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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.
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Mortality among adults transferred and lost to follow-up from antiretroviral therapy programmes in South Africa: a multicenter cohort study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Little is known about outcomes after transfer out (TFO) and loss to follow-up (LTF) and how differential outcomes might bias mortality estimates, as analyses generally censor or exclude TFOs/LTF. Using data linked to the National Population Register, we explored mortality among TFO and LTF patients compared with patients who were retained and investigated how linkage impacted on mortality estimates.
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Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-infected patients in South Africa: Multicohort study in the antiretroviral therapy era.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The incidence of Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is high in South Africa but the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined. We examined incidence and survival of KS in HIV-infected patients enrolled in South African ART programs. We analyzed data of three ART programs: Khayelitsha township and Tygerberg Hospital programs in Cape Town and Themba Lethu program in Johannesburg. We included patients aged >16 years. ART was defined as a regimen of at least three drugs. We estimated incidence rates of KS for patients on ART and not on ART. We calculated Cox models adjusted for age, sex and time-updated CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA. A total of 18,254 patients (median age 34.5 years, 64% female, median CD4 cell count at enrolment 105 cells/?L) were included. During 37,488 person-years follow-up 162 patients developed KS. The incidence was 1,682/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1,406-2,011) among patients not receiving ART and 138/100,000 person-years (95% CI 102-187) among patients on ART. The adjusted hazard ratio comparing time on ART with time not on ART was 0.19 (95% CI 0.13-0.28). Low CD4 cell counts (time-updated) and male sex were also associated with KS. Estimated survival of KS patients at one year was 72.2% (95% CI 64.9-80.2) and higher in men than in women. The incidence of KS is substantially lower on ART than not on ART. Timely initiation of ART is essential to prevent KS and KS-associated morbidity and mortality in South Africa and other regions in Africa with a high burden of HIV.
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Pooled HIV-1 viral load testing using dried blood spots to reduce the cost of monitoring antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Rollout of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring is hampered by high costs and logistical difficulties associated with sample collection and transport. New strategies are needed to overcome these constraints. Dried blood spots from finger pricks have been shown to be more practical than the use of plasma specimens, and pooling strategies using plasma specimens have been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce costs. This study found that combination of finger-prick dried blood spots and a pooling strategy is a feasible and efficient option to reduce costs, while maintaining accuracy in the context of a district hospital in Malawi.
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Zidovudine impairs immunological recovery on first-line antiretroviral therapy: collaborative analysis of cohort studies in southern Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Zidovudine (ZDV) is recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. ZDV may, however, lead to anemia and impaired immunological response. We compared CD4+ cell counts over 5 years between patients starting ART with and without ZDV in southern Africa.
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Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults.
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Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care viral load monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: mathematical modelling study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Monitoring of HIV viral load in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not generally available in resource-limited settings. We examined the cost-effectiveness of qualitative point-of-care viral load tests (POC-VL) in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Immune recovery after starting ART in HIV-infected patients presenting and not presenting with tuberculosis in South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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We studied the immune response after starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 15,646 HIV-infected patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) at presentation in 3 ART programs in South Africa between 2003 and 2010. Patients presenting with TB had similar increases in CD4 cells compared with all other patients (adjusted difference 4.9 cells/µL per 6 months, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 9.7). Younger age, advanced clinical stage, female sex, and lower CD4 cell count at ART start were all associated with steeper CD4 slopes. In South Africa, HIV-infected patients presenting with TB experience immune recovery after starting ART that is no worse than in other patients.
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CD4 count slope and mortality in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: multicohort analysis from South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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In many resource-limited settings monitoring of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is based on the current CD4 count, with limited access to HIV RNA tests or laboratory diagnostics. We examined whether the CD4 count slope over 6 months could provide additional prognostic information.
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Monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and mortality in HIV programmes in Malawi, South Africa and Zambia: mathematical modelling study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Mortality in patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is higher in Malawi and Zambia than in South Africa. We examined whether different monitoring of ART (viral load [VL] in South Africa and CD4 count in Malawi and Zambia) could explain this mortality difference.
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Tuberculosis in antiretroviral treatment programs in lower income countries: availability and use of diagnostics and screening.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In resource-constrained settings, tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and cause of death in HIV-infected persons. TB may be present at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but it is often under-diagnosed. We describe approaches to TB diagnosis and screening of TB in ART programs in low- and middle-income countries.
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Good neurocognitive performance measured by the international HIV dementia scale in early HIV-1 infection.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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To evaluate neurocognitive performance in patients with preserved immunological status using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and compare patients on and off highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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Tuberculosis and the risk of opportunistic infections and cancers in HIV-infected patients starting ART in Southern Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To investigate the incidence of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and cancers and the role of a history of tuberculosis (TB) as a risk factor for developing these conditions in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Southern Africa.
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Variability of growth in children starting antiretroviral treatment in southern Africa.
Pediatrics
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Poor growth is an indication for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and a criterion for treatment failure. We examined variability in growth response to ART in 12 programs in Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa.
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The role of targeted viral load testing in diagnosing virological failure in children on antiretroviral therapy with immunological failure.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To determine the improvement in positive predictive value of immunological failure criteria for identifying virological failure in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) when a single targeted viral load measurement is performed in children identified as having immunological failure.
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Gender differences in survival among adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a multicentre cohort study.
PLoS Med.
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Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.
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Tenofovir in second-line ART in Zambia and South Africa: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Tenofovir (TDF) is increasingly used in second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared outcomes of second-line ART containing and not containing TDF in cohort studies from Zambia and the Republic of South Africa (RSA).
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Viral load monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, cohort viral load and HIV transmission in Southern Africa: a mathematical modelling analysis.
AIDS
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In low-income settings, treatment failure is often identified using CD4 cell count monitoring. Consequently, patients remain on a failing regimen, resulting in a higher risk of transmission. We investigated the benefit of routine viral load monitoring for reducing HIV transmission.
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Prognosis of Children with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Southern Africa: A Collaborative Analysis of Treatment Programs.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Prognostic models for children starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa are lacking. We developed models to estimate the probability of death during the first year receiving ART in Southern Africa.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.