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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and on continuous renal replacement therapy: can we resolve this problem with pharmacokinetic studies and dosing guidelines?
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Dosing antibiotics in critically ill patients to achieve therapeutic concentrations is a significant challenge. The presence of septic shock and prescription of continuous renal replacement therapy introduces further complexities for the clinician. Unfortunately, this is a dilemma encountered daily by intensivists. Although small pharmacokinetic studies are emerging to provide data to help address this problem, the variability in results from these studies is profound. As such, effective antibiotic dosing guidelines for critically ill patients who have septic shock and who receive continuous renal replacement therapy are not available. Dosing flowcharts and therapeutic drug monitoring represent the best available options for clinicians to optimize antibiotic dosing.
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Guidelines for reporting case studies on extracorporeal treatments in poisonings: methodology.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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A literature review performed by the EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup highlighted deficiencies in the existing literature, especially the reporting of case studies. Although general reporting guidelines exist for case studies, there are none in the specific field of extracorporeal treatments in toxicology. Our goal was to construct and propose a checklist that systematically outlines the minimum essential items to be reported in a case study of poisoned patients undergoing extracorporeal treatments. Through a modified two-round Delphi technique, panelists (mostly chosen from the EXTRIP workgroup) were asked to vote on the pertinence of a set of items to identify those considered minimally essential for reporting complete and accurate case reports. Furthermore, independent raters validated the clarity of each selected items between each round of voting. All case reports containing data on extracorporeal treatments in poisoning published in Medline in 2011 were reviewed during the external validation rounds. Twenty-one panelists (20 from the EXTRIP workgroup and an invited expert on pharmacology reporting guidelines) participated in the modified Delphi technique. This group included journal editors and experts in nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care medicine, emergency medicine, and clinical pharmacology. Three independent raters participated in the validation rounds. Panelists voted on a total of 144 items in the first round and 137 items in the second round, with response rates of 96.3% and 98.3%, respectively. Twenty case reports were evaluated at each validation round and the independent raters' response rate was 99.6% and 98.8% per validation round. The final checklist consists of 114 items considered essential for case study reporting. This methodology of alternate voting and external validation rounds was useful in developing the first reporting guideline for case studies in the field of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. We believe that this guideline will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports may provide early signals of effectiveness and/or harm, thereby improving healthcare decision-making.
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Principles and operational parameters to optimize poison removal with extracorporeal treatments.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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A role for nephrologists in the management of a poisoned patient involves evaluating the indications for, and methods of, enhancing the elimination of a poison. Nephrologists are familiar with the various extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) used in the management of impaired kidney function, and their respective advantages and disadvantages. However, these same skills and knowledge may not always be considered, or applicable, when prescribing ECTR for the treatment of a poisoned patient. Maximizing solute elimination is a key aim of such treatments, perhaps more so than in the treatment of uremia, because ECTR has the potential to reverse clinical toxicity and shorten the duration of poisoning. This manuscript reviews the various principles that govern poison elimination by ECTR (diffusion, convection, adsorption, and centrifugation) and how components of the ECTR can be adjusted to maximize clearance. Data supporting these recommendations will be presented, whenever available.
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Hemoperfusion for the treatment of poisoning: technology, determinants of poison clearance, and application in clinical practice.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Hemoperfusion is an extracorporeal treatment based on adsorption, historically reserved for the treatment of acute poisonings. Its use was popularized in the 1970s after several in vitro and animal experiments had demonstrated its efficacy, and was even preferred over hemodialysis in the management of overdosed patients. With the advent of new and more efficient dialytic modalities, hemoperfusion is now less frequently performed in the Western world. However, hemoperfusion still remains popular in developing countries. The present article reviews the technique of hemoperfusion, the factors influencing poison clearance through adsorption and its current applications.
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Case reports of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning: historical trends.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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There are currently limited data on the trends in case reporting of poisoned patients undergoing enhanced elimination with an extracorporeal treatment (ECTR). The present manuscript specifically reviews the longitudinal trends of reports according to technique, poison, and country of publication. To identify case reports of ECTR use in the management of poisoning, multiple databases were searched. There were no limitations on language and year of publication. All case reports describing individual patients undergoing ECTR with the intent of enhancing the elimination of a poison were included in the analysis. Since 1913, 2908 reports were identified. There were an increasing number of published reports with time except for a slight decrease during the 1990s. Hemodialysis was by far the most commonly used ECTR in poisoning, followed by hemoperfusion. The number of reported peritoneal dialyses decreased steadily since 1980s. Methanol, ethylene glycol, lithium, and salicylates remained among the most commonly reported poisons in every decade. The large majority of publications originated from either Europe or North America, and more specifically from the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and China. Despite the emerging apparition of new techniques, hemodialysis remains to this day the favoured ECTR in the treatment of poisoned patients.
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A stepwise approach for the management of poisoning with extracorporeal treatments.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The use of an extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in a poisoned patient may be life-saving in a limited number of scenarios. The decision-processes surrounding the use of ECTR in poisoning is complex: most nephrologists are not trained to assess a poisoned patient while clinical toxicologists rarely prescribe ECTRs. Deciding on which ECTR is most appropriate for a poison requires a good understanding of the poison's physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Further, a detailed understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the different ECTRs can be useful to select the most appropriate ECTR for a given clinical situation. This manuscript provides a stepwise approach to assess the usefulness of ECTRs in poisoning.
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Variability in the management of lithium poisoning.
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Three patterns of lithium poisoning are recognized: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Intravenous fluids with or without an extracorporeal treatment are the mainstay of treatment; their respective roles may differ depending on the mode of poisoning being treated. Recommendations for treatment selection are available but these are based on a small number of observational studies and their uptake by clinicians is not known. Clinician decision-making in the treatment of four cases of lithium poisoning was assessed at a recent clinical toxicology meeting using an audience response system. Variability in treatment decisions was evident in addition to discordance with published recommendations. Participants did not consistently indicate that hemodialysis was the first-line treatment, instead opting for a conservative approach, and continuous modalities were viewed favorably; this is in contrast to recommendations in some references. The development of multidisciplinary consensus guidelines may improve the management of patients with lithium poisoning but prospective randomized controlled trials are required to more clearly define the role of extracorporeal treatments.
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The influence of acute kidney injury on antimicrobial dosing in critically ill patients: are dose reductions always necessary?
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Optimal dosing of antimicrobial therapy is pivotal to increase the likelihood of survival in critically ill patients with sepsis. Drug exposure that maximizes bacterial killing, minimizes the development of antimicrobial resistance, and avoids concentration-related toxicities should be considered the target of therapy. However, antimicrobial dosing is problematic as pathophysiological factors inherent to sepsis that alter may result in reduced concentrations. Alternatively, sepsis may evolve to multiple-organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury (AKI). In this case, decreased clearance of renally cleared drugs is possible, which may lead to increased concentrations that may cause drug toxicities. Consequently, when dosing antibiotics in septic patients with AKI, one should consider factors that may lead to underdosing and overdosing. Drug-specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data may be helpful to guide dosing in these circumstances. Yet, because of the high interpatient variability in pharmacokinetics of antibiotics during sepsis, this issue remains a significant challenge.
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Allopurinol hypersensitivity: a systematic review of all published cases, 1950-2012.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Allopurinol is the primary therapy for the management of chronic gout. Utilization of allopurinol has increased in tandem with the growing prevalence of gout globally. This exposes more patients to the risk of allopurinol hypersensitivity (AH), a rare adverse reaction characterised by a spectrum of cutaneous reactions and systemic manifestations. Severe forms of AH have been associated with high mortality. The pathophysiology underlying this reaction remains unknown, but several risk factors have been proposed.
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Noninvasive tumor hypoxia measurement using magnetic resonance imaging in murine U87 glioma xenografts and in patients with glioblastoma.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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There is a clinical need for noninvasive, nonionizing imaging biomarkers of tumor hypoxia and oxygenation. We evaluated the relationship of T1 -weighted oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OE-MRI) measurements to histopathology measurements of tumor hypoxia in a murine glioma xenograft and demonstrated technique translation in human glioblastoma multiforme.
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The Role of Metformin in Metformin-Associated Lactic Acidosis (MALA): Case Series and Formulation of a Model of Pathogenesis.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is an adverse event associated with metformin usage. Patients with metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA), however, often have other conditions contributing to the event. The relative contribution of metformin is often unclear. MALA is usually diagnosed without measuring the plasma concentrations of metformin. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were, first, to examine the plasma concentrations of metformin, lactate and creatinine and the arterial pH of patients with suspected MALA and, second, to review critically the mechanisms of MALA. METHODS: Patients who were suspected of having MALA were identified during the period October 2008-September 2011. Repeated blood samples were collected to determine the plasma concentrations of lactate, metformin and creatinine. The pH of arterial blood was also measured on several occasions in each patient. RESULTS: Patients (n = 15; 9 female, 6 male) were 70 ± 12 years of age. There was one acute metformin overdose (estimated dose 5 g). Metformin was undetectable in one patient and one patient had therapeutic concentrations of metformin on admission (<5 mg/L). There were ten patients with chronic kidney disease, whereby the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) before the acidotic event. Metformin doses ranged from 1 to 3 g daily (excluding the deliberate overdose). On admission, the mean plasma concentration of metformin on admission was 29.8 ± 19.1 mg/L (mean ± SD), the mean lactate concentration was 12.9 ± 6.1 mmol/L and the mean pH was 7 ± 0.2. The mean creatinine concentration on admission was 481 ± 225 ?mol/L. The main pre-admission symptoms were vomiting and diarrhoea (n = 12). There were linear relationships between venous lactate, venous creatinine and arterial pH, with the venous plasma concentrations of metformin in most patients. Three patients died but metformin was unlikely to have been a significant factor. DISCUSSION AND REVIEW: Most patients with MALA presented to the hospital with high metformin concentrations. The following factors appear to have been involved in the development of MALA in these patients: vomiting and diarrhoea, acute kidney injury, high doses or excessive accumulation of metformin, and acute disease states leading to tissue hypoxia. The extent of metformin accumulation in patients with MALA can be determined by investigating the concentrations of metformin. We suggest that the development of MALA is due to a positive feedback system involving one or more of these factors. While nausea is a common adverse effect of metformin, vomiting and diarrhoea out of the ordinary is a clear first sign of MALA. In this condition, dosage with metformin should be stopped and patients should receive urgent medical attention.
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Amanita phalloides poisoning and treatment with silibinin in the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales.
Med. J. Aust.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To report the frequency and clinical outcomes of Amanita phalloides poisoning in the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales, and the treatments used (including silibinin).
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The relevance of drug clearance to antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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To maximise the effect of an antibiotic it is necessary to pay careful attention to dosing. The maintenance dose is determined by antibiotic clearance which is usually determined in young healthy adults with normal physiology. Antibiotic clearance in critically ill patients may increase or decrease due to altered physiology and the treatments that are administered. Clearance may also vary significantly over time in patients with critical illness. Advancing age and comorbidities, in particular chronic kidney disease, can also decrease antibiotic clearance. Therefore, it is complicated and arguably impossible to suggest generic guidelines for the dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients. Factors that influence clearance must be identified and accounted for in each patient for a rational approach to dose adjustment of antibiotics in patients with critical illness. The necessary changes can be predicted by understanding pharmacokinetic concepts. It is necessary to quantify organ function in patients at multiple time points because this can be used to estimate antibiotic clearance and guide dose selection. For example, creatinine clearance should be calculated but methods used in ambulatory patients may not apply to patients with critical illness. If possible, therapeutic drug monitoring should be conducted to ensure that antibiotic concentration targets are achieved and also to guide titration of subsequent doses. If blood sampling is carefully planned it may be possible to directly measure antibiotic clearance for dose adjustment. The purpose of this article is to review the concept of clearance and to highlight circumstances where antibiotic clearance may be altered in patients with critical illness. Strategies for dose modification of antibiotics in critically ill patients will be discussed.
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Hypoxic human cancer cells are sensitized to BH-3 mimetic–induced apoptosis via downregulation of the Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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Solid tumors contain hypoxic regions in which cancer cells are often resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cell death. Therapeutic strategies that specifically target hypoxic cells and promote apoptosis are particularly appealing, as few normal tissues experience hypoxia. We have found that the compound ABT-737, a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH-3) mimetic, promotes apoptotic cell death in human colorectal carcinoma and small cell lung cancer cell lines exposed to hypoxia. This hypoxic induction of apoptosis was mediated through downregulation of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), a Bcl-2 family protein that serves as a biomarker for ABT-737 resistance. Downregulation of Mcl-1 in hypoxia was independent of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity and was consistent with decreased global protein translation. In addition, ABT-737 induced apoptosis deep within tumor spheroids, consistent with an optimal hypoxic oxygen tension being necessary to promote ABT-737–induced cell death. Tumor xenografts in ABT-737–treated mice also displayed significantly more apoptotic cells within hypoxic regions relative to normoxic regions. Synergies between ABT-737 and other cytotoxic drugs were maintained in hypoxia, suggesting that this drug may be useful in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mcl-1–sparing BH-3 mimetics may induce apoptosis in hypoxic tumor cells that are resistant to other chemotherapeutic agents and may have a role in combinatorial chemotherapeutic regimens for treatment of solid tumors.
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Simultaneous quantification of carbamate insecticides in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Carbofuran (CFN), carbosulfan (CSN) and fenobucarb (FBC) are carbamate pesticides that are widely used in gardening and agriculture for the control of insects. Human poisoning due to occupational or self-poisoning exposures is also reported, so assays are required to quantify the plasma concentration of these insecticides. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these three carbamate insecticides in the plasma of patients with acute intentional self-poisoning. Plasma samples were pretreated by acetonitrile for protein precipitation. Chromatography was carried out on a Luna C18(2) analytical column with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with 10mM ammonium acetate. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The total run time was 7 min. The assay was validated over a concentration range from 10 to 1000 ng/ml for CSN and FBC and 20-2000 ng/ml for CFN. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of all analytes were acceptable (<15%). No significant matrix effect was observed. Stability of compounds was established for short term bench and autosampler storage as well as freeze/thaw cycles. The method was effectively applied to 270 clinical samples from patients with a history of acute intentional carbamate self-poisoning.
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Antibiotic stability in commercial peritoneal dialysis solutions: influence of formulation, storage and duration.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is treated by administration of antibiotics mixed with the PD solution. Data on antibiotic stability for solutions in current use are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of cefepime, cephazolin and ampicillin in three commercial PD solutions.
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Enhanced elimination in acute barbiturate poisoning - a systematic review.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Despite a worldwide decline in barbiturate use, cases of acute poisoning with severe toxicity are still noted, particularly in developing countries. Severe poisonings often require prolonged admission to an intensive care unit, so enhanced elimination might be useful to hasten recovery. Information regarding the efficacy of these techniques for individual barbiturates is not available in standard textbooks.
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Changes in the concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C and NGAL in patients with acute paraquat self-poisoning.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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An increase in creatinine > 3 ?mol/L/h has been suggested to predict death in patients with paraquat self-poisoning and the value of other plasma biomarkers of acute kidney injury has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to validate the predictive value of serial creatinine concentrations and to study the utility of cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as predictors of outcome in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. The rate of change of creatinine (dCr/dt) and cystatin C (dCyC/dt) concentrations were compared between survivors and deaths. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the best threshold for predicting death. Paraquat was detected in 20 patients and 7 of these died between 18 h and 20 days post-ingestion. The dCr/dt ROC curve had an area of 0.93 and the cut-off was > 4.3 ?mol/L/h (sensitivity 100%, specificity 85%, likelihood ratio 7). The dCyC/dt ROC curve had an area of 0.97 and the cutoff was > 0.009 mg/L/h (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91%, likelihood ratio 11). NGAL did not separate survivors from deaths. Death due to acute paraquat poisoning is associated with changes in creatinine and cystatin concentrations. Further validation of these measurements is needed before they can be adopted in guiding intensive treatments.
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Extreme ?-butyrolactone overdose with severe metabolic acidosis requiring hemodialysis.
Ann Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursor ?-butyrolactone (GBL) are commonly abused drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Therefore, overdoses occur readily with recreational use, and severe poisoning can occur after deliberate self-poisoning. We report the sequelae in a patient who ingested a massive dose of GBL, with suicidal intent. Severe metabolic acidosis and an asystolic cardiac arrest were successfully treated with standard resuscitation, supportive care, and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Plasma GHB concentrations were the highest reported to date. The acidosis was attributed to rapid systemic absorption of GBL, followed by rapid metabolism to GHB.
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Toxicokinetics, including saturable protein binding, of 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in patients with acute poisoning.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Human data on protein binding and dose-dependent changes in toxicokinetics for MCPA are very limited. 128 blood samples were obtained in 49 patients with acute MCPA poisoning and total and unbound concentrations of MCPA were determined. The Scatchard plot was biphasic suggesting protein binding to two sites. The free MCPA concentration increased when the total concentration exceeded 239mg/L (95% confidence interval 198-274mg/L). Nonlinear regression using a two-site binding hyperbola model estimated saturation of the high affinity binding site at 115mg/L (95%CI 0-304). Further analyses using global fitting of serial data and adjusting for the concentration of albumin predicted similar concentrations for saturable binding (184mg/L and 167mg/L, respectively) without narrowing the 95%CI. In 25 patients, the plasma concentration-time curves for both bound and unbound MCPA were approximately log-linear which may suggest first order elimination, although sampling was infrequent so zero order elimination cannot be excluded. Using a cut-off concentration of 200mg/L, the half-life of MCPA at higher concentrations was 25.5h (95%CI 15.0-83.0h; n=16 patients) compared to 16.8h (95%CI 13.6-22.2h; n=10 patients) at lower concentrations. MCPA is subject to saturable protein binding but the influence on half-life appears marginal.
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Availability of antidotes for the treatment of acute poisoning in Queensland public hospitals.
Aust J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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To determine the sufficiency of stock levels of 13 antidotes in Queensland hospitals.
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Acute human self-poisoning with bispyribac-containing herbicide Nominee: a prospective observational study.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Self-poisoning with herbicides is an important reason for hospital admission and death in Asia. Although some herbicides have a well-described toxicity profile in humans, many of the newer compounds rely on extrapolation from animal results as no published literature on clinical outcomes of human self-poisoning has been described. One example of these compounds is bispyribac, a selective herbicide used in rice and wheat cultivation that is marketed in two containers, one containing bispyribac 400 g/L with a solvent and the other the surfactant, polyethylene glycol. We present the first case series of acute human self-poisoning with an herbicide product containing bispyribac.
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A prospective observational study of the clinical toxicology of glyphosate-containing herbicides in adults with acute self-poisoning.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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The case fatality from acute poisoning with glyphosate-containing herbicides is approximately 7.7% from the available studies but these have major limitations. Large prospective studies of patients with self-poisoning from known formulations who present to primary or secondary hospitals are needed to better describe the outcome from acute poisoning with glyphosate-containing herbicides. Furthermore, the clinical utility of the glyphosate plasma concentration for predicting clinical outcomes and guiding treatment has not been determined.
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Acute intentional self-poisoning with a herbicide product containing fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, and isoxadifen ethyl: a prospective observational study.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Herbicides are commonly ingested for self-harm, but relatively little has been published on poisoning with herbicides other than paraquat and glyphosate. We report here a case series of patients with acute exposure to a combination herbicide (brand name Tiller Gold or Whip Super) containing the selective phenoxy herbicide compounds fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and ethoxysulfuron and a safener isoxadifen ethyl.
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Extreme variability in the formation of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in patients poisoned by chlorpyrifos (CPF).
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a pesticide that causes tens of thousands of deaths per year worldwide. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) is the active metabolite of CPF that inhibits acetylcholinesterase. However, this presumed metabolite has escaped detection in human samples by conventional methods (HPLC, GC-MS, LC-MS) until now. A recently developed enzyme-based assay allowed the determination of CPO in the nanomolar range and was successfully employed to detect this metabolite. CPO and CPF were analysed in consecutive plasma samples of 74 patients with intentional CPF poisoning. A wide concentration range of CPO and CPF was observed and the ratio of CPO/CPF varied considerably between individuals and over time. The ratio increased during the course of poisoning from a mean of 0.005 in the first few hours after ingestion up to an apparent steady-state mean of 0.03 between 30 and 72h. There was a hundred-fold variation in the ratio between samples and the interquartile range (between individuals) indicated over half the samples had a 5-fold or greater variation from the mean. The ratio was independent of the CPF concentration and the pralidoxime regimen. CPO was present in sufficient quantities to explain any observed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The effectiveness of pralidoxime in reactivating the inhibited acetylcholinesterase is strongly dependent on the CPO concentration. Differences in clinical outcomes and the response to antidotes in patients with acute poisoning may occur due to inter-individual variability in metabolism.
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Clinical outcomes and kinetics of propanil following acute self-poisoning: a prospective case series.
BMC Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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Propanil is an important cause of death from acute pesticide poisoning, of which methaemoglobinaemia is an important manifestation. However, there is limited information about the clinical toxicity and kinetics. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical outcomes and kinetics of propanil following acute intentional self-poisoning.
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Acute human self-poisoning with imidacloprid compound: a neonicotinoid insecticide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following acute self-poisoning in humans.
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Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate, fenthion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos in human blood.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Simultaneous determination of the organophosphorus pesticides dimethoate, fenthion, diazinon and chlorpyrifos in human blood by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The pesticides were extracted by a simple one-step protein precipitation procedure. Chromatography was performed on a Luna C(18) (30mmx2.0mm, 3microm) column, using a step-gradient at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The assay was linear from 0.5 to 100ng/ml (r(2)>0.992, n=24) for all pesticides. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision for the method was 96.6-106.1% and <10%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5ng/ml. In conclusion, the method described displays analytical performance characteristics that are suitable for the quantification of these pesticides in cases of acute poisoning.
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Non-tuberculous mycobacterial PD peritonitis in Australia.
Int Urol Nephrol
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Peritonitis can be a severe complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) due to associated morbidity and mortality. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of PD peritonitis, with high rates of catheter removal and conversion to haemodialysis, and a reported mortality as high as 40 %. The incidence, culprit NTM species, and outcomes associated with PD peritonitis have not been described in many countries, including Australia.
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The treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant recipients-a systematic review.
Transplantation
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Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a recognized cause of allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients. A range of therapies targeting removal of circulating donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), blocking their effect or reducing production have been reported.
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Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning: recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
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The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).
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Mycobacterium fortuitum as a cause of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: case report and review of the literature.
BMC Nephrol
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Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PD-peritonitis) due to Mycobacterium spp is uncommon. Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTB) PD-peritonitis can present in a similar fashion to more common causes of bacterial PD-peritonitis. We describe the first reported case of multiresistant Mycobacterium fortuitum PD-peritonitis in an Australian patient.
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The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup: guideline methodology.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
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Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed and ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order to retrieve all original publications regardless of language. Data were extracted on a standardized instrument. Quality of the evidence was assessed by GRADE as: High = A, Moderate = B, Low = C, Very Low = D. For every poison, dialyzability was assessed and clinical effect of ECTR summarized. All pertinent documents were submitted to the workgroup with a list of statements for vote (general statement, indications, timing, ECTR choice). A modified Delphi method with two voting rounds was used, between which deliberation was required. Each statement was voted on a Likert scale (1-9) to establish the strength of recommendation. This approach will permit the production of the first important practice guidelines on this topic.
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Variability of antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a multicentre pharmacokinetic study.
Crit. Care Med.
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In critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy, we aimed to assess the variability of antibiotic trough concentrations, the influence of effluent flow rates on such concentrations, and the incidence of suboptimal antibiotic dosage.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.