Common variants at 2q37.3, 8q24.21, 15q21.3 and 16q24.1 influence chronic lymphocytic leukemia risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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To identify new risk variants for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we conducted a genome-wide association study of 299,983 tagging SNPs, with validation in four additional series totaling 2,503 cases and 5,789 controls. We identified four new risk loci for CLL at 2q37.3 (rs757978, FARP2; odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P = 2.11 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs2456449; OR = 1.26; P = 7.84 x 10(-10)), 15q21.3 (rs7169431; OR = 1.36; P = 4.74 x 10(-7)) and 16q24.1 (rs305061; OR = 1.22; P = 3.60 x 10(-7)). We also found evidence for risk loci at 15q25.2 (rs783540, CPEB1; OR = 1.18; P = 3.67 x 10(-6)) and 18q21.1 (rs1036935; OR = 1.22; P = 2.28 x 10(-6)). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy.
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Genetic variation in CXCR4 and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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A genome-wide linkage scan has provided evidence for a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) susceptibility locus at 2q21 to which the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene maps. Recent data provide some evidence for common variation in CXCR4 according to the polymorphic variant rs2228014 defining CLL risk. To examine the role of genetic variation in CXCR4 on CLL risk, we screened 188 familial CLL cases and 213 controls for germline mutations in the coding regions of CXCR4 and genotyped rs2228014 in 1058 CLL cases and 1807 controls. No association between rs2228014 and risk of CLL was seen (P = .83). One truncating (W195X) and 2 missense mutations with possible functional consequences (V139I and G335S) were identified among 186 familial cases and 0 in 213 controls sequenced. Our analysis provides no evidence that common variation in CXCR4 defined by rs228014 influences the risk of CLL, but that functional coding mutations in CXCR4 may contribute to familial CLL.
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Drug cross-resistance and therapy-induced resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia by an enhanced method of individualised tumour response testing.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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Previous results with individualised tumour response testing (ITRT) in vitro in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) have consistently shown good correlation with patient response and survival. We describe here an improved test and report its use with samples from the Leukaemia Research Fund CLL4 randomised clinical trial and previously treated patients. ITRT was performed by the tumour response to anti-neoplastic compounds (TRAC) assay, a modification of the differential staining cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay. Improvements included drying drugs into wells before assay and using the Octospot system to cytocentrifuge eight spots of cells onto one microscope slide. We successfully tested 765/782 (98%) cellular blood samples received within 48 h of phlebotomy. Cross-resistance (Pearsons r > 0.7) in untreated CLL was found between similar drugs. Mitoxantrone (r = 0.31), cyclophosphamide (r = 0.35) and pentostatin (r = 0.29) had low cross-resistance with fludarabine. Treatment resulted in increased resistance to chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, corticosteroids, cladribine and fludarabine (P < 0.01) but not to pentostatin. These results provide further rationale for standard drug combinations such as fludarabine-mitoxantrone and fludarabine-mitoxantrone-cyclophosphamide and suggest possible pentostatin salvage in fludarabine-resistant patients. ITRT results could assist both in determining the best treatment for individual patients and in the design and rationale of future clinical trials.
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Long-term follow-up of 233 patients with hairy cell leukaemia, treated initially with pentostatin or cladribine, at a median of 16 years from diagnosis.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2009
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Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) was first described 50 years ago. Median survival was then 4 years. The purine analogues, introduced in the 1980s, transformed this prognosis. We reviewed data retrospectively from 233 patients, treated with pentostatin (n = 188) or cladribine (n = 45), to investigate the current long-term outlook. Median follow-up was 16 years. There were no significant differences in outcome between the two agents. Overall, the complete response (CR) rate was 80% and median relapse-free survival was 16 years. After relapse (n = 79) or non-response (n = 5), 26 patients received pentostatin and 58 cladribine; 69% achieved CR and median relapse-free survival was 11 years. After third-line therapy (n = 23), 50% achieved CR and median relapse-free survival was 6.5 years. However, CRs were equally durable, whether after first, second or third-line therapy. Complete responders and those with both haemoglobin >100 g/l and platelet count >100 x 10(9)/l before treatment had the longest relapse-free survival (P < 0.0001). Patients still in CR at 5 years had only a 25% risk of relapse by 15 years. Outcomes for patients with recurrent disease improved with the monoclonal antibody rituximab, combined with either purine analogue. Overall only eight patients died of HCL-related causes. Patients achieving a CR can expect a normal lifespan.
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The clinical significance of NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations in the UK LRF CLL4 trial.
Blood
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NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations have been previously reported to have prognostic significance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia but to date they have not been validated in a prospective, controlled clinical trial. We have assessed the impact of these mutations in a cohort of 494 patients treated within the randomized phase 3 United Kingdom Leukaemia Research Fund Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 4 (UK LRF CCL4) trial that compared chlorambucil and fludarabine with and without cyclophosphamide in previously untreated patients. We investigated the relationship of mutations in NOTCH1 (exon 34) and SF3B1 (exon 14-16) to treatment response, survival and a panel of established biologic variables. NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations were found in 10% and17% of patients, respectively. NOTCH1 mutations correlated with unmutated IGHV genes, trisomy 12, high CD38/ ZAP-70 expression and were associated with reduced overall (median 54.8 vs 74.6 months, P = .02) and progression-free (median 22.0 vs 26.4 months, P = .02) survival. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with high CD38 expression and with shorter overall survival (median 54.3 vs 79.0 months, P < .001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis, including baseline clinical variables, treatment, and adverse prognostic factors demonstrated that although TP53 alterations remained the most informative marker of dismal survival in this cohort, NOTCH1 (HR 1.58, P = .03) and SF3B1 (HR 1.52, P = .01) mutations have added independent prognostic value.
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Rituximab, used alone or in combination, is superior to other treatment modalities in splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare B-cell malignancy, with no standard treatment other than splenectomy. Rituximab has shown encouraging results. We therefore retrospectively assessed 43 patients from two centres, who received rituximab, either alone or with chemotherapy. All patients responded, 34/43 (79%) achieving a complete response (CR), compared with 3/10 (30%) after chemotherapy without rituximab (P = 0·005). Of these 10 patients, 9 (90%) subsequently achieved a CR after rituximab (P = 0·02). Rituximab monotherapy appeared equally as effective as rituximab combination therapy (90% vs. 79% CR, P = 0·7) with significantly less toxicity (12·5% vs. 83%, P = 0·002). Splenectomized patients were more likely to obtain a CR with rituximab (16/16, 100%) than unsplenectomized patients (18/27, 67%, P = 0·008). Disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years was better after rituximab than after splenectomy alone [79% (95% confidence interval 60-89) vs. 29% (8-54), Hazard ratio (HR) 0·28 (0·12-0·68), P = 0·003] and better than after chemotherapy without rituximab [25% (4-55), HR 0·21 (0·08-0·51), P = 0·0004]. Survival at 3 years after rituximab was 98%. In summary, the CR and DFS rates after rituximab, given alone or with chemotherapy, were significantly better than after chemotherapy without rituximab in the same patients, with manageable toxicity. Rituximab, with or without splenectomy, should be considered for the treatment of SMZL.
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CLLU1 expression has prognostic value in chronic lymphocytic leukemia after first-line therapy in younger patients and in those with mutated IGHV genes.
Haematologica
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CLLU1, located at chromosome 12q22, encodes a transcript specific to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and has potential prognostic value. We assessed the value of CLLU1 expression in the LRF CLL4 randomized trial. Samples from 515 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were collected immediately before the start of treatment. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, CLLU1 expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In total, 247 and 268 samples were identified as having low and high CLLU1 expression, respectively. The median follow-up was 88 months. High CLLU1 expression was significantly correlated with unmutated IGHV genes, ZAP-70 and CD38 positivity, and absence of 13q deletion (all r>0.2, P<0.0001). At 6 years, patients with high CLLU1 expression had significantly worse progression-free survival (9% versus 17%; P=0.03) and overall survival (42% versus 57%; P=0.0003) than patients with low CLLU1 expression. Among patients with mutated IGHV genes, overall survival at 6 years was 50% in those with high CLLU1 expression and 76% in those with low CLLU1 expression (P=0.005). However, CLLU1 expression was not an independent predictor of overall survival in a multivariate model including TP53 aberrations, beta-2 microglobulin level, age and IGHV mutation status. Nor did it predict response to treatment. CLLU1 expression analysis helps to refine the prognosis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who have mutated IGHV genes.
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Common variation at 6p21.31 (BAK1) influences the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
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We performed a meta-analysis of 3 genome-wide association studies to identify additional common variants influencing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) risk. The discovery phase was composed of genome-wide association study data from 1121 cases and 3745 controls. Replication analysis was performed in 861 cases and 2033 controls. We identified a novel CLL risk locus at 6p21.33 (rs210142; intronic to the BAK1 gene, BCL2 antagonist killer 1; P = 9.47 × 10(-16)). A strong relationship between risk genotype and reduced BAK1 expression was shown in lymphoblastoid cell lines. This finding provides additional support for polygenic inheritance to CLL and provides further insight into the biologic basis of disease development.
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Functional analysis of the ATM-p53-p21 pathway in the LRF CLL4 trial: blockade at the level of p21 is associated with short response duration.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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This study sought to establish whether functional analysis of the ATM-p53-p21 pathway adds to the information provided by currently available prognostic factors in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requiring frontline chemotherapy.
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The prognostic impact of clinical and molecular features in hairy cell leukaemia variant and splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Hairy cell leukaemia variant (HCL-variant) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) are disorders with overlapping features. We investigated the prognostic impact in these disorders of clinical and molecular features including IGH VDJ rearrangements, IGHV gene usage and TP 53 mutations. Clinical and laboratory data were collected before therapy from 35 HCL-variant and 68 SMZL cases. End-points were the need for treatment and overall survival. 97% of HCL-variant and 77% of SMZL cases required treatment (P = 0·009). Survival at 5 years was significantly worse in HCL-variant [57% (95% confidence interval 38-73%)] compared with SMZL [84% (71-91%); Hazard Ratio 2·25 (1·20-4·25), P = 0·01]. In HCL-variant, adverse prognostic factors for survival were older age (P = 0·04), anaemia (P = 0·01) and TP 53 mutations (P = 0·02). In SMZL, splenomegaly, anaemia and IGHV genes with >98% homology to the germline predicted the need for treatment; older age, anaemia and IGHV unmutated genes (100% homology) predicted shorter survival. IGHV gene usage had no impact on clinical outcome in either disease. The combination of unfavourable factors allowed patients to be stratified into risk groups with significant differences in survival. Although HCL-variant and SMZL share some features, they have different outcomes, influenced by clinical and biological factors.
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Alemtuzumab in combination with methylprednisolone is a highly effective induction regimen for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and deletion of TP53: final results of the national cancer research institute CLL206 trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), TP53 deletion/mutation is strongly associated with an adverse outcome and resistance to chemotherapy-based treatment. In contrast, TP53 defects are not associated with resistance to the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab or methylprednisolone. In an attempt to improve the treatment of TP53-defective CLL, a multicenter phase II study was developed to evaluate alemtuzumab and methylprednisolone in combination.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.