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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Design and evaluation of endosomolytic biocompatible peptides as carriers for siRNA delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Gene therapy using RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been explored to treat cancers, by regulating the expression of oncogene. However, even though small interfering RNA (siRNA), which triggers RNAi, may have great therapeutic potential, efforts at using them in vivo have been hampered by the difficulty of effectively and safely delivering into cells of interest. In this study, to develop a safe and efficient carrier for in vitro and in vivo siRNA delivery, we designed a peptide library. These peptides are improved variants of a known peptide based siRNA carrier C6. All the modification improved the transfection efficiency of C6 to some degree. After completing pre-screening for activity, several promising candidates were used for further evaluation. Selected peptides C6M3 and C6M6 could form stable complexes with siRNA. These complexes could be greatly uptaken by cells and showed a punctate perinuclear distribution. Moreover, peptide/siRNA complexes achieved high transfection efficiency in vitro without inducing substantial cytotoxicity. We have validated the therapeutic potential of this strategy for cancer treatment by targeting Bcl-2 gene in mouse tumor models, and demonstrated that tumor growth was inhibited. In order to address possible immune side effects of these peptide carriers, biocompatibility study in terms of complement activation and cytokine activation assay were carried out, whereas none of peptides induced such effects. In conclusion, these results support the potential of these peptides as therapeutic siRNA carrier.
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Feature Screening for Ultrahigh Dimensional Categorical Data with Applications.
J Bus Econ Stat
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Ultrahigh dimensional data with both categorical responses and categorical covariates are frequently encountered in the analysis of big data, for which feature screening has become an indispensable statistical tool. We propose a Pearson chi-square based feature screening procedure for categorical response with ultrahigh dimensional categorical covariates. The proposed procedure can be directly applied for detection of important interaction effects. We further show that the proposed procedure possesses screening consistency property in the terminology of Fan and Lv (2008). We investigate the finite sample performance of the proposed procedure by Monte Carlo simulation studies, and illustrate the proposed method by two empirical datasets.
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[Regulatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on HDAC1/2 activity and cyclin in human erythroleukemia K562 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Objective To investigate the effects of the 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [Rh2(S)]on cell proliferation, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2 activity, and expression of cyclin in human erythroleukemia K562 cells. Methods The K562 cells were treated with Rh2(S) at various concentrations (10-80 ?mol/L). Cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect cell cycle and apoptotic changes. The HDAC activity of cells was measured by chemical colorimetry. The protein expressions of HDAC1, HDAC2, cyclin D1, CDK4, p16INK4A and p21 after 48 hour-treatment of Rh2 (S) (10, 20, 40, 60 ?mol/L) were examined by Western blotting. Results The proliferation of K562 cells was inhibited by Rh2 (S) (20-80 ?mol/L) in dose-and time-dependent manner. FCM analyses revealed that the number of the K562 cells treated with 60 ?mol/L Rh2(S) was arrested in G0/G1 phase. The apoptosis rates of K562 cells were respectively (8.09±0.86)%, (9.44±0.53)% and (22.80±2.16)% after induced by 20, 40, 60 ?mol/L Rh2(S), which showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05) compared with the control group (2.63±0.14)%. HDAC activity of the cells treated with Rh2(S) (40, 60 ?mol/L) was reduced. Western blotting showed that the expressions of HDAC1, HDAC2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 decreased after induced by Rh2(S), and p16INK4A, p21 proteins were enhanced significantly. Conclusion The Rh2(S) can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells and induce its cycle arrest and apoptosis through inhibiting HDAC1 and HDAC2 activity, down-regulating the expression of cyclin D1 and activating p16INK4A and p21.
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[Bibliometric analysis of bacterial quantitative proteomics in English literatures].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To analyze the worldwide advances on bacterial quantitative proteomics over the past fifteen years with bibliometric approach.
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[Study of the types of matrix metalloproteinases involved in dentin bonding interface degradation].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To study the types of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in dentin bonding interface degradation.
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging and therapy: design considerations and clinical applications.
Curr Opin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive tool in biomedical imaging, clinical diagnosis and therapy. In this review, the physicochemical properties of SPION and their in vivo performance were thoroughly discussed, also covering how surface engineering will prolong the circulation time and overcome biological barriers at organ, tissue, and cellular levels. Clinical applications and future potentials of SPION based MR imaging in cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammation diseases were addressed. Targeting mechanisms of SPION in both research and clinical use were summarized for better understanding of their performance. Addition of new targeting mechanisms to clinically approved SPION will bring opportunities to discover early diseases at cellular and molecular levels, and to track MRI-visible drug carriers. Clinical trial information related to SPION on Clinicaltrials.gov was summarized mainly based on their disease categories, therapeutic applications and clinical trial stages. It gives us a brief outlook of their clinical applications in the near future.
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Organization of Capsid-Associated Tegument Components in Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Capsid-associated tegument proteins have been identified in alpha- and betaherpesviruses to play an essential role in viral DNA packaging. Whether and how such tegument proteins exist in gammaherpesviruses have been mysteries. Here, we report a 6-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) virion, a member of the oncogenic gammaherpesvirus subfamily. The KSHV virion structure reveals, for the first time, how capsid-associated tegument proteins are organized in a gammaherpesvirus, with five tegument densities capping each penton vertex, a pattern highly similar to that in alphaherpesvirus but completely different from that in betaherpesvirus. Each KSHV tegument density can be divided into three prominent regions: a penton-binding globular region, a helix-bundle stalk region, and a ?-sheet-rich triplex-binding region. Fitting of the crystal structure of the truncated HSV-1 UL25 protein (the KSHV ORF19 homolog) and secondary structure analysis of the full-length ORF19 established that ORF19 constitutes the globular region with an N-terminal, 60-amino-acid-long helix extending into the stalk region. Matching secondary structural features resolved in the cryo-EM density with secondary structures predicted by sequence analysis identifies the triplex-binding region to be ORF32, a homolog of alphaherpesvirus UL17. Despite the high level of tegument structural similarities between KSHV and alphaherpesvirus, an ORF19 monomer in KSHV, in contrast to a UL25 dimer in alphaherpesviruses, binds each penton subunit, an observation that correlates with conformational differences in their pentons. This newly discovered organization of triplex-ORF32-ORF19 also resolves a long-standing mystery surrounding the virion location and conformation of alphaherpesvirus UL25 protein.
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Mangiferin treatment inhibits hepatic expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats: a link to amelioration of fatty liver.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, and its associated traditional herbs have been demonstrated to improve abnormalities of lipid metabolism. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study investigated the anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin in fructose-fed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)s that have a mutation in sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1. The results showed that co-administration of mangiferin (15mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 7weeks dramatically diminished fructose-induced increases in hepatic triglyceride content and Oil Red O-stained area in SHRs. However, blood pressure, fructose and chow intakes, white adipose tissue weight and metabolic parameters (plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids) were unaffected by mangiferin treatment. Mechanistically, mangiferin treatment suppressed acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. In contrast, mangiferin treatment was without effect on hepatic mRNA and/or protein expression of SREBP-1/1c, carbohydrate response element binding protein, liver pyruvate kinase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, DGAT-1, monoacyglycerol acyltransferase-2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Collectively, our results suggest that mangiferin treatment ameliorates fatty liver in fructose-fed SHRs by inhibiting hepatic DGAT-2 that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride biosynthesis. The anti-steatotic effect of mangiferin may occur independently of the hepatic signals associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.
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EF-G catalyzes tRNA translocation by disrupting interactions between decoding center and codon-anticodon duplex.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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During translation, elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzes the translocation of tRNA2-mRNA inside the ribosome. Translocation is coupled to a cycle of conformational rearrangements of the ribosomal machinery, and how EF-G initiates translocation remains unresolved. Here we performed systematic mutagenesis of Escherichia coli EF-G and analyzed inhibitory single-site mutants of EF-G that preserved pretranslocation (Pre)-state ribosomes with tRNAs in A/P and P/E sites (Pre-EF-G). Our results suggest that the interactions between the decoding center and the codon-anticodon duplex constitute the barrier for translocation. Catalysis of translocation by EF-G involves the factor's highly conserved loops I and II at the tip of domain IV, which disrupt the hydrogen bonds between the decoding center and the duplex to release the latter, hence inducing subsequent translocation events, namely 30S head swiveling and tRNA2-mRNA movement on the 30S subunit.
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Differences in the corneal biomechanical changes after SMILE and LASIK.
J Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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To compare the corneal biomechanical properties before and after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK in different levels of myopia with the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Depew, NY).
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[Inhibitory effect of trichostatin A on HepG2 cell proliferation and the mechanisms].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on the proliferation of HepG2 cells and explore the underlying mechanism.
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Porphyria cutanea tarda and Sjogren's syndrome.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Porphyria cutanea tarda is prevalent in connective tissue disease, common in systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the co-existence of primary sjogren's syndrome and porphyria cutanea tarda is rare and poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a case of porphyria cutanea tarda associated with primary sjogren's syndrome.
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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF18 and ORF30 are essential for late gene expression during lytic replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with several human malignances. As saliva is likely the major vehicle for KSHV transmission, we studied in vitro KSHV infection of oral epithelial cells. Through infection of two types of oral epithelial cells, normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOKs) and papilloma-immortalized human oral keratinocyte (HOK16B) cells, we found that KSHV can undergo robust lytic replication in oral epithelial cells. By employing de novo lytic infection of HOK16B cells, we studied the functions of two previously uncharacterized genes, ORF18 and ORF30, during the KSHV lytic cycle. For this purpose, an ORF18-deficient virus and an ORF30-deficient virus were generated using a mutagenesis strategy based on bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. We found that neither ORF18 nor ORF30 is required for immediately early or early gene expression or viral DNA replication, but each is essential for late gene expression during both de novo lytic replication and reactivation. This critical role of ORF18 and ORF30 in late gene expression was also observed during KSHV reactivation. In addition, global analysis of viral transcripts by RNA sequencing indicated that ORF18 and ORF30 control the same set of viral genes. Therefore, we suggest that these two viral ORFs are involved in the same mechanism or pathway that coregulates the viral late genes as a group.
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"Minimalist" cyclopropene-containing photo-cross-linkers suitable for live-cell imaging and affinity-based protein labeling.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Target identification of bioactive compounds within the native cellular environment is important in biomedical research and drug discovery, but it has traditionally been carried out in vitro. Information about how such molecules interact with their endogenous targets (on and off) is currently highly limited. An ideal strategy would be one that recapitulates protein-small molecule interactions in situ (e.g., in living cells) and at the same time enables enrichment of these complexes for subsequent proteome-wide target identification. Similarly, small molecule-based imaging approaches are becoming increasingly available for in situ monitoring of a variety of proteins including enzymes. Chemical proteomic strategies for simultaneous bioimaging and target identification of noncovalent bioactive compounds in live mammalian cells, however, are currently not available. This is due to a lack of photoaffinity labels that are minimally modified from their parental compounds, yet chemically tractable using copper-free bioorthogonal chemistry. We have herein developed novel minimalist linkers containing both an alkyl diazirine and a cyclopropene. We have shown chemical probes (e.g., BD-2) made from such linkers could be used for simultaneous in situ imaging and covalent labeling of endogenous BRD-4 (an important epigenetic protein) via a rapid, copper-free, tetrazine-cyclopropene ligation reaction (k2 > 5 M(-1) s(-1)). The key features of our cyclopropenes, with their unique C-1 linkage to BRD-4-targeting moiety, are their tunable reactivity and solubility, relative stability, and synthetic accessibility. BD-2, which is a linker-modified analogue of (+)-JQ1 (a recently discovered nanomolar protein-protein-interaction inhibitor of BRD-4), was subsequently used in a cell-based proteome profiling experiment for large-scale identification of potential off-targets of (+)-JQ1. Several newly identified targets were subsequently confirmed by preliminary validation experiments.
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[Quantitative detection of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in normal coronal dentine of young people].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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To compare the distribution and concentration of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) in different dentin depth of premolar and molar of young people.
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[Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of leukemia KG1-? cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on leukemia KG1-? cells.
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[Horizontal transmission of Streptococcus mutans in caries-active preschool children].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To analyze horizontal transmission patterns of Streptococcus mutans among caries-active preschool children for early interventions of dental caries.
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RIOK3 is an adaptor protein required for IRF3-mediated antiviral type I interferon production.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Detection of cytosolic nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors leads to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and elicits the innate immune response. We report here the identification of RIOK3 as a novel adaptor protein that is essential for the cytosolic nucleic acid-induced type I IFN production and for the antiviral response to gammaherpesvirus through two independent kinome-wide RNA interference screens. RIOK3 knockdown blocks both cytosolic double-stranded B-form DNA and double-stranded RNA-induced IRF3 activation and IFN-? production. In contrast, the overexpression of RIOK3 activates IRF3 and induces IFN-?. RIOK3 functions downstream of TBK1 and upstream of IRF3 activation. Furthermore, RIOK3 physically interacts with both IRF3 and TBK1 and is necessary for the interaction between TBK1 and IRF3. In addition, global transcriptome analysis shows that the expression of many gene involved antiviral responses is dependent on RIOK3. Thus, knockdown of RIOK3 inhibits cellular antiviral responses against both DNA and RNA viruses (herpesvirus and influenza A virus). Our data suggest that RIOK3 plays a critical role in the antiviral type I IFN pathway by bridging TBK1 and IRF3. Importance: The innate immune response, such as the production of type I interferons, acts as the first line of defense, limiting infectious pathogens directly and shaping the adaptive immune response. In this study, we identified RIOK3 as a novel regulator of the antiviral type I interferon pathway. Specifically, we found that RIOK3 physically interacts with TBK1 and IRF3 and bridges the functions between TBK1 and IRF3 in the activation of type I interferon pathway. The identification of a cellular kinase that plays a role the type I interferon pathway adds another level of complexity in the regulation of innate immunity and will have implications for developing novel strategies to combat viral infection.
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Increased expression of phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein is an independent prognostic factor for human gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Upregulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), as a rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis,has been recognized in multiple human cancers, implicating a critical role in cancer development and progression; yet, its role in gastric cancer still remains unclear. In the present study, we detected ACC and phosphorylated form of ACC (pACC) expression in gastric cancers and explored its clinical significance. Tissue microarray blocks containing primary gastric cancer and adjacent normal mucosa specimens obtained from 1,072 Chinese patients were used for the detection of ACC and pACC expression by immunohistochemistry. Gastric cancer cell lines were treated by metformin, and pACC was measured by Western blotting. ACC overexpression was observed in all the tumor specimens. High expression of pACC was found in 630 (58.8 %) of the 1,072 primary tumors and in 237 (66.6 %) of the 356 primary tumors without lymph node metastasis. Absent/low expression of pACC significantly correlated with advanced T stage (P < 0.001), tumor size (P = 0.010), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), advanced disease stage (P < 0.001), and poor histological differentiation (P = 0.014) in 1,072 primary tumors, and with advanced T stage (P = 0.015), tumor size (P = 0.017), and poor histological differentiation (P = 0.001) in 356 tumors without lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high expression of pACC is strongly related to better survival rates in all gastric cancer patients (P = 0.006). Cox regression analysis revealed that pACC is an independent prognostic factor only in patients without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.016). Metformin treatment leaded to increased expression of pACC, which, in turn, resulted in the reduction of cell proliferation and colony formation of gastric cancer cells (P < 0.05). Increased activation of ACC is frequent in human gastric cancer, and downregulation of pACC is an important prognostic factor, suggesting that ACC/pACC might be a potential target for cancer intervention.
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Potent neutralization of MERS-CoV by human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the viral spike glycoprotein.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe and fatal acute respiratory illness in humans. However, no prophylactic and therapeutic agents specifically against MERS-CoV are currently available. Entry of MERS-CoV into target cells depends on binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral envelope spike glycoprotein to the cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). We report the isolation and characterization of two potent human RBD-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MERS-4 and MERS-27) derived from single-chain variable region fragments of a nonimmune human antibody library. MERS-4 and MERS-27 inhibited infection of both pseudotyped and live MERS-CoV with IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) at nanomolar concentrations. MERS-4 also showed inhibitory activity against syncytia formation mediated by interaction between MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein and DPP4. Combination of MERS-4 and MERS-27 demonstrated a synergistic effect in neutralization against pseudotyped MERS-CoV. Biochemical analysis indicated that MERS-4 and MERS-27 blocked RBD interaction with DPP4 on the cell surface. MERS-4, in particular, bound soluble RBD with an about 45-fold higher affinity than DPP4. Mutagenesis analysis suggested that MERS-4 and MERS-27 recognized distinct regions in RBD. These results suggest that MERS-4 and MERS-27 are RBD-specific potent inhibitors and could serve as promising candidates for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against MERS-CoV infection.
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Determination of delay time in individual transfer function for central aortic pressure reconstruction.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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In previous research, time-delay (?t) was a more important parameter than the reflection coefficient in the individual transfer function of central aortic pressure reconstruction. The ?t can be obtained by electrocardiography (ECG) or phonocardiography (PCG). Because the pre-ejection period remains an uncertain factor, the present study used ECG and PCG to define the delay time and analyzed the accuracy of the reconstruction results. The ?t pre is the actual delay time derived from the aorta to the carotid pressure wave, ?t PCG is the time delay between the aortic valve component of the second heart sound and the dicrotic incisura of the carotid pressure wave, and ?t ECG represents the delay from the interval of the ECG R-peak to the foot of the carotid pressure wave. Compared with the measured aortic pressure, the reconstruction result obtained by ?t=?t PCG slightly differed from the best result estimated by ?t=?t pre. However, the differences between the result obtained by ?t=?t ECG and the best result were significant in terms of the diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure, and especially in terms of the augmentation index and root-mean-square-error. Thus, the ?t should be determined by PCG for central aortic pressure reconstruction in practice.
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Impacts of the ubiquitous factor Zelda on Bicoid-dependent DNA binding and transcription in Drosophila.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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In vivo cross-linking studies suggest that the Drosophila transcription factor Bicoid (Bcd) binds to several thousand sites during early embryogenesis, but it is not clear how many of these binding events are functionally important. In contrast, reporter gene studies have identified >60 Bcd-dependent enhancers, all of which contain clusters of the consensus binding sequence TAATCC. These studies also identified clusters of TAATCC motifs (inactive fragments) that failed to drive Bcd-dependent activation. In general, active fragments showed higher levels of Bcd binding in vivo and were enriched in predicted binding sites for the ubiquitous maternal protein Zelda (Zld). Here we tested the role of Zld in Bcd-mediated binding and transcription. Removal of Zld function and mutations in Zld sites caused significant reductions in Bcd binding to known enhancers and variable effects on the activation and spatial positioning of Bcd-dependent expression patterns. Also, insertion of Zld sites converted one of six inactive fragments into a Bcd-responsive enhancer. Genome-wide binding experiments in zld mutants showed variable effects on Bcd-binding peaks, ranging from strong reductions to significantly enhanced levels of binding. Increases in Bcd binding caused the precocious Bcd-dependent activation of genes that are normally not expressed in early embryos, suggesting that Zld controls the genome-wide binding profile of Bcd at the qualitative level and is critical for selecting target genes for activation in the early embryo. These results underscore the importance of combinatorial binding in enhancer function and provide data that will help predict regulatory activities based on DNA sequence.
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Effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on the migratory ability of HepG2 liver carcinoma cells: recruiting histone deacetylase and inhibiting activator protein 1 transcription factors.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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In previous experiments, ginsenoside Rh2 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which indicates a potential role for ginsenoside Rh2 in anticancer treatment. The effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on cancer is marked and ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to inhibit pancreatic tumor migratory ability. In the present study, Transwell chambers were used in order to investigate whether ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits the migratory ability of HepG2 liver carcinoma cells. Furthermore, to analyze activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor expression following Rh2 treatment, ten plasmids encoding Renilla luciferase coupled to the transcription factors were transiently transfected into the HepG2 cells and luciferase was detected by the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. The results indicated that ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited HepG2 cell migratory ability. The expression levels of AP-1 transcription factors were increased in HepG2 cells following induction by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but ginsenoside Rh2 suppressed this induced AP?1 expression. AP-1 transcription factors recruit histone deacetylase (HDAC)4 and affect its transcription, thus, the expression levels of HDAC4 were also analyzed, and these were found to be increased in the Rh2 treatment group. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), a gene downstream of AP-1, was then investigated, and the treatment group expressed reduced levels of MMP3 gene and protein. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 on the migratory ability of HepG2 may be presumed to occur by the recruitment of HDAC and the resulting inhibition of AP?1 transcription factors, in order to reduce the expression levels of MMP3 gene and protein.
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MicroRNA-125b protects against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury via targeting p53-mediated apoptotic signalling and TRAF6.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The present study examined the role of microRNA-125b (miR-125b) in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We constructed lentivirus-expressing miR-125b (LmiR-125b) and developed transgenic mice with overexpression of miR-125b.
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Direct synthesis of 2-deoxy-?-glycosides via anomeric O-alkylation with secondary electrophiles.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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An approach for direct synthesis of biologically significant 2-deoxy-?-glycosides has been developed via O-alkylation of a variety of 2-deoxy-sugar-derived anomeric alkoxides using challenging secondary triflates as electrophiles. It was found a free hydroxyl group at C3 of the 2-deoxy-sugar-derived lactols is required in order to achieve synthetically efficient yields. This method has also been applied to the convergent synthesis of a 2-deoxy-?-tetrasaccharide.
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Adjuvant effect of polysaccharide from fruits of Physalis alkekengi L. in DNA vaccine against systemic candidiasis.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Adjuvant effect mediated by polysaccharide (PPSB) isolated from the fruits of Physalis alkekengi L. in DNA vaccine was evaluated in mice. Recombinant plasmid containing epitope C (LKVIRK) from heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) of Candida albicans (C. albican) was used as DNA vaccine (pD-HSP90C). The results indicated that PPSB significantly enhanced specific antibody titers IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, and concentration of IL-2 and IL-4 in sera of mice immunized with pD-HSP90C (p<0.05). More importantly, it was found that the mice immunized with pD-HSP90C/PPSB not only had fewer CFU (colony forming unites) in the kidneys than mice immunized with pD-HSP90C, but also a statistically significant higher survival rate over PBS-injected group (p<0.05) when the immunized mice were challenged with living C. albican cells. However, no statistically significant difference in survival rate was observed between pD-HSP90C-immunized group and PBS-injected group. Therefore, PPSB can be considered as a promising adjuvant eliciting both Th1 and Th2 responses to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccines.
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Sleep deprivation reduces the rate of rapid picture processing.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Object recognition becomes impaired at faster presentation rates and here we show the neuroanatomical foci of where this might be exacerbated by sleep deprivation (SD). Twenty healthy human participants were asked to detect a target house in serially presented house pictures that appeared at 1-15images/s. Temporal response profiles relating fMRI signal magnitude to presentation frequency were derived from task-responsive regions. Following SD, the inverted U-shaped response profile within parahippocampal place area was lower and peaked at a slower presentation rate than when participants slept normally. Contrastingly, SD did not shift the relatively monotonic early visual cortex responses. The intraparietal sulci but not the frontal eye fields or medial frontal region, showed similar shifts in temporal response profiles following SD, suggesting differential contribution of areas mediating attention control towards limiting rapid object processing. As nodes of the default mode network (DMN) continued to show monotonically increasing deactivation at higher presentation frequencies even following SD, the observed state modulations of temporal responses likely represent temporal limitations in object processing as opposed to task disengagement.
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Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin in a Chinese teenager: case report and literature review.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has now been established as an important community-acquired pathogen. Although necrotizing pneumonia caused by community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) has been reported with increasing frequency in many countries, it has been reported in only a few children younger than 1 year of age in Mainland China.
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Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-R-3-hydroxyhexanoate) nanoparticles with polyethylenimine coat as simple, safe, and versatile vehicles for cell targeting: population characteristics, cell uptake, and intracellular trafficking.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A simple and highly safe poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-R-3-hydroxyhexanoate) nanoparticulate delivery system that targets different cell types is developed. A sub-cytotoxic level of polyethylenimine coat mediates universal cell targeting. Internalized nanoparticles traffic along endolysosomal compartments, endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Nanoparticles have no detrimental effects on cell morphology and respiration.
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Comparative evaluation of thrombocytopenia in adult patients receiving linezolid or glycopeptides in a respiratory intensive care unit.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic agent, active against gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to traditional antibiotics, including glycopeptides. Linezolid is generally well tolerated, but has been associated with hematologic adverse effects such as thrombocytopenia. The primary objective of this study was to compare the incidence of thrombocytopenia between patients receiving linezolid or glycopeptides in different age groups. The secondary objective was to assess the association between the time-to-event and occurrence of thrombocytopenia. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of patients who were treated with linezolid or glycopeptides (vancomycin or teicoplanin) between January 2010 and June 2013 in a respiratory intensive care unit. Data were extracted from the patients' electronic medical records, which were obtained from a central database in the hospital, and multivariate analyses were performed. In total, the study included 225 patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides. The cumulative probability of thrombocytopenia was higher in the patients receiving linezolid than in those receiving glycopeptides (P<0.05), however the cumulative probability of thrombocytopenia did not differ significantly between patients receiving linezolid or glycopeptides in the subgroup whose age was <65 years (P>0.05). With a treatment duration of ?7 days, the incidence of thrombocytopenia and the mean platelet count reduction in the patients receiving linezolid was significantly higher than in those receiving glycopeptides (P<0.05). No significant difference was identified in the mean platelet counts between the patients receiving linezolid and those receiving glycopeptides. In conclusion, it was identified that patients in a respiratory intensive care unit, aged ?65 years or with a treatment duration of ?7 days who were treated with linezolid were more likely to develop thrombocytopenia than patients of the same subgroup who were treated with glycopeptides.
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Prognosis and weaning of elderly multiple organ dysfunction syndrome patients with invasive mechanical ventilation.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Elderly multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation have poor prognosis in intensive care units (ICUs). We studied the usefulness of four commonly used severity scores and extrapulmonary factors that affected weaning to predict outcome of such patients.
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Discovery of a Novel Class of Dimeric Smac Mimetics as Potent IAP Antagonists Resulting in a Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Cancer (AZD5582).
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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A series of dimeric compounds based on the AVPI motif of Smac were designed and prepared as antagonists of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). Optimization of cellular potency, physical properties, and pharmacokinetic parameters led to the identification of compound 14 (AZD5582), which binds potently to the BIR3 domains of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP (IC50 = 15, 21, and 15 nM, respectively). This compound causes cIAP1 degradation and induces apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line at subnanomolar concentrations in vitro. When administered intravenously to MDA-MB-231 xenograft-bearing mice, 14 results in cIAP1 degradation and caspase-3 cleavage within tumor cells and causes substantial tumor regressions following two weekly doses of 3.0 mg/kg. Antiproliferative effects are observed with 14 in only a small subset of the over 200 cancer cell lines examined, consistent with other published IAP inhibitors. As a result of its in vitro and in vivo profile, 14 was nominated as a candidate for clinical development.
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A Rapid Automatic Processing Platform for Bead Label-Assisted Microarray Analysis: Application for Genetic Hearing-Loss Mutation Detection.
J Lab Autom
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Molecular diagnostics using microarrays are increasingly being used in clinical diagnosis because of their high throughput, sensitivity, and accuracy. However, standard microarray processing takes several hours and involves manual steps during hybridization, slide clean up, and imaging. Here we describe the development of an integrated platform that automates these individual steps as well as significantly shortens the processing time and improves reproducibility. The platform integrates such key elements as a microfluidic chip, flow control system, temperature control system, imaging system, and automated analysis of clinical results. Bead labeling of microarray signals required a simple imaging system and allowed continuous monitoring of the microarray processing. To demonstrate utility, the automated platform was used to genotype hereditary hearing-loss gene mutations. Compared with conventional microarray processing procedures, the platform increases the efficiency and reproducibility of hybridization, speeding microarray processing through to result analysis. The platform also continuously monitors the microarray signals, which can be used to facilitate optimization of microarray processing conditions. In addition, the modular design of the platform lends itself to development of simultaneous processing of multiple microfluidic chips. We believe the novel features of the platform will benefit its use in clinical settings in which fast, low-complexity molecular genetic testing is required.
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Toll-like receptor 3 plays a role in myocardial infarction and ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Innate immune and inflammatory responses mediated by Toll like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study examined the role of TLR3 in myocardial injury induced by two models, namely, myocardial infarction (MI) and I/R. First, we examined the role of TLR3 in MI. TLR3 deficient (TLR3(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to MI induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery for 21days. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Next, we examined whether TLR3 contributes to myocardial I/R injury. TLR3(-/-) and WT mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia (45min) followed by reperfusion for up to 3days. Cardiac function and myocardial infarct size were examined. We also examined the effect of TLR3 deficiency on I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production. TLR3(-/-) mice showed significant attenuation of cardiac dysfunction after MI or I/R. Myocardial infarct size and myocardial apoptosis induced by I/R injury were significantly attenuated in TLR3(-/-) mice. TLR3 deficiency increases B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) levels and attenuates I/R-increased Fas, Fas ligand or CD95L (FasL), Fas-Associated protein with Death Domain (FADD), Bax and Bak levels in the myocardium. TLR3 deficiency also attenuates I/R-induced myocardial nuclear factor KappaB (NF-?B) binding activity, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) production as well as I/R-induced infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the myocardium. TLR3 plays an important role in myocardial injury induced by MI or I/R. The mechanisms involve activation of apoptotic signaling and NF-?B binding activity. Modulation of TLR3 may be an effective approach for ameliorating heart injury in heart attack patients.
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Water sorption properties, molecular mobility and probiotic survival in freeze dried protein-carbohydrate matrices.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The moisture uptake and molecular mobility of freeze-dried powders containing whey protein isolate-carbohydrate matrices (1WPI:2maltodextrin; 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1d-glucose; and 1WPI:1maltodextrin:1l-glucose) and encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in these matrices were investigated at 25 °C and 33% and 70% relative humidity (RH). The inactivation rate constant for probiotics in freeze-dried matrices were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.98) to moisture uptake and molecular mobility measured by NMR relaxometry. The stability of probiotics in glassy protein-carbohydrate matrices was dependent on the composition of the matrix. The partial substitution of maltodextrin with glucose (d- or l-) which improved microbial survival at 33% RH was related to the reduced molecular mobility and lower water uptake of the matrix. This study suggests that moisture uptake properties and molecular mobility of the matrix composition, as opposed to the relative humidity of the environment, are better determinants of probiotic viability during storage. Dynamic vapour sorption and NMR relaxometry are promising tools to assist in the selection of protein-carbohydrate matrices for enhancing probiotic viability during storage.
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Designing a photoresponsive molecularly imprinted system on a silicon wafer substrate surface.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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A photoresponsive molecularly imprinted system was prepared on a silicon wafer substrate surface via the host-guest complex of grafted 4-(3-triethoxysilylpropyiureido)azobenzene (TSUA) and mono-6-deoxy-6-((p-chlorosulfonyl)-benzoic acid)-?-cyclodextrin (CBA-?-CD), and the acid-base pair interactions/hydrogen bonds between CBA-?-CD and the template molecules, including theophylline (TPE) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HA). A molecular imprinting cycle "imprinting ? extracting ? uptaking ? shuffling" was also defined in the study, the processes of uptaking and shuffling were investigated in detail by equilibrium binding experiments, and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and Scatchard equation were used to evaluate the binding affinity and the theoretical binding sites of the molecularly imprinted (MIS), nonimprinted (NIS), and pure (PS) silicon wafer substrates. Compared with the NISs and PSs, the MISs showed a significantly higher adsorption capacity for the template molecules. More importantly, the MISs showed a reimprinted ability; after the process of shuffling, the molecularly imprinted systems on the substrate surface were destroyed, and new imprinted systems could be fabricated for the recognition of other template molecules after washing the substrates under irradiation at 450 nm. Moreover, the selective adsorption for the MISs was investigated, which indicated that the MISs showed specific affinity to the template molecules (TPE or 4-HA).
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[Selection and identification of ssDNA aptamers specific to clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To select and identify ssDNA aptamers specific to Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity isolated from clinical specimens.
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Specificity of miR-378a-5p targeting rodent fibronectin.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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One criterion for microRNA identification is based on their conservation across species, and prediction of miRNA targets by empirical approaches using computational analysis relies on the presence of conservative mRNA 3UTR. Because most miRNA target sites identified are highly conserved across different species, it is not clear whether miRNA targeting is species-specific. To predict miRNA targeting, we aligned all available fibronectin 3UTRs and observed significant conservation of all 20 species. Twelve miRNAs were predicted to target most fibronectin 3UTRs, but rodent fibronectin showed potential binding sites specific for five different miRNAs. One of them, the miR-378a-5p, contained a complete matching seed-region for all rodent fibronectin, which could not be found in any other species. We designed experiments to test whether the species-specific targeting possessed biological function and found that expression of miR-378a-5p decreased cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth. Silencing fibronectin expression produced similar effects as miR-378a-5p, while transfection with a construct targeting miR-378-5p produced opposite results. Tumor formation assay showed that enhanced expression of fibronectin in the stromal tissues as a background environment suppressed tumor growth, while increased fibronectin expression inside the tumor cells promoted tumor growth. This was likely due to the different signaling direction, either inside-out or outside-in signal. Our results demonstrated that species-specific targeting by miRNA could also exert functional effects. Thus, one layer of regulation has been added to the complex network of miRNA signaling.
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[Effect of Staphylococcus aureus on the expressions of TLR2, IL-1?, TNF-? and NF-?B in Bcap-37 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To observe the effects of Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) on the expressions of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-?) and nuclear factor ?B(NF-?B) in human breast cancer Bcap-37 cells in vitro.
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Downregulation of miR-383 promotes glioma cell invasion by targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Invasiveness is a major clinical feature of glioma, an aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis. Although there is emerging evidence that some microRNAs are involved in the glioma cell invasion process, it remains necessary to find functional microRNAs and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we reported that a microRNA, miR-383, was downregulated in gliomas and inversely correlated with glioma pathological grades. Downregulation of miR-383 enhanced, whereas upregulation of miR-383 inhibited, the glioma cell invasive ability. Furthermore, we found that downregulation of miR-383 activated the AKT signaling following upregulation of MMP2 expression by directly targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). Importantly, we demonstrated that IGF1R expression is critical for miR-383 downregulation-induced cell invasion. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel regulatory mechanism for constitutive IGF1R signaling activation in glioma cancer and may provide miR-383 as a useful diagnostic marker or therapeutic target.
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Increasing organ donation via changes in the default choice or allocation rule.
J Health Econ
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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This research utilizes a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative public policies targeted at increasing the rate of deceased donor organ donation. The experiment includes treatments across different default choices and organ allocation rules inspired by the donor registration systems applied in different countries. Our results indicate that the opt-out with priority rule system generates the largest increase in organ donation relative to an opt-in only program. However, sizeable gains are achievable using either a priority rule or opt-out program separately, with the opt-out rule generating approximately 80% of the benefits achieved under a priority rule program.
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Modular establishment of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer library via Pd-catalyzed direct C-H (Hetero)arylation: a highly efficient approach to discover low-bandgap polymers.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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A concise, highly efficient palladium-catalyzed direct C-H (hetero)arylation is developed to modularly assemble a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DTDPP)-based polymer library to screen low-bandgap and near-infrared (NIR) absorbing materials. The DTDPP-based copolymers P1 and P2 with an alternating donor-acceptor-donor-acceptor (D-A-D-A) sequence and the homopolymer P9 exhibit planarity and excellent ?-conjugation, which lead to low bandgaps (down to 1.22 eV) as well as strong and broad NIR absorption bands (up to 1000 nm).
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Quantitative analysis of earthy and musty odors in drinking water sources impacted by wastewater and algal derived contaminants.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The goal of this study was to develop a robust method capable of quantifying taste and odor compounds (i.e., geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol) at very low aqueous concentrations in the presence of wastewater and algal derived contaminants. A polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used to perform headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to extract and analyze taste and odor compounds from model, source water, and finished drinking water samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometery (GC/MS) in full scan mode was used to analyze the compounds desorbed from the fiber in the GC inlet. The following parameters were optimized in order to enhance analyte recovery: extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sonication temperature, sonication time and GC/MS configuration/temperature program. After optimization, the method provided a linear response from 1 to 300 ng L(-1) and yielded limit of detections (LODs) of 1 ng L(-1) for both 2-MIB and geosmin. In MS full scan mode, wastewater contaminants and other algal derived volatile organic compounds (ADVOCs) relevant to cyanobacterial bloom dynamics were detected and monitored in real source water samples. In the presence of known interferents with similar mass/charge fragments and elution times, the optimized method yielded low detection limits as well as exact molecular confirmation for taste and odor compounds in impacted source water samples. This method could be used as a tool to aid in the development of source water protection plans by identifying potential sources of anthropogenic and algal derived contamination in drinking water sources.
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Human intravenous immunoglobulins suppress seizure activities and inhibit the activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the hippocampus of picrotoxin-kindled rats.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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We previously showed that human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) can lower seizure severity and prolong seizure latency in picrotoxin-kindled rats. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of IVIG on seizure activity and investigate its influence on astrocytes in the hippocampus of picrotoxin-kindled rats. A rat kindling model was established by peritoneal injections of picrotoxin for 21 days in Wistar rats. Seventy-five rats were equally divided into five groups: picrotoxin, IVIG pretreatment, IVIG post-treatment, normal saline control, and IVIG control. Seizure severity was evaluated according to a six-stage classification. The number and morphology of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes were studied by immunohistochemistry using the anti-GFAP antibody. The cross-sectional area and grayscale of GFAP-positive astrocytes were also determined. In picrotoxin-kindled rats, pretreatment with IVIG appeared to inhibit full kindling rates, and it significantly reduced the number of GFAP-positive cells in the hippocampus (p < .001). IVIG also significantly (p < .001) attenuated the increase in the cross-sectional area and grayscale of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that by suppressing the expression of GFAP, IVIGs may reduce seizure activity and inhibit the activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes in picrotoxin-kindled rats.
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Tocopherol and ascorbate have contrasting effects on the viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The antioxidants, sodium ascorbate and tocopherol, have contrasting effects on the viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) spray-dried powders during storage (4 and 25 °C; 32, 57, and 70% relative humidity). The addition of tocopherol improved probiotic viability during storage, while the incorporation of Na-ascorbate alone or in combination with tocopherol had detrimental effects on probiotic survival. The beneficial effect of tocopherol is a consequence of its chemical antioxidative action. The reduced viability in Na-ascorbate containing microcapsule formulations is hypothesized to be due primarily to the production of acetic acids arising from chemical degradation reactions and the catabolism of ascorbate by LGG. This study highlights the importance of considering the detrimental consequences of degradative chemical reactions and the metabolic fate of additives on the viability of probiotics when designing probiotic encapsulant formulations.
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Combinatorial activation and concentration-dependent repression of the Drosophila even skipped stripe 3+7 enhancer.
Development
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Despite years of study, the precise mechanisms that control position-specific gene expression during development are not understood. Here, we analyze an enhancer element from the even skipped (eve) gene, which activates and positions two stripes of expression (stripes 3 and 7) in blastoderm stage Drosophila embryos. Previous genetic studies showed that the JAK-STAT pathway is required for full activation of the enhancer, whereas the gap genes hunchback (hb) and knirps (kni) are required for placement of the boundaries of both stripes. We show that the maternal zinc-finger protein Zelda (Zld) is absolutely required for activation, and present evidence that Zld binds to multiple non-canonical sites. We also use a combination of in vitro binding experiments and bioinformatics analysis to redefine the Kni-binding motif, and mutational analysis and in vivo tests to show that Kni and Hb are dedicated repressors that function by direct DNA binding. These experiments significantly extend our understanding of how the eve enhancer integrates positive and negative transcriptional activities to generate sharp boundaries in the early embryo.
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Replication and transcription activator (RTA) of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 binds to an RTA-responsive element and activates the expression of ORF18.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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The replication and transcription activator (RTA), mainly encoded by open reading frame 50, is an immediate-early gene product that is conserved among all characterized gammaherpesviruses. Previous studies have demonstrated that RTA proteins of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can activate the promoter of many viral early lytic genes through direct or indirect mechanisms. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is genetically related to KSHV and EBV, and the RTA homologue from MHV-68 also initiates the lytic cycle of gene expression. Although two RTA-dependent promoters had been identified in MHV-68, the mechanism of the interaction between RTA and the promoters was not characterized. In this study, we first identified an RTA-responsive promoter in the left origin of lytic replication region of MHV-68 through a reporter assay and mapped a 27-bp RTA-responsive element (RRE) through systematic deletions. Interestingly, sequence analysis identified a second RRE in this region. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that RTA can bind directly to these two RREs in vitro or in vivo. Mutagenesis studies have further characterized the nucleotides important for mediating RTA binding by an EMSA. Moreover, we engineered RRE-deleted viruses and demonstrated in the context of the viral genome that one of the RREs mediates the RTA-dependent activation of an essential lytic gene, ORF18, during de novo infection. To our knowledge, this is the first time that RTA binding sites in MHV-68 have been identified. Since ORF18 regulates viral late gene expression, our study has also contributed to the delineation of the expression cascade of gammaherpesvirus lytic genes.
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Minimally invasive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection with depth profiles based on a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active acupuncture needle.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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To obtain depth profiles of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) information in living systems, a SERS-active needle was structured by acupuncture needles, gold nanoshells (GNSs), and polystyrene, which were used as carriers, SERS-active elements to be absorbed on the carriers, and coatings to protect the absorbed GNSs from being erased during insertion, respectively. The SERS-active needle is minimally invasive for entering and exiting the body. The interspaces between the GNSs became vessels to collect diffused fluids at different depths after a SERS-active needle was inserted into an agarose gel, and the SERS intensity profile on the SERS-active needle coincided with the concentration profile of Nile Blue A (NBA) in the gel. SERS detection in vitro avoided the signal attenuation in gels, and the SERS detection at different spots of the SERS-active needle provided a depth profile of the NBA molecule in the gel. In vivo experiments of NBA and 6-mercaptopurine confirmed that the SERS-active needle could collect fluids in living systems easily with minimal invasion and provide information about depth profiles of target molecules in tissues.
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CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins play a role in oriLyt-dependent genome replication during MHV-68 de novo infection.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), a member of the gammaherpesvirus family, replicates robustly in permissive cell lines and is able to infect laboratory mice. MHV-68 has emerged as a model for studying the basic aspects of viral replication and host-virus interactions of its human counterparts. Herpesvirus genome replication is mediated through a cis-element in the viral genome called the origin of lytic replication (oriLyt). A family of transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), assists in oriLyt-mediated DNA replication during gammaherpesvirus reactivation. In this study, we examined the role of C/EBPs in gammaherpesvirus DNA replication during de novo infection, using MHV-68 as a model. We found that C/EBP ? and ? bind to the CCAAT boxes in the MHV-68 oriLyt core region both in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. A dominant negative form of C/EBPs significantly impaired the lytic replication efficiency of MHV-68 on both the plasmid and genome levels in a replication assay, indicating that functional C/EBPs are required for maximal MHV-68 genome DNA replication. Collectively, our data demonstrate that C/EBPs interact with the oriLyt core region and play an important role in MHV-68 lytic DNA replication during de novo infection.
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Combinatory action of VEGFR2 and MAP kinase pathways maintains endothelial-cell integrity.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Blood vessels normally maintain stereotyped lumen diameters and their stable structures are crucial for vascular function. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the maintenance of vessel diameters and the integrity of endothelial cells. We investigated this issue in zebrafish embryos by a chemical genetics approach. Small molecule libraries were screened using live Tg(kdrl:GRCFP)(zn1) transgenic embryos in which endothelial cells are specifically labeled with GFP. By analyzing the effects of compounds on the morphology and function of embryonic blood vessels after lumen formation, PP1, a putative Src kinase inhibitor, was identified as capable of specifically reducing vascular lumen size by interrupting endothelial-cell integrity. The inhibitory effect is not due to Src or general VEGF signaling inhibition because another Src inhibitor and Src morpholino as well as several VEGFR inhibitors failed to produce a similar phenotype. After profiling a panel of 22 representative mammalian kinases and surveying published data, we selected a few possible new candidates. Combinational analysis of these candidate kinase inhibitors established that PP1 induced endothelial collapse by inhibiting both the VEGFR2 and MAP kinase pathways. More importantly, combinatory use of two clinically approved drugs Dasatinib and Sunitinib produced the same phenotype. This is the first study to elucidate the pathways controlling maintenance of endothelial integrity using a chemical genetics approach, indicating that endothelial integrity is controlled by the combined action of the VEGFR2 and MAP kinase pathways. Our results also suggest the possible side effect of the combination of two anticancer drugs on the circulatory system.
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Dynamic changes of serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) reflect sepsis severity and can predict prognosis: a prospective study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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We examined the utility of serum levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) for the diagnoses, severity assessments, and predicting the prognoses of patients with sepsis and compared sTREM-1 values with those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT).
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Preparation of Tacrolimus loaded micelles based on poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone).
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Self-assembled polymeric micelles are widely applied in drug delivery system. In this study, Tacrolimus (FK506) loaded micelles were prepared based on biodegradable poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PCEC) copolymers. Micelles were prepared by self-assembly of triblock copolymer PCEC in distilled water triggered by its amphiphilic characteristics. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were determined by adjusting the weight ratio of FK506 and PCEC. The particle size distribution and variation of obtained micelles were determined using Malvern laser particle size analyzer, while the spherical geometry was observed on transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the crystallographic assays were fulfilled by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Besides, in vitro release profile demonstrated a significant difference between rapid release of free Tacrolimus and much slower and sustained release of FK506 loaded micelles. These results suggested that we have successfully prepared Tacrolimus loaded micelles in an improved method which is safer and more efficient. The prepared micelles might be potential carriers for Tacrolimus delivery in immunosuppressive therapy.
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Reduced visual processing capacity in sleep deprived persons.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2010
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Multiple experiments have found sleep deprivation to lower task-related parietal and extrastriate visual activation, suggesting a reduction of visual processing capacity in this state. The perceptual load theory of attention (Lavie, 1995) predicts that our capacity to process unattended distractors will be reduced by increasing perceptual difficulty of task-relevant stimuli. Here, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation and perceptual load on visual processing capacity by measuring neural repetition-suppression to unattended scenes while healthy volunteers attended to faces embedded in face-scene pictures. Perceptual load did not affect repetition suppression after a normal night of sleep. Sleep deprivation reduced repetition suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) in the high but not low perceptual load condition. Additionally, the extent to which task-related fusiform face area (FFA) activation was reduced after sleep deprivation correlated with behavioral performance and lowered repetition suppression in the PPA. The findings concerning correct responses indicate that a portion of stimulus related activation following a normal night of sleep contributes to potentially useful visual processing capacity that is attenuated following sleep deprivation. Finally, when unattended stimuli are not highly intrusive, sleep deprivation does not appear to increase distractibility.
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Diazoxide preconditioning alleviates caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis induced by anoxia-reoxygenation of PC12 cells.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Although there is increasing evidence that the ATP sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) opener exhibits neuroprotective effects against ischaemic neural damage, little is known about the mechanism. Mitochondria play a key role in apoptosis by releasing many important factors, including cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor, which in turn initiate the caspase-dependent and -independent mitochondrial pathway, respectively. In the present study, we sought to determine the locus that K(ATP) opener uses to mediate this protection in PC12 cells. We found that pre-treatment of PC12 cells with diazoxide (DZX), a mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium channel (mitoK(ATP)) opener, dose-dependently increased cell viability under conditions of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). The protective effect of this pre-conditioning was attenuated by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, a selective mitoK(ATP) blocker. The results showed that DZX inhibits the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase-3 and the release of AIF evoked by OGD. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that activation of the mitoK(ATP) channel elicits protective effects against OGD-induced cell apoptosis by caspase-dependent and -independent mitochondrial pathways.
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Zeolite/polymer composite hollow microspheres containing antibiotics and the in vitro drug release.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Hemorrhage remains a leading cause of early death after trauma, especially those with infectious complications in combat wounds. The aim of this study was to develop antibiotics-loaded zeolite (Zel)/polymer composites for hemostatic materials. The composite materials were fabricated from zeolite and various biodegradable polymers, including chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel) and alginate (Alg), using the inversed emulsion method. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM, and the results showed that the prepared Zel/polymer composites can form hollow microspheres under appropriate conditions. The microspheres contained three sizes of pores, nano-pore of zeolite, micrometer-sized pores between zeolite particles, and void cores having a size of tens of micrometers. It was these pores that made the composites have unexpected water-absorbing capacity. When antibiotics were loaded into the composite microspheres, they exhibited a prolonged drug-releasing period. Thus, we can make full use of the characteristics of chitosan, zeolite and antibiotics to create potential dual-functional hemostatic materials.
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Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on brain interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 levels in a rat kindling model.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Many studies indicate that intravenous immunoglobulin (IgG) therapy may decrease symptoms of epilepsy. In this study, we assessed the effects of intravenous IgG in an experimental rat kindling model and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the IgG effect. For induction of kindling, Wistar rats received repeated intraperitoneal injections of picrotoxin. The serum level of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was measured to determine seizure severity. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were measured in rat hippocampus homogenates. The serum NSE level and hippocampal IFN-gamma level were significantly higher in fully kindled, untreated rats compared to unkindled control rats, whereas IL-6 levels were similar in all groups. Intravenous IgG-treated kindled rats showed NSE and IFN-gamma levels similar to those of control rats, along with lower seizure severity and longer seizure latent period than fully kindled, untreated rats. These results indicate that intravenous immunoglobulin exerts a protective effect on the neurons of kindled rats, potentially by downregulating cytokines in the brain. These results shed light on the mechanism by which intravenous immunoglobulin decreases the severity of epileptic seizures.
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Anterior-posterior positional information in the absence of a strong Bicoid gradient.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The Bicoid (Bcd) transcription factor is distributed as a long-range concentration gradient along the anterior posterior (AP) axis of the Drosophila embryo. Bcd is required for the activation of a series of target genes, which are expressed at specific positions within the gradient. Here we directly tested whether different concentration thresholds within the Bcd gradient establish the relative positions of its target genes by flattening the gradient and systematically varying expression levels. Genome-wide expression profiles were used to estimate the total number of Bcd target genes, and a general correlation was found between the Bcd concentration required for activation and the positions where target genes are expressed in wild-type embryos. However, concentrations required for target gene activation in embryos with flattened Bcd were consistently lower than those present at each target genes position in the wild-type gradient, suggesting that Bcd is in excess at every position along the AP axis. Also, several Bcd target genes were positioned in correctly ordered stripes in embryos with flattened Bcd, and we suggest that these stripes are normally regulated by interactions between Bcd and the terminal patterning system. Our findings argue strongly against the strict interpretation of the Bcd morphogen hypothesis, and support the idea that target gene positioning involves combinatorial interactions that are mediated by the binding site architecture of each genes cis-regulatory elements.
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Identification and functional characterization of the left origin of lytic replication of murine gammaherpesvirus 68.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) replicates robustly in cell culture, providing a model for studying viral genome replication during de novo infection of tumor-associated herpesviruses. We have previously identified a 1.25-kb origin of lytic replication (oriLyt) for MHV-68. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of viral genome replication, we first fine-mapped essential cis-elements from this oriLyt fragment using a transposon-mediated high-density mutagenesis method. The result provided information for us to identify a second oriLyt located towards the left end of MHV-68 genome using a de novo infection-replication assay. We further characterized this left oriLyt by scanning deletion analysis and site-directed mutations, and showed that several CCAAT motifs are essential for oriLyt function, whereas an AT-rich region enhances replication. However, GC-rich repeats are not important cis-element. Moreover, we identified a cellular transcription factor, NF-Y, which binds to CCAAT boxes in EMSA and associates with oriLyt in ChIP assay. Using a dominant negative expression plasmid, we demonstrated that NF-Y plays an important role in mediating MHV-68 genome replication during de novo infection.
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Systemic administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor protects the blood-retinal barrier and ameliorates retinal inflammation in type 2 diabetes.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are frequently used lipid-lowering drugs in type 2 diabetes. Recent emerging evidence suggests that statins protect cardiovascular function via lipid-independent mechanisms. However, the potential role of statins in diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes is largely unclear. In the present study we have investigated the effect of lovastatin on blood-retinal barrier and inflammatory status in the retina of db/db mice and in cultured retinal cells. Male C57BL/KsJ db/db mice were randomly chosen to receive gastric gavage of lovastatin (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle control for 6 weeks. Retinal vascular permeability, the tight junction and inflammation were determined. The results showed that db/db mice at the age of 19 weeks exhibited significantly increased retinal vascular leakage and decreased tight junction protein level in the retina. Moreover, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, e.g. ICAM-1 and TNF-alpha, was drastically up-regulated in diabetic retina. Lovastatin treatment normalized all of these changes. In cultured bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (RCECs) and human ARPE-19 cells, lovastatin attenuated the decrease of tight junction protein (occludin) and adherens junction protein (VE-cadherin) expression-induced by TNF-alpha, a major pro-inflammatory cytokine in diabetic retinopathy. Lovastatin also attenuated TNF-alpha expression in RCEC. Towards the mechanism, we showed that lovastatin ameliorated ICAM-1 expression-induced by hypoxia and TNF-alpha in both RCECs and ARPE-19 cells, in part through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Taken together, these findings indicate that lovastatin protects blood-retinal barrier in diabetic retinopathy, which is likely via its anti-inflammatory effects.
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Photoreceptor degeneration and retinal inflammation induced by very low-density lipoprotein receptor deficiency.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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Our previous studies have shown that very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway. The present study showed that VLDLR gene knockout (Vldlr(-/-)) mice displayed impaired cone ERG responses at early ages. Immunostaining of mid-wavelength cones showed significantly decreased cone densities in the retina and shortened cone outer segments in Vldlr(-/-) mice. At older ages, Vldlr(-/-) mice displayed declined rod ERG responses, decreased layers of photoreceptor nuclei, reduced rhodopsin levels and decreased levels of 11-cis retinal, the chromophore of visual pigments. As shown by fluorescein angiography and permeability assay, Vldlr(-/-) mice had severe retinal vascular leakage. ZO-1, a tight junction protein, was down-regulated in Vldlr(-/-) mouse retinae, further supporting the impaired blood-retinal barrier. Double staining of pericytes and endothelial cells in retinal sections revealed that neovasculature in Vldlr(-/-) mice lacks pericyte coverage, suggesting impaired maturation of retinal vasculature in Vldlr(-/-) mice. Staining of adherent leukocytes in the retinal vasculature revealed significant leukostasis in Vldlr(-/-) mice. Moreover, Vldlr(-/-) mice displayed up-regulated expression of multiple pro-inflammatory factors and activated NF-kappaB and HIF-1 alpha, key regulators of inflammation. These findings suggest that deficiency of VLDLR leads to retinal degeneration and inflammation.
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Overexpression of angiopoietin-1 reduces doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.
J Biomed Res
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Doxorubicin (Dox) is a major anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. However, it causes cardiomyopathy due to the side effect of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We have previously reported that angiopoietin-1 significantly reduced myocardial infarction after ischemic injury and protected cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. It is hypothesized that angiopoietin-1 may protect cardiomyocytes from Dox-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes H9C2 were transfected with adenovirus expressing angiopoietin-1 (Ad5-Ang-1) 24 h before the cells were challenged with Dox at a concentration of 2 µmol/L. Ad5-GFP served as the vector control. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC staining and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Dox treatment significantly induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis as evidenced by the greater number of Annexin V-FITC stained cells and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity. In contrast, overexpression of angiopoietin-1 significantly prevented Dox-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanisms by which angiopoietin-1 protected cells from Dox-induced apoptosis, we analyzed both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. We observed that angiopoietin-1 prevented Dox-induced activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. Specifically, angiopoietin-1 prevented DOX-induced increases in FasL and Bax levels and cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 levels in H9C2 cells. In addition, overexpression of angiopoietin-1 also activated the pro-survival phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and decreased Dox-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activation. Our data suggest that promoting the expression of angiopoietin-1 could be a potential approach for reducing Dox-induced cardiomyocyte cytoxicity.
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ZAP inhibits murine gammaherpesvirus 68 ORF64 expression and is antagonized by RTA.
J. Virol.
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Zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is an interferon-inducible host antiviral factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including HIV-1 and Ebola virus. ZAP functions as a dimer formed through intermolecular interactions of its N-terminal tails. ZAP binds directly to specific viral mRNAs and inhibits their expression by repressing translation and/or promoting degradation of the target mRNA. ZAP is not a universal antiviral factor, since some viruses grow normally in ZAP-expressing cells. It is not fully understood what determines whether a virus is susceptible to ZAP. We explored the interaction between ZAP and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), whose life cycle has latent and lytic phases. We previously reported that ZAP inhibits the expression of M2, which is expressed mainly in the latent phase, and regulates MHV-68 latency in cultured cells. Here, we report that ZAP inhibits the expression of ORF64, a tegument protein that is expressed in the lytic phase and is essential for lytic replication. MHV-68 infection induced ZAP expression. However, ZAP did not inhibit lytic replication of MHV-68. We provide evidence showing that the antiviral activity of ZAP is antagonized by MHV-68 RTA, a critical viral transactivator expressed in the lytic phase. We further show that RTA inhibits the antiviral activity of ZAP by disrupting the N-terminal intermolecular interaction of ZAP. Our results provide an example of how a virus can escape ZAP-mediated immunity.
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SR-A deficiency reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; involvement of increased microRNA-125b expression in macrophages.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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The macrophage scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) participates in the innate immune and inflammatory responses. This study examined the role of macrophage SR-A in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cell damage. SR-A(-/-) and WT mice were subjected to ischemia (45min) followed by reperfusion for up to 7days. SR-A(-/-) mice showed smaller myocardial infarct size and better cardiac function than did WT I/R mice. SR-A deficiency attenuated I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis by preventing p53-mediated Bak-1 apoptotic signaling. The levels of microRNA-125b in SR-A(-/-) heart were significantly greater than in WT myocardium. SR-A is predominantly expressed on macrophages. To investigate the role of SR-A macrophages in H/R-induced injury, we isolated peritoneal macrophages from SR-A deficient (SR-A(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice. Macrophages were subjected to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. H/R markedly increased NF-?B binding activity as well as KC and MCP-1 production in WT macrophages but not in SR-A(-/-) macrophages. H/R induced caspase-3/7 and -8 activities and cell death in WT macrophages, but not in SR-A(-/-) macrophages. The levels of miR-125b in SR-A(-/-) macrophages were significantly higher than in WT macrophages. Transfection of WT macrophages with miR-125b mimics attenuated H/R-induced caspase-3/7 and -8 activities and H/R-decreased viability, and prevented H/R-increased p-53, Bak-1 and Bax expression. The data suggest that SR-A deficiency attenuates myocardial I/R injury by targeting p53-mediated apoptotic signaling. SR-A(-/-) macrophages contain high levels of miR-125b which may play a role in the protective effect of SR-A deficiency on myocardial I/R injury and H/R-induced cell damage.
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CpG-ODN, the TLR9 agonist, attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: involving activation of PI3K/Akt signaling.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The TLR9 ligand, CpG-ODN has been reported to improve cell survival. We examined effect of CpG-ODN on myocardial I/R injury.
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Shape-controlled synthesis of gold nanoplates and their self-assembly by repulsive electrostatic interactions.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
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This study focuses on understanding the growth and control of the gold nanoplates by seed-mediated growth approach. These monodispersive size-controlled gold nanoplates have the average thickness of 8-10 nm and average size tunable from 70 to 150 nm, exhibiting strong surface plasmon absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region. For the gold nanoplates formation, the seeds serve as nucleation sites, ascorbic acid (AA) serves as a new reductant to reduce hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4), surface activity system cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide (KI) are critical factors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses reveal that gold nanoplates with the (111) lattice plane as the basal plane are single crystals. CTAB are absorbed on the surface of the (111) lattice plane of the single crystals, accounting for self-assembled monolayer and head-to-head arrays. The two arrays have been shown to serve as effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates using Niel blue A (NBA) sulfate as Raman report molecule.
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The effect of furcated hydrogen bond and coordination bond on luminescent behavior of metal-organic framework [CuCN·EIN]: a TDDFT study.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
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The hydrogen bonding in electronically excited-state of the metal-organic framework [CuCN·EIN] was studied using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The representative fragment of [CuCN·EIN] was employed for the computation. The geometric structures, binding energies and IR spectra in both ground state and electronically excited state S(1) of the complex were computed using DFT and TDDFT methods to investigate excited-state hydrogen-bonding and coordination bonding, respectively. Based on the analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals and the electronic configuration of the complex, the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) luminescence was confirmed. Furthermore, furcated hydrogen bonds are both strengthened in the S(1) state slightly. And then, the strengthening of the hydrogen bonds in the S(1) state goes against the charge transfer from ligand to metal and then should be in favor of the luminescence. In particular, we also discuss strengthening or weakening behavior of the coordination bonds in the S(1) state for the first time. Based on the results of the bond lengths and vibration frequency of the coordination bond, we can conclude that the coordination bond Cu(7)-N(8) is strengthened in the S(1) state. And the strengthening of the coordination bond Cu(7)-N(8) should also be in favor of the luminescence.
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Highly efficient remote controlled release system based on light-driven DNA nanomachine functionalized mesoporous silica.
Nanoscale
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An intelligent photoswitchable single-molecule nanomachine with DNA hairpin-loop structure was designed by the incorporation of azobenzene groups in DNA sequences, which was studied by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and attached onto the surface of mesoporous silica. Based on the photo-induced conformational transformation of DNA, highly efficient controlled release was realized.
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A system of repressor gradients spatially organizes the boundaries of Bicoid-dependent target genes.
Cell
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The homeodomain (HD) protein Bicoid (Bcd) is thought to function as a gradient morphogen that positions boundaries of target genes via threshold-dependent activation mechanisms. Here, we analyze 66 Bcd-dependent regulatory elements and show that their boundaries are positioned primarily by repressive gradients that antagonize Bcd-mediated activation. A major repressor is the pair-rule protein Runt (Run), which is expressed in an opposing gradient and is necessary and sufficient for limiting Bcd-dependent activation. Evidence is presented that Run functions with the maternal repressor Capicua and the gap protein Kruppel as the principal components of a repression system that correctly orders boundaries throughout the anterior half of the embryo. These results put conceptual limits on the Bcd morphogen hypothesis and demonstrate how the Bcd gradient functions within the gene network that patterns the embryo.
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Palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling between two structurally similar azoles.
Chemistry
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Power of two: A widely functional-group tolerant, selective and rapid oxidative cross-coupling between two structurally similar azoles has been carried out by using a palladium/copper co-catalytic twofold C-H activation method (see scheme).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.