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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males.
Clin J Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli after repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH after repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model.
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Artificial soils from alluvial tin mining wastes in Malaysia--a study of soil chemistry following experimental treatments and the impact of mycorrhizal treatment on growth and foliar chemistry.
J Environ Monit
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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For decades Malaysia was the worlds largest producer of Sn, but now the vast open cast mining operations have left a legacy of some 100,000 ha of what is effectively wasteland, covered with a mosaic of tailings and lagoons. Few plants naturally recolonise these areas. The demand for such land for both urban expansion and agricultural use has presented an urgent need for better characterisation. This study reports on the formation of artificial soils from alluvial Sn mining waste with a focus on the effects of experimental treatments on soil chemistry. Soil organic matter, clay, and pH were manipulated in a controlled environment. Adding both clay tailings and peat enhanced the cation exchange capacity of sand tailings but also reduced the pH. The addition of peat reduced the extractable levels of some elements but increased the availability of Ca and Mg, thus proving beneficial. The use of clay tailings increased the levels of macro and micronutrients but also released Al, As, La, Pb and U. Additionally, the effects of soil mix and mycorrhizal treatments on growth and foliar chemistry were studied. Two plant species were selected: Panicum milicaeum and Pueraria phaseoloides. Different growth patterns were observed with respect to the additions of peat and clay. The results for mycorrhizal treatment (live inoculum or sterile carrier medium) are more complex, but both resulted in improved growth. The use of mycorrhizal fungi could greatly enhance rehabilitation efforts on sand tailings.
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Maternal-neonatal outcome with Staphylococcus aureus rectovaginal colonization.
J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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To estimate prevalence of rectovaginal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among pregnant women with group B streptococcus (GBS) screening results and its association with maternal and infant outcomes.
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Longitudinal study of infectious intestinal disease in the UK (IID2 study): incidence in the community and presenting to general practice.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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To estimate, overall and by organism, the incidence of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in the community, presenting to general practice (GP) and reported to national surveillance.
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Risk assessment of the use of PAS100 green composts in sheep and cattle production in Scotland.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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A generalized quantitative risk assessment for the use of source-segregated green waste (SSGW) compost use in livestock production is presented. This assessment focussed on potential risks associated with a specific product, PAS100 compost that meets the UK publicly available specification 100 and represents the majority of compost available for use in extensive Scottish livestock systems. A hazard screening approach was used to identify all potentially hazardous agents present in compost. A total of 497 potentially hazardous agents were screened, with 147 finally put forward for quantitative risk assessment. Scenarios modelled in the assessment included surface application of compost to grazing land and also incorporation into soil and subsequent uptake by fodder crops. Risk estimates were compared to those associated with six comparator materials, including various sludges, slurries and farm yard manures. Overall, five potentially hazardous agents (PCB28, PCB138, PCB153, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, Clopyralid) returned a hazard quotient >1 but within margins of uncertainty, indicating that further investigation may be required. Within the limitations of available information, SSGW compost was found to pose less risk to grazing livestock, or the environment, than other commonly-used soil amendments. While this assessment relates to a specific product/standard used in the UK, the methodology could easily be applied to other composts/products/situations. Therefore these results have wider applicability.
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Treatment and pathogenesis of acute hyperkalemia.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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This article focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and various treatment modalities for acute hyperkalemia and presents a systematic approach to selecting a treatment strategy. Hyperkalemia, a life-threatening condition caused by extracellular potassium shift or decreased renal potassium excretion, usually presents with non-specific symptoms. Early recognition of moderate to severe hyperkalemia is vital in preventing fatal cardiac arrhythmias and muscle paralysis. Management of hyperkalemia includes the elimination of reversible causes (diet, medications), rapidly acting therapies that shift potassium into cells and block the cardiac membrane effects of hyperkalemia, and measures to facilitate removal of potassium from the body (saline diuresis, oral binding resins, and hemodialysis). Hyperkalemia with potassium level more than 6.5 mEq/L or EKG changes is a medical emergency and should be treated accordingly. Treatment should be started with calcium gluconate to stabilize cardiomyocyte membranes, followed by insulin injection, and b-agonists administration. Hemodialysis remains the most reliable method to remove potassium from the body and should be used in cases refractory to medical treatment. Prompt detection and proper treatment are crucial in preventing lethal outcomes.
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Sox2 activates cell proliferation and differentiation in the respiratory epithelium.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Sox2, a transcription factor critical for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and induction of pluripotent stem cells, is expressed exclusively in the conducting airway epithelium of the lung, where it is required for differentiation of nonciliated, goblet, and ciliated cells. To determine the role of Sox2 in respiratory epithelial cells, Sox2 was selectively and conditionally expressed in nonciliated airway epithelial cells and in alveolar type II cells in the adult mouse. Sox2 induced epithelial cell proliferation within 3 days of expression. Epithelial cell proliferation was associated with increased Ki-67 and cyclin D1 staining. Expression of cell cycle genes, including FoxM1, Ccna2 (Cyclin A2), Ccnb2 (Cyclin B2), and Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), was increased. Consistent with a role in cell proliferation, Sox2 activated the transcription of FoxM1 in vitro. In alveoli, Sox2 caused hyperplasia and ectopic differentiation of epithelial cells to those with morphologic and molecular characteristics of conducting airway epithelium. Sox2 induced the expression of conducting airway epithelial specific genes, including Scgb1a1, Foxj1, Tubb3, and Cyp2f2. Although prolonged expression of Sox2 caused cell proliferation and epithelial hyperplasia, Sox2 did not induce pulmonary tumors. Sox2 induces proliferation of respiratory epithelial cells and, subsequently, partially reprograms alveolar epithelial cells into cells with characteristics of the conducting airways.
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Human abuse liability assessment of oxycodone combined with ultra-low-dose naltrexone.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Prescription opioid abuse has risen dramatically in the United States as clinicians have increased opioid prescribing for alleviation of both acute and chronic pain. Opioid analgesics with decreased risk for abuse are needed.
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Methods for determining disease burden and calibrating national surveillance data in the United Kingdom: the second study of infectious intestinal disease in the community (IID2 study).
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Infectious intestinal disease (IID), usually presenting as diarrhoea and vomiting, is frequently preventable. Though often mild and self-limiting, its commonness makes IID an important public health problem. In the mid 1990s around 1 in 5 people in England suffered from IID a year, costing around pound0.75 billion. No routine information source describes the UKs current community burden of IID. We present here the methods for a study to determine rates and aetiology of IID in the community, presenting to primary care and recorded in national surveillance statistics. We will also outline methods to determine whether or not incidence has declined since the mid-1990s.
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Resources medical students use to derive a differential diagnosis.
Med Teach
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Deriving an appropriate differential diagnosis is a key clinical competency, but there is little data available on how medical students learn this skill. Software resources designed to complement clinical reasoning might be asset in helping them in this task.
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Sox2 is required for maintenance and differentiation of bronchiolar Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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The bronchioles of the murine lung are lined by a simple columnar epithelium composed of ciliated, Clara, and goblet cells that together mediate barrier function, mucociliary clearance and innate host defense, vital for pulmonary homeostasis. In the present work, we demonstrate that expression of Sox2 in Clara cells is required for the differentiation of ciliated, Clara, and goblet cells that line the bronchioles of the postnatal lung. The gene was selectively deleted in Clara cells utilizing Scgb1a1-Cre, causing the progressive loss of Sox2 in the bronchioles during perinatal and postnatal development. The rate of bronchiolar cell proliferation was decreased and associated with the formation of an undifferentiated, cuboidal-squamous epithelium lacking the expression of markers of Clara cells (Scgb1a1), ciliated cells (FoxJ1 and alpha-tubulin), and goblet cells (Spdef and Muc5AC). By adulthood, bronchiolar cell numbers were decreased and Sox2 was absent in extensive regions of the bronchiolar epithelium, at which time residual Sox2 expression was primarily restricted to selective niches of CGRP staining neuroepithelial cells. Allergen-induced goblet cell differentiation and mucus production was absent in the respiratory epithelium lacking Sox2. In vitro, Sox2 activated promoter-luciferase reporter constructs for differentiation markers characteristic of Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells, Scgb1a1, FoxJ1, and Agr2, respectively. Sox2 physically interacted with Smad3 and inhibited TGF-beta1/Smad3-mediated transcriptional activity in vitro, a pathway that negatively regulates proliferation. Sox2 is required for proliferation and differentiation of Clara cells that serve as the progenitor cells from which Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells are derived.
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Kras(G12D) and Nkx2-1 haploinsufficiency induce mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung.
J. Clin. Invest.
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Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung is a subtype of highly invasive pulmonary tumors and is associated with decreased or absent expression of the transcription factor NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1; also known as TTF-1). Here, we show that haploinsufficiency of Nkx2-1 in combination with oncogenic Kras(G12D), but not with oncogenic EGFR(L858R), caused pulmonary tumors in transgenic mice that were phenotypically similar to human mucinous adenocarcinomas. Gene expression patterns distinguished tumor goblet (mucous) cells from nontumorigenic airway and intestinal goblet cells. Expression of NKX2-1 inhibited urethane and oncogenic Kras(G12D)-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. Haploinsufficiency of Nkx2-1 enhanced Kras(G12D)-mediated tumor progression, but reduced EGFR(L858R)-mediated progression. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression demonstrated that a set of genes induced in mucinous tumors was shared with genes induced in a nontumorigenic chronic lung disease, while a distinct subset of genes was specific to mucinous tumors. ChIP with massively parallel DNA sequencing identified a direct association of NKX2-1 with the genes induced in mucinous tumors. NKX2-1 associated with the AP-1 binding element as well as the canonical NKX2-1 binding element. NKX2-1 inhibited both AP-1 activity and tumor colony formation in vitro. These data demonstrate that NKX2-1 functions in a context-dependent manner in lung tumorigenesis and inhibits Kras(G12D)-driven mucinous pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
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Prevalence and survival of potential pathogens in source-segregated green waste compost.
Sci. Total Environ.
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Composting of source-separated green waste (SSGW) is essential to meet the EU Landfill Directive target and agricultural land is considered a significant market for the resulting composts. A critical review of the literature was performed to evaluate the potential for pathogens to enter the composting process via SSGW feedstocks and the likelihood of their survival of the composting process and subsequent application to land. This is discussed in the context of application of other organic wastes to land. It was concluded that zoonoses such as verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are unlikely to survive and effective composting process, whereas spore forming organisms are more resistant to composting but are also ubiquitous in the environment. Adherence to existing guidelines, such as those for farm yard manures, is likely to provide a rational degree of health protection for humans and livestock.
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Effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on central line utilization in an acute care hospital.
Am J Infect Control
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Many institutions that have adopted evidence-based infection prevention practices have achieved reductions in the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in their intensive care units (ICUs). Few studies have investigated the impact of CLABSI prevention strategies in non-ICU settings, however. This study was conducted to assess whether a multifaceted educational initiative significantly improved health care workers adherence to clinical practices that have been demonstrated to reduce CLABSI rates.
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Changes in causes of acute gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom over 15 years: microbiologic findings from 2 prospective, population-based studies of infectious intestinal disease.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Large-scale, prospective studies of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in developed countries are uncommon. Two studies of IID incidence and etiology have been conducted in the United Kingdom: the Infectious Intestinal Disease Study in England (IID1) in 1993-1996 and the Second Study of Infectious Intestinal Disease in the Community (IID2) in 2008-2009. We examined changes in etiology and diagnostic yield of IID cases over 15 years.
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A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of levetiracetam extended-release in very heavy drinking alcohol-dependent patients.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
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Despite advances in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence, few medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The use of certain anticonvulsant medications has demonstrated potential efficacy in treating alcohol dependence. Previous research suggests that the anticonvulsant levetiracetam may be beneficial in an alcohol-dependent population of very heavy drinkers.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.