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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular mechanism driving retroperitoneal adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia in response to a high-sugar diet.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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We have previously shown an increase in adipocyte size and lipid content in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) induced by an 8-week high-sugar diet (HSD). In this study, we assessed the effect of a HSD on the transcriptional activity of adipogenic genes in a time-course study to provide insight regarding the genetic networks involved in the rWAT response to dietary sugar.
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Vildagliptin Induces ?-Cell Neogenesis And Improves The Lipid Profile In A Later Phase Of Type 1 Diabetes.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Recently, the inhibitor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. For the first time, this study evaluates the effect of vildagliptin on ?-cell neogenesis and lipid homeostasis in a later phase of type 1 diabetes. In Fischer rats, diabetes was induced with alloxan. After confirmation of diabetic status, the animals received no treatment for 30 days to establish a late phase of the disease these animals. After this period, the animals were treated with vildagliptin via gavage for 30 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile and pancreatic histology were evaluated. Treatment with vildagliptin increased serum levels of insulin, improved beta cell function and improved the lipid profile. Histological analyses revealed that this treatment increased the populations of pancreatic ?-cells in the diabetic animals. The treatment was effective in improving the mass and function of ?-cells and contributed to lipid homeostasis, in an experimental model of type 1 diabetes.
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Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.
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Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the oxidant-antioxidant balance leading to potential cellular damage. Most cells can tolerate a mild degree of oxidative stress because they have a system that counteracts oxidation that includes antioxidant molecules such as glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Disruption of the host antioxidant status has been recognized as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of many viruses. Caraparu virus (CARV) is a member of group C of the Bunyaviridae family of viruses. In South American countries, group C bunyaviruses are among the common agents of human febrile illness and have caused multiple notable outbreaks of human disease in recent decades; nevertheless, little is known about the pathogenic characteristics of these viruses. The purpose of this study was to examine the hepatic pathogenesis of CARV in mice and the involvement of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses on this pathology. Following subcutaneous infection of BALB/c mice, CARV was detected in the liver, and histopathology revealed acute hepatitis. Increased serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST/ALT) and greater hepatic expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were found in infected animals. CARV infection did not alter the biomarkers of oxidative stress but caused an increase in GSH content and altered the expression and activity of SOD. This is the first report of an alteration of oxidative homeostasis upon CARV infection, which may, in part, explain the hepatic pathogenesis of this virus, as well as the pathogenesis of other Bunyaviridae members.
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Plasmodium ovale malaria in Brazil: report of an imported case with a prolonged incubation period.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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We report the first case of imported Plasmodium ovale in Brazil, confirmed using both conventional microscopy and PCR-based protocols. The patient was a 36-year-old Brazilian male who had been working as a miner in Cabinda Province, Angola. Based on his travel history, the parasite was dormant for at least two years. The relatively long period of incubation of P. ovale may obscure the link between exposure and disease. The recent increase in the number of people travelling to regions where P. ovale is endemic, suggests that a PCR-based protocol should be included as a complementary tool for malaria reference laboratories.
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Physical training as non-pharmacological treatment of neurocardiogenic syncope.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Characterized as a sudden and temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone, with quick and spontaneous recovery, syncope is caused by an acute reduction of systemic arterial pressure and, therefore, of cerebral blood flow. Unsatisfactory results with the use of drugs allowed the nonpharmacological treatment of neurocardiogenic syncope was contemplated as the first therapeutic option.
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Pilot study testing the effect of physical training over the myocardial perfusion and quality of life in patients with primary microvascular angina.
J Nucl Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Primary microvascular angina (PMA) is a common clinical condition associated to negative impact on quality of life (QOL) and reduced physical capacity. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of aerobic physical training (APT) on myocardial perfusion, physical capacity, and QOL in patients with PMA.
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Genome sequence of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas: a comparative analysis within the Desulfovibrio genus.
Microbiologyopen
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Desulfovibrio gigas is a model organism of sulfate-reducing bacteria of which energy metabolism and stress response have been extensively studied. The complete genomic context of this organism was however, not yet available. The sequencing of the D. gigas genome provides insights into the integrated network of energy conserving complexes and structures present in this bacterium. Comparison with genomes of other Desulfovibrio spp. reveals the presence of two different CRISPR/Cas systems in D. gigas. Phylogenetic analysis using conserved protein sequences (encoded by rpoB and gyrB) indicates two main groups of Desulfovibrio spp, being D. gigas more closely related to D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans strains. Gene duplications were found such as those encoding fumarate reductase, formate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. Complexes not yet described within Desulfovibrio genus were identified: Mnh complex, a v-type ATP-synthase as well as genes encoding the MinCDE system that could be responsible for the larger size of D. gigas when compared to other members of the genus. A low number of hydrogenases and the absence of the codh/acs and pfl genes, both present in D. vulgaris strains, indicate that intermediate cycling mechanisms may contribute substantially less to the energy gain in D. gigas compared to other Desulfovibrio spp. This might be compensated by the presence of other unique genomic arrangements of complexes such as the Rnf and the Hdr/Flox, or by the presence of NAD(P)H related complexes, like the Nuo, NfnAB or Mnh.
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Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.
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Influence of manual lymphatic drainage on health-related quality of life and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency: a randomized controlled trial.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) in improving health-related quality of life (HRQL), symptomatology and physical status in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).
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Iron toxicity mediated by oxidative stress enhances tissue damage in an animal model of diabetes.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Although iron is a first-line pro-oxidant that modulates clinical manifestations of various systemic diseases, including diabetes, the individual tissue damage generated by active oxidant insults has not been demonstrated in current animal models of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the severity of the tissues injury when iron supplementation is administered in a model of type 1 diabetes. Streptozotocin (Stz)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic Fischer rats were maintained with or without a treatment consisting of iron dextran ip at 0.1 mL day(-1) doses administered for 4 days at intervals of 5 days. After 3 weeks, an extensive increase (p < 0.001) in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils of the diabetic animals on iron overload was observed. Histological analysis revealed that this treatment also resulted in higher (p < 0.05) tissue iron deposits, a higher (p < 0.001) number of inflammatory cells in the pancreas, and apparent cardiac fibrosis, as shown by an increase (p < 0.05) in type III collagen levels, which result in dysfunctional myocardial. Carbonyl protein modification, a marker of oxidative stress, was consistently higher (p < 0.01) in the tissues of the iron-treated rats with diabetes. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between ROS production and iron pancreas stores (r = 0.42, p < 0.04), iron heart stores (r = 0.54, p < 0.04), and change of the carbonyl protein content in pancreas (r = 0.49, p < 0.009), and heart (r = 0.48, p < 0.02). A negative correlation was still found between ROS production and total glutathione content in pancreas (r = -0.50, p < 0.03) and heart (r = -0.45, p < 0.04). In conclusion, our results suggest that amplified toxicity in pancreatic and cardiac tissues in rats with diabetes on iron overload might be attributed to increased oxidative stress.
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Physiological characterization of thermotolerant yeast for cellulosic ethanol production.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars is considered a promising alternative for increasing ethanol production. Higher fermentation yield has been achieved through the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this study, a comparison was performed between the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus for their potential use in SSF process. Three strains of S. cerevisiae were evaluated: two are widely used in the Brazilian ethanol industry (CAT-1 and PE-2), and one has been isolated based on its capacity to grow and ferment at 42 °C (LBM-1). In addition, we used thermotolerant strains of K. marxianus. Two strains were obtained from biological collections, ATCC 8554 and CCT 4086, and one strain was isolated based on its fermentative capacity (UFV-3). SSF experiments revealed that S. cerevisiae industrial strains (CAT-1 and PE-2) have the potential to produce cellulosic ethanol once ethanol had presented yields similar to yields from thermotolerant strains. The industrial strains are more tolerant to ethanol and had already been adapted to industrial conditions. Moreover, the study shows that although the K. marxianus strains have fermentative capacities similar to strains of S. cerevisiae, they have low tolerance to ethanol. This characteristic is an important target for enhancing the performance of this yeast in ethanol production.
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Production and characterization of ?-glucanase secreted by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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An extracellular ?-glucanase secreted by Kluyveromyces marxianus was identified for the first time. The optimal conditions for the production of this enzyme were evaluated by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions to produce ?-glucanase were a glucose concentration of 4% (w/v), a pH of 5.5, and an incubation temperature of 35 °C. Response surface methodology was also used to determine the pH and temperature required for the optimal enzymatic activity. The highest enzyme activity was obtained at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 55 °C. Furthermore, the enzyme was partially purified and sequenced, and its specificity for different substrates was evaluated. The results suggest that the enzyme is an endo-?-1,3(4)-glucanase. After optimizing the conditions for ?-glucanase production, the culture supernatant was found to be effective in digesting the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, showing the great potential of ?-glucanase in the biotechnological production of soluble ?-glucan.
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Baccharis Trimera Improves The Antioxidant Defense System And Inhibits Inos And Nadph Oxidase Expression In A Rat Model Of Inflammation.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Acetaminophen is a common analgesic and antipyretic compound which, when administered in high doses, has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, secondary to hepatic toxicity. Although this may be due to a direct interaction of reactive acetaminophen metabolites with hepatocyte proteins, recent studies have suggested that reactive species produced by neutrophils also contribute to the pathophysiological process. Researches on the chemical composition of B. trimera show that this plant has bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, related to the organisms protection against free radicals. Therefore, in the present study, using Fischer rats, the effect of B. trimera on the antioxidant defense system, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and on the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and of the subunits of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils was evaluated in a model of phagocytosis induced by zimosan (ZC3b) and in a model of inflammation induced by acetaminophen. The results show that the treatment with B. trimera improves the defense system of antioxidant and restores the balance ROS / NO that is altered in the inflammatory process induced by APAP. In conclusion, B. trimera extracts exert antioxidant properties by scavenging ROS and decrease the expression of genes responsible by reactive species production in neutrophils.
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?-Carotene, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid: differential profile of antioxidant, inflammatory status and regulation of gene expression in human mononuclear cells of diabetic donors.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Diabetic patients are exposed to increased oxidative stress due to several mechanisms, mainly hyperglycaemia. Pathological processes, such as those in type 1 diabetes, include diminished activity of the antioxidant defense system(s) or excessive oxidative generation resulting in an oxidative/antioxidant imbalance and development of oxidative stress.
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Contribution of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to the identification of latent systolic dysfunction in chronic aortic regurgitation.
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) is a valvulopathy of slow and insidious evolution, and patients may remain asymptomatic for a long period of time. Exercise-induced systolic dysfunction occurs during the natural history of chronic AR and is related to changes in both preload and afterload. We describe the case of a 58-year-old woman with a diagnosis of chronic AR who reported progressive dyspnea of six years duration. A cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess functional capacity showed flattening of both oxygen uptake and oxygen pulse curves, suggesting latent systolic dysfunction related to chronic AR, which was later confirmed by stress Doppler echocardiogram with dynamic physical exercise.
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Vildagliptin ameliorates oxidative stress and pancreatic beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetic rats.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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It is believed that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Several strategies have been developed with the objective of minimizing diabetic complications. Among these, inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), which act by blocking degradation of incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide hormone (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), have been the focus of many studies. It is known that, among the effects of incretins, we highlight its insulinotropic and cytoprotective effects on pancreatic ?-cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of treatment with vildagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, in ?-cells in an experimental model of type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ).
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Racial differences in HbA1c: a cross-sectional analysis of a Brazilian public primary care population.
Prim Care Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Blacks show higher levels of HbA1c in studies with different populations and are disproportionately affected by most diabetes-related complications.
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Effect of captopril and the bradykinin-PKC pathway on ROS production in type 1 diabetic rats.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of captopril as a promoter in modulating the oxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with type 1 diabetes, and the influence of protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by bradykinin in type 1 diabetic rats. This study evaluated the redox status in both the cardiac tissue and at the cellular level (neutrophils). Two concentrations of captopril were utilized: (i) 5 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), which was considered a therapeutic dose; and (ii) 10 mg·(kg body mass)(-1). Body mass, plasma glucose, and serum insulin were evaluated. To investigate the redox status of the cardiac tissue, we analyzed lipid peroxidation, concentration of carbonylated protein, catalase activity, and the concentration of glutathione. For a more accurate assessment of the possible antioxidant effect of captopril, we also analyzed ROS in neutrophils (in vivo), and ROS production induced by bradykinin and the influence of the PKC pathway in this production (in vitro). Our data show that the hearts of diabetic animals have increased oxidative damage, exemplified by the increased concentration of carbonylated protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). However, animals treated with captopril at both concentrations showed lower concentrations of carbonylated protein compared with untreated diabetic animals. We found an increase of catalase activity in the heart of diabetic rats, which was reversed by captopril treatment at both of the dosages tested. Our data showed that captopril was able to reduce ROS production in the neutrophils of diabetic rats at a dose of 10 mg captopril·(kg body mass)(-1). However, the antioxidant effect of captopril is independent of bradykinin. Diabetes induces oxidative stress, and these results suggest that captopril has an antioxidant effect and can modulate the production of ROS in circulating neutrophils.
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Cutaneous effects after prolongaded use of hydroxyurea in Polycythemia Vera.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Hydroxyurea is an hydroxylated urea derivative used in many myeloproliferative disorders. Many, but unusual cutaneous disorders are related after its prolonged use. Their pathogenesis is not clear, but it is suggested that there is direct toxicity of the drug on the skin. We described a white, 75-year old man with diagnosis of Polycythemia Vera that in 11 years of treatment developed many cutaneous lesions: skin hyperpigmentation, atrophic lesions on forearms, longitudinal melanonychia of 20 nails, right forearm ulcer, cutaneous xerosis, ichthyosis and auricular spinocellular carcinoma. At this moment, the literature reports describe little diversity of lesions in affected patients.
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Influence of HLA-DRB-1 alleles on the production of antibody against CSP, MSP-1, AMA-1, and DBP in Brazilian individuals naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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We evaluated the influence of allelic frequency of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -DRB1 on the acquisition of antibody response against malaria sporozoite and merozoite peptides in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria acquired in endemic areas of Brazil. IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against four peptides of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) (amino, carboxyl, and VK210 and VK247 repeats) and peptides of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and Duffy-binding protein (DBP). We found an association between HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR5 alleles and lack of antibody response to CSP amino terminal, as well as an association between HLA-DR3 and the highest antibody response to MSP1 (Pv200L). In conclusion, we suggest a potential regulatory role of the HLA-DRB1 alleles in the production of antibodies to a conserved region of P. vivax CSP and MSP1 in Brazilian population exposed to malaria.
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Annato extract and ?-carotene modulate the production of reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide in neutrophils from diabetic rats.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the bodys defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes.
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Maxillary ameloblastic fibroma: a case report.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Ameloblastic fibroma is a relatively rare benign odontogenic tumor in which both the epithelial and ectomesenchymal components are neoplastic. An 8-year-old Caucasian boy was referred to the dentist for evaluation of failed eruption of the maxillary left first molar. The panoramic radiograph showed a well-circumscribed unilocular radiolucency involving an unerupted maxillary left first permanent molar. The lesion was enucleated and the material was sent for histopathologic examination. Microscopically, it was composed by cords and islands of odontogenic epithelium in a myxoid cell-rich stroma that closely resemble the dental papilla with histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastic fibroma. After 24 months of follow-up no recurrence was observed and the maxillary left first molar erupted spontaneously through the buccal mucosa and was aligned with a fixed orthodontic appliance. This case emphasized the importance of careful differential diagnosis of intraosseous oral lesions and reported a rarity of the lesion and its atypical location.
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Heart failure: comparison between six-minute walk test and cardiopulmonary test.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Chronic heart failure (HF) is a syndrome characterized by reduced cardiac output in relation to the metabolic needs of the organism, as well as metabolic and neurohormonal axis abnormalities. Symptoms such as fatigue and dyspnoea are notorious and stress tests are widely used to assess functional capacity, prognosis and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions in this syndrome.
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Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver.
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Antioxidant properties of Baccharis trimera in the neutrophils of Fisher rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Baccharis trimera (Less.) (Asteraceae) is a native plant of Brazil. Also known as "carqueja", it has been popularly used to treat liver diseases, diabetes, as well as digestive disorders. Other studies have described the hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the species.
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Tuberculosis and Venous Thromboembolism: a case series.
Cases J
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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Tuberculosis remains an infectious disease with a high prevalence worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Although venous thromboembolism is a rare complication of this disease, it may be a potentially life-threatening event.
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Detection of multiple-antimicrobial resistance and characterization of the implicated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from foods of animal origin in Tunis.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance was conducted for 98 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from 40 food samples of animal origin (poultry, sheep, beef, fish, and others) obtained in supermarkets and local butcheries in Tunis during 2004 and 2005. Susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods, the mechanisms of resistance were evaluated using PCR and sequencing methods, and the clonal relationship among isolates was evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. High resistance was detected to tetracycline, sulphonamides, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (29 to 43% of isolates), but all isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, azthreonam, and amikacin. One-third of the isolates had multiresistant phenotypes (resistance to at least five different families of antimicrobial agents). Different variants of blaTEM, tet, sul, dfrA, aadA, and aac(3) genes were detected in most of the strains resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulphonamide, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and gentamicin, respectively. The presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons was studied in 15 sulphonamide-resistant unrelated E. coli strains, and 14 of these strains harbored class 1 integrons with five different arrangements of gene cassettes, and a class 2 integron with the dfrA 1 + sat + aadA 1 arrangement was found in one strain. This study revealed the high diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes, some of them included in integrons, in E. coli isolates of food origin.
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Interaction of arylsulfatase-A (ASA) with its natural sulfoglycolipid substrates: a computational and site-directed mutagenesis study.
Glycoconj. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Arylsulfatase A (ASA) hydrolyzes sulfate esters with a pH optimum of 5. Interactions between p-nitrocatechol sulfate (NCS, artificial substrate) and active site residues of ASA are revealed from their co-crystal structure. Since equivalent ASA interactions with its natural substrates, sulfogalactosylceramide (SGC) and sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), are not known, we computationally docked SGC/SGG to the ASA crystal structure. Our dockings suggested that Cys69 was the active site residue, and Lys302 & Lys123 as residues anchoring the sulfate group of SGC/SGG to the active site, as observed for NCS. We further confirmed these results using 2 recombinant ASA mutants: C69A and CKK (Cys69, Lys302 and Lys123-all mutated to Ala). Both ASA mutants failed to desulfate SGC/SGG, and CKK showed minimal binding to [(14)C]SGC, although C69A still had affinity for this sulfoglycolipid. However, our dockings suggested additional intermolecular hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between ASA and SGC/SGG, thus contributing to the specificity of SGC/SGG as natural substrates.
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Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in faecal samples of broilers.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Seventy-six faecal samples were obtained from broilers at slaughterhouse level in Portugal. Samples were inoculated on cefotaxime-supplemented Levine agar plates. Cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from 32 samples (42.1%), obtaining a total of 34 E. coli isolates (one or two isolates per sample). Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was studied by disk diffusion method, and 85% of the isolates presented a phenotype of multi-resistance that included antimicrobial agents of at least four different families. Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBL) of the TEM and CTX-M groups were detected in 31 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates. Twenty-six isolates harboured the bla(TEM-52) gene and two of them also harboured bla(TEM-1b). The bla(CTX-M-14) gene was identified in three isolates (in association with bla(TEM-1b) in one of them), and bla(CTX-M-32) was demonstrated in two additional isolates. Three of the 34 cefotaxime-resistant isolates (9%) did not produce ESBLs, and two of them presented mutations at positions -42 (C-->T), -18 (G-->A), -1 (C-->T), and +58(C-->T) of the promoter/attenuator region of ampC gene. tet(A) and/or tet(B) genes were detected in all 34 tetracycline-resistant isolates, aadA in all 26 streptomycin-resistant isolates; cmlA in 3 of 6 chloramphenicol-resistant isolates, and aac(3)-II or aac(3)-I + aac(3)-IV genes in all 4 gentamicin-resistant isolates. Different combinations of sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes were demonstrated among the 22 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates. Amino acid changes in GyrA and ParC proteins were identified in all 18 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. The results of this study indicate that the intestinal tract of healthy poultry is a reservoir of ESBL-positive E. coli isolates.
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Role PKA and p38 MAPK on ROS production in neutrophil age-related: Lack of IL-10 effect in older subjects.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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There is a large increase in the number of elderly people in modern societies. This demographic phenomenon has been paralleled by an epidemic of chronic diseases and inflammatory processes usually associated with advanced age.
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The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.
Nutr Res
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Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7?-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes.
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[Crossed renal ectopia with fusion: report of two cases and review of the literature].
J Bras Nefrol
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Renal ectopia is one of the most common renal abnormalities of kidney development. However, only a few cases of crossed fused renal ectopia have been reported in the literature. Although crossed renal ectopia is usually clinically silent, they is sometime responsible for infection and urinary stones and may be associated with a high incidence of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux and renal multicystic dysplasia. We report two new cases of crossed renal ectopia with fusion diagnosed in a context of kidney stones and urinary tract infection and review the mechanism and clinical features of this abnormality. We believe that Nephrologist must be familiar with this abnormality of kidney development, as a number of complications may appear during follow-up.
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Risk factors for asthma in a helminth endemic area in bahia, Brazil.
J Parasitol Res
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Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process.
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A comparative analysis of pre- and post-dialysis albumin as indicators of nutritional and morbi-mortality risks in haemodialysis patients.
J Bras Nefrol
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Pre-dialysis albumin is likely to be falsely low due to a dilution effect, making its usefulness in assessing protein status questionable. OBJEVTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether post-dialysis albumin would be a better marker of malnutrition and risk of mortality, when compared to pre-dialysis albumin.
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The influence of presaccharification, fermentation temperature and yeast strain on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.
Bioresour. Technol.
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Ethanol can be produced from cellulosic biomass in a process known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The presence of yeast together with the cellulolytic enzyme complex reduces the accumulation of sugars within the reactor, increasing the ethanol yield and saccharification rate. This paper reports the isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBM-1, a strain capable of growth at 42 °C. In addition, S. cerevisiae LBM-1 and Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3 were able to ferment sugar cane bagasse in SSF processes at 37 and 42 °C. Higher ethanol yields were observed when fermentation was initiated after presaccharification at 50°C than at 37 or 42° C. Furthermore, the volumetric productivity of fermentation increased with presaccharification time, from 0.43 g/L/h at 0 h to 1.79 g/L/h after 72 h of presaccharification. The results suggest that the use of thermotolerant yeasts and a presaccharification stage are key to increasing yields in this process.
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Annatto extract and ?-carotene enhances antioxidant status and regulate gene expression in neutrophils of diabetic rats.
Free Radic. Res.
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Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) contains a mixture of orange-yellowish pigments due to the presence of various carotenoids that have antioxidant effect. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) as part of the bodys defence mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. It is well known that the function of neutrophils is altered in diabetes; one of the major functional changes in neutrophils in diabetes is the increased generation of extracellular superoxide via the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the production of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in neutrophils from diabetic rats treated with annatto extract and ?-carotene. Forty-eight female Fisher rats were distributed into six groups according to the treatment received. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after treatment, and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The ROS and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Analyses of gene expression were performed using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results show that treatment with annatto extract and ?-carotene was able to decrease ROS production and the mRNA levels of p22(phox) and p47(phox) and increase the mRNA levels of SOD and CAT in neutrophils from diabetic rats. These data suggest that annatto extract and ?-carotene exerts antioxidant effect via inhibition of expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits and increase expression/activity of antioxidant enzymes.
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A rare case of cementoblastoma associated with the primary dentition.
Oral Maxillofac Surg
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Cementoblastoma is a rare odontogenic tumor with few cases reported in the literature involving deciduous teeth.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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