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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Assessing the Performance of Two Lung Age Equations on the Australian Population: Using Data From the Cross-Sectional BOLD-Australia Study.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Lung age, a simple concept for patients to grasp, is frequently used as an aid in smoking cessation programs. Lung age equations should be continuously updated and made relevant for target populations. We observed how new lung age equations developed for Australian populations performed when utilizing the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD)-Australia dataset compared to more commonly used equations.
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Diet or exercise interventions vs combined behavioral weight management programs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of direct comparisons.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Weight loss can reduce the health risks associated with being overweight or obese. However, the most effective method of weight loss remains unclear. Some programs emphasize physical activity, others diet, but existing evidence is mixed as to whether these are more effective individually or in combination. We aimed to examine the clinical effectiveness of combined behavioral weight management programs (BWMPs) targeting weight loss in comparison to single component programs, using within study comparisons. We included randomized controlled trials of combined BWMPs compared with diet-only or physical activity-only programs with at least 12 months of follow-up, conducted in overweight and obese adults (body mass index ?25). Systematic searches of nine databases were run and two reviewers extracted data independently. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted for mean difference in weight change at 3 to 6 months and 12 to 18 months using a baseline observation carried forward approach for combined BWMPs vs diet-only BWMPs and combined BWMPs vs physical activity-only BWMPs. In total, eight studies were included, representing 1,022 participants, the majority of whom were women. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for combined BWMP vs diet-only. Pooled results showed no significant difference in weight loss from baseline or at 3 to 6 months between the BWMPs and diet-only arms (-0.62 kg; 95% CI -1.67 to 0.44). However, at 12 months, a significantly greater weight-loss was detected in the combined BWMPs (-1.72 kg; 95% CI -2.80 to -0.64). Five studies met the inclusion criteria for combined BWMP vs physical activity-only. Pooled results showed significantly greater weight loss in the combined BWMPs at 3 to 6 months (-5.33 kg; 95% CI -7.61 to -3.04) and 12 to 18 months (-6.29 kg; 95% CI -7.33 to -5.25). Weight loss is similar in the short-term for diet-only and combined BWMPs but in the longer-term weight loss is increased when diet and physical activity are combined. Programs based on physical activity alone are less effective than combined BWMPs in both the short and long term.
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Domestic airborne pollutants and asthma and respiratory symptoms in middle age.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The role of indoor air pollution as a risk factor for asthma and respiratory symptoms in middle age is unclear. We investigated associations between indoor air pollution sources and (i) asthma phenotypes and (ii) asthma-related respiratory symptoms in middle-aged adults.
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Tracking of a dietary pattern and its components over 10-years in the severely obese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Understanding how dietary intake changes over time is important for studies of diet and disease and may inform interventions to improve dietary intakes. We investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) tracked over 10-years in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study control group. Dietary intake was assessed at multiple time-points in 2037 severely obese individuals (BMI 41 ± 4 kg/m(2)). Reduced rank regression was used to derive a dietary pattern using dietary energy density (kJ/g), saturated fat (%) and fibre density (mg/kJ) as response variables and score respondents at each follow-up. Tracking coefficients for the DP, its key foods and macronutrient response variables and corrected for time-dependent and time-independent covariates were calculated using generalised estimating equations to take into account all available data. The DP tracking coefficient was moderate for women (0.40; 95% CI: 0.38-0.42) and men (0.38; 95% CI: 0.35-0.41). Of the eleven foods key to this DP, fruit and vegetable intakes had the strongest tracking coefficient for both sexes. Fast food and candy had the lowest tracking coefficients for women and men respectively. Scores for an energy dense, high saturated fat, low fibre density DP appear moderately stable over a 10-year period in this severely obese population. Furthermore, some food groups appear more amenable to change while others, often the most healthful, appear more stable and may require intervention before adulthood.
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Understanding the distribution of marine megafauna in the English channel region: identifying key habitats for conservation within the busiest seaway on earth.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management.
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Scalable technology for the extraction of pharmaceutics: outcomes from a 3 year collaborative industry/academia research programme.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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This paper reports on some of the key outcomes of a 3 year £1.5m Technology Strategy Board (TSB) funded research programme to develop a small footprint, versatile, counter-current chromatography purification technology and methodology which can be operated at a range of scales in both batch and continuous modes and that can be inserted into existing process plant and systems. Our consortium, integrates technology providers (Dynamic Extractions) and the scientific development team (Brunel) with end user needs (GSK & Pfizer), addressing major production challenges aimed at providing flexible, low capital platform technology driving substantial cost efficiency in both drug development and drug manufacturing processes. The aims of the Technology Strategy Boards high value manufacturing programme are described and how the academic/industry community were challenged to instigate step changes in the manufacturing of high value pharmaceuticals. This paper focusses on one of the themes of the TSB research programme, "Generate a Comprehensive Applications Portfolio". It outlines 15 applications from this portfolio that can be published in the public domain and gives four detailed case studies illustrating the range of application of the technology on the separation of (1) isomers, (2) polar compounds, (3) crude mixtures and (4) on the removal of impurities. Two of these case studies that were scaled up demonstrate between 10 and 20% lower solvent usage and were projected to have significant cost savings compared to conventional solid phase silica gel chromatography at procss scale demonstrating that the latest high performance countercurrent chromatography technology is a competitive platform technolgy for the pharmaceutical industry.
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Scale-dependent response diversity of seabirds to prey in the North Sea.
Ecology
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Functional response diversity is defined as the diversity of responses to environmental change among species that contribute to the same ecosystem function. Because different ecological processes dominate on different spatial and temporal scales, response diversity is likely to be scale dependent. Using three extensive data sets on seabirds, pelagic fish, and zooplankton, we investigate the strength and diversity in the response of seabirds to prey in the North Sea over three scales of ecological organization. Two-stage analyses were used to partition the variance in the abundance of predators and prey among the different scales of investigation: variation from year to year, variation among habitats, and variation on the local patch scale. On the year-to-year scale, we found a strong and synchronous response of seabirds to the abundance of prey, resulting in low response diversity. Conversely, as different seabird species were found in habitats dominated by different prey species, we found a high diversity in the response of seabirds to prey on the habitat scale. Finally, on the local patch scale, seabirds were organized in multispecies patches. These patches were weakly associated with patches of prey, resulting in a weak response strength and a low response diversity. We suggest that ecological similarities among seabird species resulted in low response diversity on the year-to-year scale. On the habitat scale, we suggest that high response diversity was due to interspecific competition and niche segregation among seabird species. On the local patch scale, we suggest that facilitation with respect to the detection and accessibility of prey patches resulted in overlapping distribution of seabirds but weak associations with prey. The observed scale dependencies in response strength and diversity have implications for how the seabird community will respond to different environmental disturbances.
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Wasp-waist interactions in the North Sea ecosystem.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2011
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In a "wasp-waist" ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes.
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Scalable Technology for the Extraction of Pharmaceutics (STEP): the transition from academic knowhow to industrial reality.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2011
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This paper addresses the technological readiness of counter-current chromatography (CCC) instruments to become platform technology for the pharmaceutical industry. It charts the development of the prototype technology since its inception in 1966, through conceptual improvements in the 1980s that led to higher speed separations in hours as opposed to days. It then describes the engineering improvements that have led to the development of high performance counter-current chromatography with the potential for scale-up to process scale for manufacturing products in industry with separation times in minutes rather than hours. A new UK Technology Strategy Board high value manufacturing £1.5 m research programme to take CCC through to technology readiness level 8 (i.e. as platform technology for continuous 24 × 7 operation by industry) is introduced. Four case studies are given as examples of successes from its expanding applications portfolio, which is mainly confidential. Finally, the hurdles for the uptake of new technology by industry are highlighted and the following potential solutions given: rapid method development, automation, continuous processing and instrument reliability and robustness. The future challenge for the CCC community will be to address these development needs urgently if CCC is to become the platform technology it deserves to be.
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Expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels by an inducible adenoviral vector reduced the neuronal hyperexcitability and hyperalgesia produced by chronic compression of the spinal ganglion.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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A chronic compressed dorsal root ganglion (CCD) in rat produces pain behavior and an enhanced excitability of neurons within the compressed ganglion. Kir2.1 is an inwardly rectifying potassium channel that acts to stabilize the resting potential of certain cell types. We hypothesized that an inducible expression of Kir2.1 channels in CCD neurons might suppress neuronal excitability in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and reduce the associated pain behavior.
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Airway inflammation and anti-protease defences rapidly improve during treatment of an acute exacerbation of COPD.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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There are few data on the short-term natural history of airway inflammation during severe episodes of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). An observational study was performed to determine how rapidly conventional treatment improves airway inflammation in patients admitted to hospital with AECOPD.
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Developing consumer involvement in primary dental care. Report of a half-day seminar held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 15th September 2008.
Prim Dent Care
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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The seminar on developing consumer involvement in primary dental care, held during the morning of 15th September 2008, was a collaboration between the Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) (FGDP[UK]). As Professor Mike Mulcahy (immediate past Dean of the Faculty) remarked during his address of welcome, it marked a new and exciting development in the Facultys role in setting and maintaining professional standards for the benefit of patients. It brought together nearly 50 representatives of national bodies, such as the National Audit Office, consumer groups, the Facultys Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee, the media and others. Many of the national bodies represented at the seminar had published reports on primary dental care during the last five years.
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Salt and public health: contested science and the challenge of evidence-based decision making.
Health Aff (Millwood)
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For more than four decades, starting in the late 1960s, a sometimes furious battle has raged among scientists over the extent to which elevated salt consumption has adverse implications for population health and contributes to deaths from stroke and cardiovascular disease. Various studies and trials have produced conflicting results. Despite this scientific controversy over the quality of the evidence implicating dietary salt in disease, public health leaders at local, national, and international levels have pressed the case for salt reduction at the population level. This article explores the development of this controversy. It concludes that the concealment of scientific uncertainty in this case has been a mistake that has served neither the ends of science nor good policy. The article poses questions that arise from this debate and frames the challenges of formulating evidence-based public health practice and policy, particularly when the evidence is contested.
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Beyond bioethics: reckoning with the public health paradigm.
Am J Public Health
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In the wake of scandal over troubling research abuses, the 1970s witnessed the birth of a new system of ethical oversight. The bioethics framework, with its emphasis on autonomy, assumed a commanding role in debates regarding how to weigh the needs of society against the rights of individuals. Yet the history of resistance to oversight underscores that some domains of science hewed to a different paradigm of accountability--one that elevated the common good over individual rights. Federal officials have now proposed to dramatically limit the reach of ethical oversight. The Institute of Medicine has called for a rollback of the federal privacy rule. The changing emphasis makes it imperative to grapple with the history of the public interest paradigm.
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Childhood infections and the risk of asthma: a longitudinal study over 37 years.
Chest
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Few studies have examined common childhood infections and adult asthma. We examined associations between childhood infectious diseases, childhood pneumonia, and current, persisting, and incident asthma to middle age.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.