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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of early valve surgery on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis - Analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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?The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.
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The Preventability of Ventilator-Associated Events: The CDC Prevention Epicenters' Wake Up and Breathe Collaborative.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Rationale: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) introduced ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions in January 2013. Little is known about VAE prevention. We hypothesized that daily, coordinated spontaneous awakening trials (SATs) and spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) might prevent VAEs. Objectives: To assess the preventability of VAEs. Methods: We nested a multicenter quality improvement collaborative within a prospective study of VAE surveillance amongst 20 intensive care units between November 2011 and May 2013. Twelve units joined the collaborative and implemented an opt-out protocol for nurses and respiratory therapists to perform paired daily SATs and SBTs. The remaining 8 units conducted surveillance alone. We measured temporal trends in VAEs using generalized mixed effects regression models adjusted for patient-level unit, age, sex, reason for intubation, SOFA score, and comorbidity index. Measurements and Main Results: We tracked 5,164 consecutive episodes of mechanical ventilation: 3,425 in collaborative units and 1,739 in surveillance-only units. Within collaborative units, significant increases in SATs, SBTs, and percentage of SBTs performed without sedation were mirrored by significant decreases in duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length-of-stay. There was no change in VAE risk per ventilator-day but significant decreases in VAE risk per episode of mechanical ventilation (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.97) and infection-related ventilator-associated complications (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.71) but not pneumonias (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19-1.3). Within surveillance-only units, there were no significant changes in SAT, SBT, or VAE rates. Conclusions: Enhanced performance of paired, daily SATs and SBTs is associated with lower VAE rates. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT01583413.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection surveillance: national healthcare safety network's laboratory-identified event reporting versus traditional laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection surveillance.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Hospitals must report cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) using a new laboratory-identified (LabID) event reporting module. BSI rates obtained using LabID differ from rates of BSI obtained from traditional surveillance (concordance of healthcare facility-onset cases, 61%-76%) because definitions used to report LabID events are inconsistent with traditional BSI definitions.
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Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype f.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Haemophilus influenzae is a rare cause of soft tissue infection. In this report, we present a case of multifocal necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy adult patient, secondary to Haemophilus influenzae serotype f infection, and we review literature on this rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis.
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Inhibition of plasma kallikrein by a highly specific active site blocking antibody.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Plasma kallikrein (pKal) proteolytically cleaves high molecular weight kininogen to generate the potent vasodilator and the pro-inflammatory peptide, bradykinin. pKal activity is tightly regulated in healthy individuals by the serpin C1-inhibitor, but individuals with hereditary angioedema (HAE) are deficient in C1-inhibitor and consequently exhibit excessive bradykinin generation that in turn causes debilitating and potentially fatal swelling attacks. To develop a potential therapeutic agent for HAE and other pKal-mediated disorders, we used phage display to discover a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (DX-2930) against pKal. In vitro experiments demonstrated that DX-2930 potently inhibits active pKal (Ki = 0.120 ± 0.005 nM) but does not target either the zymogen (prekallikrein) or any other serine protease tested. These findings are supported by a 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of pKal complexed to a DX-2930 Fab construct, which establishes that the pKal active site is fully occluded by the antibody. DX-2930 injected subcutaneously into cynomolgus monkeys exhibited a long half-life (t½ ? 12.5 days) and blocked high molecular weight kininogen proteolysis in activated plasma in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, subcutaneous DX-2930 reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A potent and long acting inhibitor of pKal activity could be an effective treatment option for pKal-mediated diseases, such as HAE.
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A comparison of environmental contamination by patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a multicenter study.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A total of 1,023 environmental surfaces were sampled from 45 rooms with patients infected or colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) before terminal room cleaning. Colonized patients had higher median total target colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA or VRE than did infected patients (median, 25 CFU [interquartile range, 0-106 CFU] vs 0 CFU [interquartile range, 0-29 CFU]; P = .033).
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Surveying the surveillance: surgical site infections excluded by the January 2013 updated surveillance definitions.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The updated 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for surgical site infections (SSIs) reduced the duration of prolonged surveillance from 1 year to 90 days and defined which procedure types require prolonged surveillance. Applying the updated 2013 SSI definitions to cases analyzed using the pre-2013 surveillance definitions excluded 10% of previously identified SSIs.
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Outbreak of bacteremia due to Burkholderia contaminans linked to intravenous fentanyl from an institutional compounding pharmacy.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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IMPORTANCE Many health care facilities compound medications on site to fulfill local demands when customized formulations are needed, national supply is critically low, or costs for manufactured pharmaceuticals are excessive. Small, institutional compounding facilities may perform the same high-risk procedures as large distributors of compounded medications. OBJECTIVES To investigate an outbreak related to contamination of compounded sterile preparations and to determine processes to prevent future outbreaks. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed an outbreak investigation of inpatients at Duke University Hospital from August 31 through September 6, 2012. The investigation included a case-control study, compounding facility inspection and environmental sampling, observation of a mock compounding demonstration, and microbiologic and molecular testing of sequestered medication. EXPOSURES Intravenous fentanyl prepared by an institutional compounding pharmacy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Microbiologic and molecular evidence of contamination of a compounded sterile preparation and failure of routine sterility testing. RESULTS Blood cultures of 7 patients during a 7-day period at Duke University Hospital yielded pan-susceptible Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria. The risk factor common to all patients was receipt of continuous fentanyl infusion prepared by our institutional compounding pharmacy (odds ratio, 11.22; 95% CI, 2.09-?; P?=?.01). The outbreak was terminated after sequestration of compounded fentanyl. An intensive evaluation of the compounding facility, its practice, and its procedures was completed. Investigators evaluated the clean room, collected targeted microbiologic samples within the compounding pharmacy environment, and observed a mock demonstration of compounding practice. The B cepacia complex was found in the anteroom sink drain and pH probe calibration fluid from the compounding clean room. Multiple microbiologic analyses of sequestered fentanyl initially failed. Ultimately, a batched, vacuum-assisted filtration method produced B cepacia complex from a single lot. Molecular analyses using repetitive element polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed a clonal Burkholderia contaminans strain from patients, fentanyl, and environmental samples. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE An outbreak of B contaminans bacteremia was linked to contamination of locally compounded intravenous fentanyl. Health care facilities that house institutional compounding facilities must be vigilant in efforts to prevent, recognize, and terminate medication-related outbreaks.
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Bloodstream infections in community hospitals in the 21st century: a multicenter cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While the majority of healthcare in the US is provided in community hospitals, the epidemiology and treatment of bloodstream infections in this setting is unknown.
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Widespread Dissemination of CTX-M 15 Genotype Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Patients Presenting to Community Hospitals in southeastern United States.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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ESBL-producing organisms are increasingly prevalent. We determined the characteristics of 66 consecutive ESBL-producing isolates from six community hospitals in North Carolina and Virginia from 2010-2012. Fifth-three (80%) ESBL-producing isolates contained CTX-M enzymes; CTX-M-15 was found in 68% of E. coli and 73% of Klebsiella isolates. ST131 was the commonest type of E. coli, accounting for 48% of CTX-M-15-producing and 66% of CTX-M-14-producing isolates. In conclusion, CTX-M genotype and ST131 E. coli were common among ESBL isolates from US community hospitals.
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Comparison of non-intensive care unit (ICU) versus ICU rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in community hospitals.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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We describe and compare the epidemiology of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurring in non-intensive care unit (ICU) versus ICU wards in a network of community hospitals over a 2-year period. Overall, 72% of cases of CAUTI occurred in non-ICU patients, which indicates that this population is an important target for dedicated surveillance and prevention efforts.
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The epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a network of community hospitals: a prospective multicenter study.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To describe the epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in community hospitals.
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Role of the environment in the transmission of Clostridium difficile in health care facilities.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Recent data demonstrate that the contaminated hospital surface environment plays a key role in the transmission of Clostridium difficile. Enhanced environmental cleaning of rooms housing Clostridium difficile-infected patients is warranted, and, if additional studies demonstrate a benefit of "no-touch" methods (eg, ultraviolet irradiation, hydrogen peroxide systems), their routine use should be considered.
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Decontamination of targeted pathogens from patient rooms using an automated ultraviolet-C-emitting device.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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OBJECTIVE.?To determine the effectiveness of an automated ultraviolet-C (UV-C) emitter against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter spp. in patient rooms. DESIGN.?Prospective cohort study. SETTING.?Two tertiary care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS.?Convenience sample of 39 patient rooms from which a patient infected or colonized with 1 of the 3 targeted pathogens had been discharged. INTERVENTION.?Environmental sites were cultured before and after use of an automated UV-C-emitting device in targeted rooms but before standard terminal room disinfection by environmental services. RESULTS.?In total, 142 samples were obtained from 27 rooms of patients who were colonized or infected with VRE, 77 samples were obtained from 10 rooms of patients with C. difficile infection, and 10 samples were obtained from 2 rooms of patients with infections due to Acinetobacter. Use of an automated UV-C-emitting device led to a significant decrease in the total number of colony-forming units (CFUs) of any type of organism (1.07 log10 reduction; P < .0001), CFUs of target pathogens (1.35 log10 reduction; P < .0001), VRE CFUs (1.68 log10 reduction; P < .0001), and C. difficile CFUs (1.16 log10 reduction; P < .0001). CFUs of Acinetobacter also decreased (1.71 log10 reduction), but the trend was not statistically significant (P = .25). CFUs were reduced at all 9 of the environmental sites tested. Reductions similarly occurred in direct and indirect line of sight. CONCLUSIONS.?Our data confirm that automated UV-C-emitting devices can decrease the bioburden of important pathogens in real-world settings such as hospital rooms.
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Diagnosis and management of Q fever--United States, 2013: recommendations from CDC and the Q Fever Working Group.
MMWR Recomm Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, can cause acute or chronic illness in humans. Transmission occurs primarily through inhalation of aerosols from contaminated soil or animal waste. No licensed vaccine is available in the United States. Because many human infections result in nonspecific or benign constitutional symptoms, establishing a diagnosis of Q fever often is challenging for clinicians. This report provides the first national recommendations issued by CDC for Q fever recognition, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, treatment, management, and reporting for health-care personnel and public health professionals. The guidelines address treatment of acute and chronic phases of Q fever illness in children, adults, and pregnant women, as well as management of occupational exposures. These recommendations will be reviewed approximately every 5 years and updated to include new published evidence.
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Diagnostic dilemma in a returning traveler with fever.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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This case report of fever of unknown origin in a returning traveler from South America illustrates the need for a thorough understanding of limitations of laboratory testing modalities in order to prevent delays in diagnosis in potentially fatal but curable diseases.
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Central line-associated infections as defined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-acquired condition versus standard infection control surveillance: why hospital compare seems conflicted.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To evaluate the concordance of case-finding methods for central line-associated infection as defined by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) hospital-acquired condition (HAC) compared with traditional infection control (IC) methods.
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A homogeneous fluorescence anisotropy assay for measuring transglutaminase 2 activity.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Transglutaminases catalyze the covalent linkage of protein polypeptides through their glutamine and lysine side chains. Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been of particular interest given its potential role in several disorders, including a variety of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report a biochemical assay that monitors TG2 activity by following an increase in the fluorescence anisotropy of a fluorescein-labeled substrate peptide as it conjugates to a bovine serum albumin (BSA) cosubstrate of larger hydrodynamic mass. The resulting homogeneous assay is sensitive to low TG2 concentrations (pM range) and is readily adapted to higher throughput formats.
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Delays in appropriate antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bloodstream infections: a multicenter, community hospital study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious condition with estimated 30% mortality. Clinical outcomes for patients with severe infections improve when antibiotics are appropriately chosen and given early. The objective of this study was to estimate the association of prior healthcare exposure on time to appropriate antibiotic therapy in patients with gram-negative BSI.
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Evaluation of an evidence-based, nurse-driven checklist to prevent hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units.
J Nurs Care Qual
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 40% of all health care-associated infections. An evidence-based, nurse-driven daily checklist for initiation and continuance of urinary catheters was implemented in 5 adult intensive care units. Measures of compliance, provider satisfaction, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Compliance with the checklist was 50 to 100%: catheter-associated urinary tract infections decreased from 2.88 to 1.46 per 1000 catheter days and catheter days decreased in 2 intensive care units.
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Comparison of the burdens of hospital-onset, healthcare facility-associated Clostridium difficile Infection and of healthcare-associated infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community hospitals.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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We sought to determine the burden of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection in comparison to other healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in community hospitals participating in an infection control network. Our data suggest that C. difficile has replaced MRSA as the most common etiology of HAI in community hospitals in the southeastern United States.
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The network approach for prevention of healthcare-associated infections: long-term effect of participation in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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To describe the rates of several key outcomes and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among hospitals that participated in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network (DICON).
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Cluster of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infections on a hospital ward among immunocompromised patients--North Carolina, 2009.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Oseltamivir resistance among 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses (pH1N1) is rare. We investigated a cluster of oseltamivir-resistant pH1N1 infections in a hospital ward.
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Blood culture contamination with Enterococci and skin organisms: implications for surveillance definitions of primary bloodstream infections.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Enterococci are a common cause of bacteremia but are also common contaminants. In our institution, approximately 17% of positive blood cultures with enterococci are mixed with skin organisms. Such isolates are probable contaminants. The specificity of the current definition of primary bloodstream infection could be increased by excluding enterococci mixed with skin organisms.
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Variation in the type and frequency of postoperative invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections according to type of surgical procedure.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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To determine the epidemiological characteristics of postoperative invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection following 4 types of major surgical procedures.design. Retrospective cohort study.
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Acute eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to daptomycin: a report of three cases.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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We describe 3 cases of daptomycin-induced pulmonary toxic effects that are consistent with drug-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients presented similarly with dyspnea, cough, hypoxia, and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this adverse drug event and cessation of daptomycin until definitive diagnosis can be made is crucial.
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Empirical antimicrobial therapy for bloodstream infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: no better than a coin toss.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Despite the high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the hospital, the proportion of patients with MRSA bacteremia who receive appropriate empirical therapy remains suboptimal.
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Scrub typhus and rickettsial diseases in international travelers: a review.
Curr Infect Dis Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Physicians caring for febrile returned travelers face the difficult task of recognizing the typical and atypical features of more than 16 known rickettsial diseases and separating these diseases from potentially serious nonrickettsial diseases. Currently available diagnostic tools are inadequate for timely diagnosis. This review summarizes the English-language literature concerning imported rickettsial diseases in international travelers and describes important clinical principles in diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses. -Travelers with imported rickettsial disease often become sick before or within a few days of return from an endemic region. Illness that begins more than 18 days after return is unlikely to be rickettsial in origin. The absence of a skin rash or exposure to a vector should not dissuade clinicians from considering the possibility of a rickettsial disease in a returned traveler. Finally, if empiric therapy does not result in defervescence within 48 hours, an alternative nonrickettsial illness should be strongly considered.
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Clinical and financial outcomes due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection: a multi-center matched outcomes study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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The clinical and financial outcomes of SSIs directly attributable to MRSA and methicillin-resistance are largely uncharacterized. Previously published data have provided conflicting conclusions.
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Postoperative joint infections due to Propionibacterium species: a case-control study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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We compared 40 patients with Propionibacterium acnes postoperative joint infection to a cohort of uninfected patients. Infection manifested a median of 210 days after surgery. Most patients with joint prostheses underwent hardware removal. Prior joint surgery (odds ratio [OR], 28.2) and male sex (OR, 7.2) were independent risk factors for infection.
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Specific inhibition of tissue kallikrein 1 with a human monoclonal antibody reveals a potential role in airway diseases.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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KLK1 (tissue kallikrein 1) is a member of the tissue kallikrein family of serine proteases and is the primary kinin-generating enzyme in human airways. DX-2300 is a fully human antibody that inhibits KLK1 via a competitive inhibition mechanism (Ki=0.13 nM). No binding of DX-2300 to KLK1 was observed in a surface-plasmon-resonance biosensor assay when KLK1 was complexed to known active-site inhibitors, suggesting that DX-2300 recognizes the KLK1 active site. DX-2300 did not inhibit any of the 21 serine proteases that were each tested at a concentration of 1 microM. We validated the use of DX-2300 for specific KLK1 inhibition by measuring the inhibition of KLK1-like activity in human urine, saliva and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which are known to contain active KLK1. In human tracheobronchial epithelial cells grown at the air/liquid interface, DX-2300 blocked oxidative-stress-induced epidermal-growth-factor receptor activation and downstream mucus cell proliferation and hypersecretion, which have been previously shown to be mediated by KLK1. In an allergic sheep model of asthma, DX-2300 inhibited both allergen-induced late-phase bronchoconstriction and airway hyper-responsiveness to carbachol. These studies demonstrate that DX-2300 is a potent and specific inhibitor of KLK1 that is efficacious in in vitro and in vivo models of airway disease.
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Emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in community hospitals throughout North Carolina: a harbinger of a wider problem in the United States?
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Community-onset urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli have become increasingly common worldwide but have been considered to be uncommon infections in the United States. We report the emergence and subsequent rapid increase in the incidence of these infections in community hospitals throughout North Carolina since 2006.
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Risk factors for gram-negative bacterial surgical site infection: do allergies to antibiotics increase risk?
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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To determine the relationship between inadequate antimicrobial prophylaxis and development of gram-negative bacterial (GNB) surgical site infection (SSI).
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The effect of surgical site infection on older operative patients.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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To determine the effect of surgical site infection (SSI) on mortality, duration of hospitalization, and hospital cost in older operative patients.
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Selective inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-14 blocks tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Inhibition of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) is an attractive noncytotoxic approach to cancer therapy. MMP-14, a membrane-bound zinc endopeptidase, has been proposed to play a central role in tumor growth, invasion, and neovascularization. Besides cleaving matrix proteins, MMP-14 activates proMMP-2 leading to an amplification of pericellular proteolytic activity. To examine the contribution of MMP-14 to tumor growth and angiogenesis, we used DX-2400, a highly selective fully human MMP-14 inhibitory antibody discovered using phage display technology. DX-2400 blocked proMMP-2 processing on tumor and endothelial cells, inhibited angiogenesis, and slowed tumor progression and formation of metastatic lesions. The combination of potency, selectivity, and robust in vivo activity shows the potential of a selective MMP-14 inhibitor for the treatment of solid tumors.
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Patient-days: a better measure of incidence of occupational bloodborne exposures.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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There is currently no accepted standard denominator to calculate and to report the incidence of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens (OEBBPs) in health care.
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Observing and improving hand hygiene compliance: implementation and refinement of an electronic-assisted direct-observer hand hygiene audit program.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
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We implemented a direct-observer hand hygiene audit program that used trained observers, wireless data entry devices, and an intranet portal. We improved the reliability and utility of the data by standardizing audit processes, regularly retraining auditors, developing an audit guidance tool, and reporting weighted composite hand hygiene compliance scores.
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Metastatic complications of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.
Semin Dial
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Bacteremia is a common infectious complication in hemodialysis patients. Metastatic sites of infection including infective endocarditis, vertebral osteomyelitis, spinal epidural abscess, and septic arthritis occur relatively frequently. These complications are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Early clinical recognition and appropriate management of these infections are necessary, and strategies to reduce the occurrence of bacteremia in this patient population are warranted.
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"What the eyes dont see, the heart doesnt grieve over": epidemiology and risk factors for bloodstream infections following cardiac catheterization.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
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No standard definition exists for surveillance and characterization of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) after cardiac catheterization (CC) procedures. We proposed a novel case definition and determined the epidemiology and risk factors of BSIs after CC procedure using this new definition.
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Role of plasma kallikrein-kinin system activation in synovial recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells in experimental arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
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To examine whether activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) mediates synovial recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in arthritis.
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Fibrin specific peptides derived by phage display: characterization of peptides and conjugates for imaging.
Bioconjug. Chem.
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Peptides that bind to fibrin but not to fibrinogen or serum albumin were selected from phage display libraries as targeting moieties for thrombus molecular imaging probes. Three classes of cyclic peptides (cyclized via disulfide bond between two Cys) were identified with consensus sequences XArXCPY(G/D)LCArIX (Ar = aromatic, Tn6), X(2)CXYYGTCLX (Tn7), and NHGCYNSYGVPYCDYS (Tn10). These peptides bound to fibrin at ?2 sites with K(d) = 4.1 ?M, 4.0 ?M, and 8.7 ?M, respectively, whereas binding to fibrinogen was at least 100-fold weaker. The peptides also bind to the fibrin degradation product DD(E) with similar affinity to that measured for fibrin. The Tn7 and Tn10 peptides bind to the same site on fibrin, while the Tn6 peptides bind to a unique site. Alanine scanning identified the N- and C-terminal ends of the Tn6 and Tn7 peptides as most tolerant to modification. Peptide conjugates with either fluorescein or diethylenetriaminepentaaceto gadolinium(III) (GdDTPA) at the N-terminus were prepared for potential imaging applications, and these retained fibrin binding affinity and specificity in plasma. Relaxivity and binding studies on the GdDTPA derivatives revealed that an N-terminal glycyl linker had a modest effect on fibrin affinity but resulted in lower fibrin-bound relaxivity.
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Drugs derived from phage display: From candidate identification to clinical practice.
MAbs
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Phage display, one of todays fundamental drug discovery technologies, allows identification of a broad range of biological drugs, including peptides, antibodies and other proteins, with the ability to tailor critical characteristics such as potency, specificity and cross-species binding. Further, unlike in vivo technologies, generating phage display-derived antibodies is not restricted by immunological tolerance. Although more than 20 phage display-derived antibody and peptides are currently in late-stage clinical trials or approved, there is little literature addressing the specific challenges and successes in the clinical development of phage-derived drugs. This review uses case studies, from candidate identification through clinical development, to illustrate the utility of phage display as a drug discovery tool, and offers a perspective for future developments of phage display technology.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.