Acoustic methods are applied to the investigation and monitoring of a vigorous hydrothermal plume within the Main Endeavor vent field at the Endeavor segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Forward propagation and scattering from suspended particulates using Rayleigh scattering theory is shown to be negligible (log-amplitude variance ?(?) (2)~10(-7)) compared to turbulence induced by temperature fluctuations (?(?) (2)~0.1). The backscattering from turbulence is then quantified using the forward scattering derived turbulence level, which gives a volume backscattering strength of s(V)=6.5 × 10(-8) m(-1). The volume backscattering cross section from particulates can range from s(V)=3.3 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-10) m(-1) depending on the particle size. These results show that forward scatter acoustic methods in hydrothermal vent applications can be used to quantify turbulence and its effect on backscatter measurements, which can be a dominant factor depending on the particle size and its location within the plume.
On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and acoustic Doppler sonar operating onboard a remotely operated vehicle for noncontact measurement of flow cross-section and velocity from the wells two leak sites. Over 2,500 sonar cross-sections and over 85,000 Doppler velocity measurements were recorded during the acquisition process. These data were then applied to turbulent jet and plume flow models to account for entrained water and calculate a combined hydrocarbon flow rate from the two leak sites at seafloor conditions. Based on the chemical composition of end-member samples collected from within the well, this bulk volumetric rate was then normalized to account for contributions from gases and condensates at initial leak source conditions. Results from this investigation indicate that on May 31, 2010, the wells oil flow rate was approximately 0.10 ± 0.017 m(3) s(-1) at seafloor conditions, or approximately 85 ± 15 kg s(-1) (7.4 ± 1.3 Gg d(-1)), equivalent to approximately 57,000 ± 9,800 barrels of oil per day at surface conditions. End-member chemical composition indicates that this oil release rate was accompanied by approximately an additional 24 ± 4.2 kg s(-1) (2.1 ± 0.37 Gg d(-1)) of natural gas (methane through pentanes), yielding a total hydrocarbon release rate of 110 ± 19 kg s(-1) (9.5 ± 1.6 Gg d(-1)).
The Del Pozo and Patel (DPP) algorithm permits to identify suitable candidates for debridement and implant retention (DR) in prosthetic joint infections (PJI), but does not include gram-negative bacilli (GNB) as a risk factor of worst outcome. We conducted a retrospective study to validate the DPP algorithm and propose a simplified algorithm including GNB PJI. From 2002 to 2009, 73 PJI underwent surgery; 55% were chosen according to PDD algorithm. Non-adherence increased the risk of treatment failure (HR = 4.2). Performing DR in the presence of GNB PJI and performing DR in a joint prosthesis implanted for >3 months without hematogenous infection were independent risk factors. Our simplified algorithm, based on these 2 criteria, showed comparable performance to the DPP algorithm but increased eligibility for DR by a 2.4 fold.
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