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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q): reliability and validity against doubly labeled water and 7-day activity diaries.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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We determined measurement properties of the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), which was designed to estimate past-month activity energy expenditure (AEE). STAR-Q validity and reliability were assessed in 102 adults in Alberta, Canada (2009-2011), who completed 14-day doubly labeled water (DLW) protocols, 7-day activity diaries on day 15, and the STAR-Q on day 14 and again at 3 and 6 months. Three-month reliability was substantial for total energy expenditure (TEE) and AEE (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively), while 6-month reliability was moderate. STAR-Q-derived TEE and AEE were moderately correlated with DLW estimates (Spearman's ?s of 0.53 and 0.40, respectively; P < 0.001), and on average, the STAR-Q overestimated TEE and AEE (median differences were 367 kcal/day and 293 kcal/day, respectively). Body mass index-, age-, sex-, and season-adjusted concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) were 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.36) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.32) for STAR-Q-derived versus DLW-derived TEE and AEE, respectively. Agreement between the diaries and STAR-Q (metabolic equivalent-hours/day) was strongest for occupational sedentary time (adjusted CCC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.85) and overall strenuous activity (adjusted CCC = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.76). The STAR-Q demonstrated substantial validity for estimating occupational sedentary time and strenuous activity and fair validity for ranking individuals by AEE.
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Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol.
Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, impose significant burden to public health. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, overweight and obesity, and tobacco usage. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in adults is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are.
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Exercise performance and peripheral vascular insufficiency improve with AMPK activation in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Intermittent claudication is a form of exercise intolerance characterized by muscle pain during walking in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Endothelial cell and muscle dysfunction are thought to be important contributors to the etiology of this disease, but a lack of preclinical models that incorporate these elements and measure exercise performance as a primary end point has slowed progress in finding new treatment options for these patients. We sought to develop an animal model of peripheral vascular insufficiency in which microvascular dysfunction and exercise intolerance were defining features. We further set out to determine if pharmacological activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) might counteract any of these functional deficits. Mice aged on a high-fat diet demonstrate many functional and molecular characteristics of PAD, including the sequential development of peripheral vascular insufficiency, increased muscle fatigability, and progressive exercise intolerance. These changes occur gradually and are associated with alterations in nitric oxide bioavailability. Treatment of animals with an AMPK activator, R118, increased voluntary wheel running activity, decreased muscle fatigability, and prevented the progressive decrease in treadmill exercise capacity. These functional performance benefits were accompanied by improved mitochondrial function, the normalization of perfusion in exercising muscle, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, and decreased circulating levels of the endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. These data suggest that aged, obese mice represent a novel model for studying exercise intolerance associated with peripheral vascular insufficiency, and pharmacological activation of AMPK may be a suitable treatment for intermittent claudication associated with PAD.
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The standardized extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (jujube) regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cultured murine macrophages: suppression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-?B activity.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., known as jujube or Chinese date, is commonly consumed as a health supplement or herbal medicine worldwide. To study the beneficial role of jujube in regulating immune response, we investigated its roles on the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultured macrophages. Application of chemically standardized jujube water extract for 24?h stimulated the transcriptional expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. In contrast, the pretreatment with jujube water extract suppressed the expression of IL-1? and IL-6, but not for TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. The IL-1? and IL-6 cytokines in LPS-induced macrophages were suppressed by jujube water extract in both mRNA and protein levels. In parallel, the inhibition of jujube water extract on the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B was revealed in LPS-induced macrophages. These results verified the bidirectional immune-modulatory roles of jujube by regulating the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A standardized extract of the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (Jujube) induces neuronal differentiation of cultured PC12 cells: a signaling mediated by protein kinase A.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., known as Chinese date or jujube, is consumed as a health supplement worldwide. To study the role of jujube in brain benefits, its effects on neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells were studied. Application of jujube water extract induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, >25% of which were differentiated; this effect was similar to that of nerve growth factor. In parallel, the expressions of neurofilaments (NFs) in jujube-treated cultures showed a dose-dependent increase, with the highest inductions by ?150% for NF68 and NF160 and by ?100% for NF200. Application of H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, attenuated jujube-induced neurite outgrowth of the cultures. Besides, using jujube extract induced the phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein on PC12 cells, which was blocked by H89. These results support the use of jujube as a food supplement for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases in which neurotrophin deficiency is involved.
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A single-centre experience of patients with metastatic melanoma enrolled in a dabrafenib named patient programme.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We studied the efficacy, tolerability and clinical courses of dabrafenib in patients with metastatic melanoma who were ineligible for enrolment into a clinical trial. Between July 2011 and May 2013, patients with unresectable stage III or stage IV, V600-mutated metastatic melanoma who were not eligible for inclusion into clinical trials were offered treatment with dabrafenib through a named patient programme. Routine efficacy and toxicity data were collected throughout treatment and studied retrospectively. The endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival and best overall response. Thirty-one patients commenced dabrafenib therapy including six individuals who had progressed on a prior BRAF-inhibitor treatment. The majority of patients had cerebral metastases (n=17) and/or a poor performance status [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)?2, n=11]. Median overall survival was 5.6 months (range 0.1-22 months). Median PFS was 3.3 months (range 0.1-21) and was similar despite performance status. One patient had a complete response and eight showed partial responses to treatment. Patients with cerebral metastases (n=17) had a median PFS of 4.6 months. Five patients (16%) had dose-limiting toxicities. Despite several poor prognostic features, dabrafenib is a safe and effective treatment in the community setting, with occasional impressive outcomes.
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Modeling and simulation of material degradation in biodegradable wound closure devices.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Biodegradable materials have been used as wound closure materials. It is important for these materials to enhance wound healing when the wound is vulnerable, and maintain wound closure until the wound is heal. This article studies the degradation process of bioresorbable magnesium micro-clips for wound closure in voice/laryngeal microsurgery. A novel computational approach is proposed to model degradation of the biodegradable micro-clips. The degradation process that considers both material and geometry of the device as well as its deployment is modeled as an energy minimization problem that is iteratively solved using active contour and incremental finite element methods. Strain energy of the micro-clip during degradation is calculated with the stretching and bending functions in the active contour formulation. The degradation rate is computed from strain energy using a transformation formulation. By relating strain energy to material degradation, the degradation rates and geometries of the micro-clip during degradation can be represented using a simulated degradation map. Computer simulation of the degradation of the micro-clip presented in the study is validated by in vivo and in vitro experiments.
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Yu Ping Feng San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and the activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in cultures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction comprising Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu), and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng), has been used clinically to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previously, we demonstrated a dual role of YPFS in regulating cytokine release in cultured macrophages. In this study, we elucidated the anti-inflammatory effect of YPFS that is mediated through modulating the expression of three key enzymes involved in IBD: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IALP). In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic-inflammation model of cultured murine macrophages, YPFS treatment suppressed the activation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, application of YPFS in cultured small intestinal enterocytes markedly induced the expression of IALP in a time-dependent manner, which might strengthen the intestinal detoxification system. A duality of YPFS in modulating the expression of iNOS and COX-2 was determined here. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophages was induced by YPFS, and this activation was partially blocked by the NF-?B-specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082, indicating a role of NF-?B signaling. These YPFS-induced changes in gene regulation strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of YPFS are mediated through the regulation of inflammatory enzymes.
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Development of a patient specific artificial tracheal prosthesis: Design, mechanical behavior analysis and manufacturing.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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There is a need to create patient specific organ replacements as there are differences in the anatomical dimensions among individuals. High failure rates in tracheal prosthesis are attributed to the lack of mechanical strength and flexibility, slow rate of growth of ciliated epithelium and leakage of interstitial fluid into the lumen. This paper proposes a methodology of design, simulations and fabrication of a patient specific artificial tracheal prosthesis for implantation to closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the natural trachea, and describes the prototype device and its materials. Results show that the patient-specific trachea prosthesis has mechanical properties approximate that of normal tracheal rings. The user centric tracheal prosthesis is demonstrated to be a promising candidate for tracheal replacement.
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Chemical and biological assessment of Ziziphus jujuba fruits from China: different geographical sources and developmental stages.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Chinese date, the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., has thousands of years cultivation history, and about 700 cultivars of dates in China. Two types of dates are commonly found in the market: (i) fresh immature dates consumed as fruits, and (ii) dried mature dates used as Chinese medicines. Here, chemical and biological properties of these dates were revealed. Different sources of dates showed similar chemical profiles; however, the amounts of identified chemicals showed a great variation. The amount of nucleotides, flavonoids and polysaccharides in dates could be affected by its maturity and drying process. In parallel, the antioxidative functions of their extracts were compared. The date extracts protected PC12 cells against tBHP-induced cytotoxicity, and which also stimulated the transcriptional activity of antioxidant response element. The antioxidative effects were varied among different dates. The current results suggested the optimization of sources and specific usage of different maturity dates.
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Dual-index evaluation of character changes in Panax ginseng C. A. Mey stored in different conditions.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Panax ginseng C. A. Mey has been used as a traditional medicine and functional food in Asia for thousands of years for its improvement of human immunity and metabolism and its antitumor and antifatigue activities. This study reports the impact of storage conditions and storage period on the quality of P. ginseng. The contents of four major ginsenosides in P. ginseng and phosphorylation activities of Akt of ginseng extracts were affected by both storage conditions and storage period. In contrast, the ATP generation capacity of ginseng extracts was affected by storage conditions, but not by storage period. The results showed that the quality of P. ginseng could be well maintained at a relative humidity between 70% and 90%, and dry conditions might decrease the quality of P. ginseng. Through dual-index evaluation, the present study extended our knowledge on the changes of ginsenosides and bioactivities in P. ginseng with respect to different storage conditions and storage periods.
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Chemical changes of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma by wine treatment: chemical profiling and marker selection by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR) can be treated with wine to promote their biological functions in Chinese medicine. Both ASR and CR contain similar volatile chemicals that could be altered after wine treatment. This study aims to identify the differential chemical profiles and to select marker chemicals of ASR and CR before and after wine treatment.
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Case-control study of inflammatory markers and the risk of endometrial cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Chronic inflammation may be important in endometrial cancer etiology. Several established endometrial cancer risk factors, particularly obesity, are hypothesized to operate through this pathway by increasing proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP). This study sought to investigate the association between inflammatory markers and the risk of endometrial cancer (types I and II). We recruited 519 incident endometrial cancer cases and 964 frequency age-matched controls in this population-based case-control study in Alberta (Canada) from 2002 to 2006. Participants completed in-person interviews, were assessed for anthropometric measures, and provided 8-h fasting blood samples either preoperatively or postoperatively. Blood was analyzed for the concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6, and CRP by immunoassay. Endometrial cancer cases had consistently higher mean levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and CRP compared with controls in these predominantly postmenopausal women. After adjusting for age, all markers were associated with statistically significant increased risks for endometrial cancer; however, after multivariable adjustment, only the risk from CRP remained elevated (odds ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.47). Similarly, upon stratification by cancer type, only CRP was associated positively with an increased risk for type I endometrial cancer (odds ratio=1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.52). All markers were associated with an elevated risk for the more rare and aggressive type II cancers; however, these findings were statistically nonsignificant, likely because of the small number of cases in this group. In conclusion, we found epidemiologic evidence for an association between CRP and the risk of endometrial cancer, which was slightly stronger for type I cancer. No associations emerged for TNF-? and IL-6.
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Importance of wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tang, a traditional herbal formula for treating womens ailments.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Si Wu Tang (Four Agents Decoction), a traditional Chinese decoction composed of Angelica Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, has been used to treat womens diseases for more than a thousand years. According to the original description of Si Wu Tang, Angelica Sinensis Radix should be treated with wine. However, the importance of this wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix in Si Wu Tangs function has not been identified. In this article, the chemical and biological properties of two decoctions processed in different ways (Si Wu Tang with crude Angelica Sinensis Radix and Si Wu Tang with wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix) were compared for examination. The herbal decoction Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix contained much different amounts of its active compounds. Compared with Si Wu Tang using crude Angelica Sinensis Radix, Si Wu Tang prepared from wine-treated Angelica Sinensis Radix had better biological responses. Therefore, these findings accentuate the functional importance of herbs treated with wine in the Chinese decoction.
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Pharmacokinetics of fostamatinib, a spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor, in healthy human subjects following single and multiple oral dosing in three phase I studies.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Fostamatinib (R788) is an orally dosed prodrug designed to deliver the active metabolite R940406 (R406), a spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The objectives were to evaluate the human pharmacokinetic properties of fostamatinib and R406.
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Chemical and biological assessment of angelica roots from different cultivated regions in a chinese herbal decoction danggui buxue tang.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui) have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction.
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Benefits of modest weight loss on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Can J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The epidemic of overweight and obesity is a major driver of the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus globally. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases exponentially as body mass index rises above 25 kg/m(2). Obesity currently costs the Canadian economy approximately $7.1 billion annually whereas per capita health care cost for individuals with diabetes are 3 to 4 times that for persons without the disease. Each kilogram of weight lost through health behaviour changes in people with impaired glucose tolerance is associated with a relative diabetes risk reduction of 16%. As 80% to 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and adiposity worsens the metabolic and physiologic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes, weight loss is recommended as the cornerstone management measure. A modest weight loss of 5% to 10% is an achievable and realistic goal for preventing type 2 diabetes in susceptible individuals and improving glycemic and metabolic control in people with type 2 diabetes. When health behaviour modification fails to achieve glycemic and metabolic goal targets, priority should be given to antihyperglycemic agents that are associated with weight loss or weight neutrality. Every pound of body fat loss matters and every kilogram counts in the management of type 2 diabetes.
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2012 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used, per present standards of the CCS. The total cardiovascular disease Framingham Risk Score (FRS), modified for a family history of premature coronary disease, is recommended for risk assessment. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol remains the primary target of therapy. However, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol has been added to apolipoprotein B as an alternate target. There is an increased emphasis on treatment of higher risk patients, including those with chronic kidney disease and high risk hypertension. The primary panel has recommended a judicious use of secondary testing for subjects in whom the need for statin therapy is unclear. Expanded information on health behaviours is presented and is the backbone of risk reduction in all subjects. Finally, a systematic approach to statin intolerance is advocated to maximize appropriate use of lipid-lowering therapy. This document presents the recommendations and principal conclusions of this process. Along with associated Supplementary Material that can be accessed online, this document will be part of a program of knowledge translation. The goal is to increase the appropriate use of evidence-based cardiovascular disease event risk assessment in the management of dyslipidemia as a fundamental means of reducing global risk in the Canadian population.
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Yu ping feng san, an ancient chinese herbal decoction containing astragali radix, atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma and saposhnikoviae radix, regulates the release of cytokines in murine macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction, is composed of Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu) and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng) in a weight ratio of 1?2?1. Clinically, YPFS has been widely used to regulate immune functions; however, the action mechanism of it is not known. Here, we addressed this issue by providing detail analyses of chemical and biological properties of YPFS. By using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, fifteen chemicals deriving from different herbs of YPFS were determined, and which served as a control for the standardization of the herbal extract of YPFS. In general, the amounts of chosen chemical markers were higher in a preparation of YPFS as compared to that of single herb or two-herb compositions. In order to reveal the immune functions of YPFS, the standardized extract was applied onto cultured murine macrophages. The treatment of YPFS stimulated the mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of NF-?B by enhancing I?B? degradation. In contrast, the application of YPFS suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic inflammation model. In addition, YPFS could up regulate the phagocytic activity in cultured macrophages. These results therefore supported the bi-directional immune-modulatory roles of YPFS in regulating the releases of cytokines from macrophages.
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Fo Shou San, an ancient herbal decoction prepared from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma, induces erythropoietin expression: a signaling mediated by the reduced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor in cultured liver cells.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction composed of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) in a ratio of 3:2. FSS is mainly prescribed for patients having a deficiency of blood supply, and it indeed has been shown to stimulate the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in cultured cells. In order to reveal the mechanism of this FSS-induced EPO gene expression, the upstream regulatory cascade, via hypoxia-induced signaling, was revealed here in cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B. The induction of EPO gene expression, triggered by FSS, was revealed in cultured hepatocytes by: (i) the increase of EPO mRNA; and (ii) the activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE), an upstream regulator of the EPO gene. The FSS-induced EPO gene expression was triggered by an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ? (HIF-1 ?) protein; however, the mRNA expression of HIF-1 ? was not altered by the treatment of FSS. The increased HIF-1 ? was a result of reduced protein degradation after the FSS treatment. The current results therefore provide one of the molecular mechanisms of this ancient herbal decoction for its hematopoietic function.
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Case-control study of the metabolic syndrome and metabolic risk factors for endometrial cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Metabolic syndrome may predict endometrial cancer risk better than diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, or weight alone, but few studies have examined this issue.
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The effects of a supplemental, theory-based physical activity counseling intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This pilot investigation explores the effects of a standard diabetes education program compared with a supplemental PA intervention on diabetes-related health outcomes.
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Diagnosis of early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma using ultraviolet autofluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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We report the diagnostic ability of ultraviolet (UV)-excited autofluorescence (AF) excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy associated with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis for differentiating cancer from normal nasopharyngeal tissue. A bifurcated fiber-optic probe coupled with an EEM system was used to acquire tissue AF EEMs using excitation wavelengths between 260 and 400 nm, and emission collection between 280 and 500 nm. A total of 152 AF EEM landscapes were acquired from 13 normal and 16 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) thawed ex vivo tissue samples from 23 patients. PARAFAC was introduced for curve resolution of individual AF EEM landscapes associated with the endogenous tissue constituents. The significant factors were further fed to a support vector machine (SVM) and cross-validated to construct diagnostic algorithms. Both the EEM intensity landscapes and the PARAFAC model revealed tryptophan, collagen, and elastin to be the three major endogenous fluorophores responsible for the AF signal from normal and NPC tissues. The EEM intensity distribution and PARAFAC factors suggest an increase of tryptophan and a decrease of collagen and elastin in NPC tissues compared to the normal. The classification results obtained from the PARAFAC-SVM modeling yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 94.7% (sensitivity of 95.0% (76/80); specificity of 94.4% (68/72)) for normal and NPC tissue differentiation. This study suggests that UV-excited AF EEM spectroscopy integrated with PARAFAC algorithms has the potential to provide clinical diagnostics of early onset and progression of NPC.
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Role of the endocytic pathway in the counteraction of BST-2 by human lentiviral pathogens.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein BST-2 (CD317, tetherin) restricts the release of several enveloped viruses from infected cells. BST-2 is broadly active against retroviruses, including HIV-1 and HIV-2. To counteract this host defense, HIV-1 uses the accessory protein Vpu, whereas HIV-2 uses its envelope glycoprotein (Env). In both cases, viral antagonism is associated with decreased expression of BST-2 at the cell surface. Here, we provide evidence supporting a role for the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway in the downregulation of BST-2 from the cell surface and the counteraction of restricted virion release. A catalytically inactive, dominant negative version of the vesicle "pinch-ase" dynamin 2 (dyn2K44A) inhibited the downregulation of BST-2 by Vpu, and it inhibited the release of wild-type (Vpu-expressing) HIV-1 virions. Similarly, dyn2K44A inhibited the downregulation of BST-2 by HIV-2 Env, and it inhibited the release of vpu-negative HIV-1 virions when HIV-2 Env was provided in trans. dyn2K44A inhibited Env more robustly than Vpu, suggesting that dynamin 2, while a cofactor for both Env and Vpu, might support just one of several pathways though which Vpu counteracts BST-2. In support of a role for clathrin in these effects, the C-terminal domain of the clathrin assembly protein AP180 also inhibited the downregulation of BST-2 by either Vpu or HIV-2 Env. Consistent with modulation of the postendocytic itinerary of BST-2, Vpu enhanced the accumulation of cell surface-derived BST-2 in transferrin-containing endosomes. Vpu also inhibited the transport of BST-2 from a brefeldin A-insensitive compartment to the cell surface, consistent with a block to endosomal recycling. We propose that HIV-1 Vpu, and probably HIV-2 Env, traps BST-2 in an endosomal compartment following endocytosis, reducing its level at the cell surface to counteract restricted viral release.
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Chemical and biological assessment of Angelicae Sinensis Radix after processing with wine: an orthogonal array design to reveal the optimized conditions.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The roots of Angelica sinensis [Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR)] have been used as a common health food supplement for womens care for thousands of years in China. According to Asian tradition, ASR could be processed with the treatment of wine, which subsequently promoted the biological functions of ASR. By chemical and biological assessments, an orthogonal array design was employed here to determine the roles of three variable parameters in the processing of ASR, including oven temperature, baking time, and flipping frequency. The results suggested that oven temperature and baking time were two significant factors, while flipping frequency was a subordinate factor. The optimized condition of processing with wine therefore was considered to be heating in an oven at 80 °C for 90 min with flipping twice per hour. Under the optimized processing conditions, the solubilities of ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide from ASR were markedly increased and decreased, respectively. In parallel, the biological functions of processed ASR were enhanced in both anti-platelet aggregation and estrogenic activation; these increased functions could be a result of the altered levels of ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide in wine-processed ASR. Thus, the chemical and biological assessment of the processed ASR was in full accordance with the Chinese old tradition.
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Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations.
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Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations.
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A signaling cascade of nuclear calcium-CREB-ATF3 activated by synaptic NMDA receptors defines a gene repression module that protects against extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-induced neuronal cell death and ischemic brain damage.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Synapse-to-nucleus signaling triggered by synaptic NMDA receptors can lead to the buildup of a neuroprotective shield. Nuclear calcium activating the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a key role in neuroprotection acquired by synaptic activity. Here we show that in mouse hippocampal neurons, the transcription factor Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is a direct target of CREB. Induction of ATF3 expression by CREB in hippocampal neurons was initiated by calcium entry through synaptic NMDA receptors and required nuclear calcium transients and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV activity. Acting as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 protects cultured hippocampal neurons from apoptosis and extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-induced cell death triggered by bath application of NMDA or oxygen-glucose deprivation. Expression of ATF3 in vivo using stereotaxic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus reduces brain damage following a cerebral ischemic insult in mice. Conversion of ATF3 to a transcriptional activator transforms ATF3 into a potent prodeath protein that kills neurons in cell culture and, when expressed in vivo in the hippocampus, ablates the neuronal cell layer. These results link nuclear calcium-CREB signaling to an ATF3-mediated neuroprotective gene repression program, indicating that activity-dependent shutoff of genes is an important process for survival. ATF3 supplementation may counteract age- and disease-related neuronal cell loss caused by a reduction in synaptic activity, malfunctioning of calcium signaling toward and within the nucleus ("nuclear calciopathy"), or increases in death signaling by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.
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Implantation of sinoatrial node cells into canine right ventricle: biological pacing appears limited by the substrate.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Biological pacing has been proposed as a physiologic counterpart to electronic pacing, and the sinoatrial node (SAN) is the general standard for biological pacemakers. We tested the expression of SAN pacemaker cell activity when implanted autologously in the right ventricle (RV). We induced complete heart block and implanted electronic pacemakers in the RV of adult mongrel dogs. Autologous SAN cells isolated enzymatically were studied by patch clamp to confirm SAN identity. SAN cells (400,000) were injected into the RV subepicardial free wall and dogs were monitored for 2 weeks. Pacemaker function was assessed by overdrive pacing and IV epinephrine challenge. SAN cells expressed a time-dependent inward current (I(f)) activating on hyperpolarization: density = 4.3 ± 0.6 pA/pF at -105 mV. Four of the six dogs demonstrated >50% of beats originating from the implant site at 24 h. Biological pacemaker rates on days 7-14 = 45-55 bpm and post-overdrive escape times = 1.5-2.5 s. Brisk catecholamine responsiveness occurred. Dogs implanted with autologous SAN cells manifest biological pacing properties dissimilar from those of the anatomic SAN. This highlights the importance of cell and substrate interaction in generating biological pacemaker function.
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Microbead-based immunoassay for simultaneous detection of Shiga toxins and isolation of Escherichia coli O157 in foods.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant foodborne pathogen with great economic consequences. There has been an increased food safety concern with this organism since outbreaks of human illnesses caused by this pathogen were first reported in 1982. Therefore, developing a reliable, sensitive, and rapid assay capable of detecting E. coli O157 and the main toxins produced by STEC (i.e., Shiga toxins 1 [Stx(1)] and 2 [Stx(2)]) will directly benefit regulatory agencies by minimizing analysis time. Here, we use Luminex technology to detect multiple analytes in a single 50-ml sample. Using commercially available monoclonal antibodies coupled to carboxylated magnetic microbeads, we developed an immunoassay capable of simultaneously serotyping E. coli O157 and detecting Stx(1) and/or Stx(2). The specificity and sensitivity of this immunoassay was tested against a collection of 34 E. coli isolates belonging to various O serogroups phenotypically different for Stx. The results were compared with microplate sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and no cross-reactivity was observed for any of the monoclonal antibodies used. An increased sensitivity up to 1,000 times was observed in the microbead-based immunoassay when compared with the microplate sandwich ELISA. The results indicate that Luminex technology has the potential to simultaneously detect multiple targets without loss of specificity and/or sensitivity. A blind experiment was conducted with 48 samples of ground beef, lettuce, and milk spiked with ?2 CFU/g E. coli. All the samples were correctly identified, with no false positives or false negatives. This microbead-based immunoassay could be extended to simultaneously detect additional foodborne pathogens and their toxic markers.
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Flavonoids from Radix Astragali induce the expression of erythropoietin in cultured cells: a signaling mediated via the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Radix Astragali (RA) is commonly used as a health food supplement to reinforce the body vital energy. Flavonoids, including formononetin, ononin, calycosin, and calycosin-7-O-?-d-glucoside, are considered to be the major active ingredients within RA. Here, we provided different lines of evidence that the RA flavonoids stimulated the expression of erythropoietin (EPO), the central regulator of red blood cell mass, in cultured human embryonic kidney fibroblasts (HEK293T). A plasmid containing hypoxia response element (HRE), a critical regulator for EPO transcription, was tagged upstream of a firefly luciferase gene, namely, pHRE-Luc, which was being transfected into fibroblasts. The application of RA flavonoids onto the transfected cells induced the transcriptional activity of HRE. To account for the transcriptional activation after the treatment of flavonoids, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) was markedly increased: The increase was in both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the degradation of HIF-1? was reduced under the effect of flavonoids. The regulation of HIF-1? therefore could account for the activation of EPO expression mediated by the RA flavonoids. The current results therefore reveal the function of this herb in enhancing hematopoietic functions.
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Fostamatinib, a Syk-kinase inhibitor, does not affect methotrexate pharmacokinetics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Fostamatinib (R788) is being investigated as an add-on therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX). This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic interaction between R788 and MTX. Sixteen RA subjects on a stable weekly MTX regimen were enrolled and received MTX on days 1 and 8. Twelve subjects received 100 mg of R788 orally, and 4 subjects received a matching placebo twice daily from days 4 to 8 and once daily on days 3 and 9. Blood samples were collected on days 1 and 8 for MTX and 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OH-MTX), and days 3 and 9 for R788 and its active metabolite, R406. MTX and 7-OH-MTX pharmacokinetic parameters were similar on days 1 and 8. In the R788 group, the mean day 8 to day 1 ratios (90% confidence intervals) of maximum concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve estimates were 1.01 (0.85-1.20) and 1.12 (0.90-1.40) for MTX and 1.06 (0.82-1.35) and 1.06 (0.83-1.36) for 7-OH-MTX, respectively. Urinary excretion of MTX and 7-OH-MTX was also similar with or without R788, averaging 58% to 69% and 4% to 5% of the MTX dose, respectively. The data suggest that there is no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction of R788 and MTX in RA patients.
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The extract of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma induces the accumulation of HIF-1? via blocking the degradation pathway in cultured kidney fibroblasts.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
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Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma (Rhodiola), the root and rhizome of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to increase the body resistance against hypoxia in mountain sickness. The mechanism of this adaptogenic property deriving from Rhodiola, however, has not been revealed. Erythropoietin (EPO) is an erythrocyte-specific hematopoietic hormone that increases the production of red blood cells: this hormone is a crucial factor in regulating the body balance in responding to hypoxia. In cultured kidney fibroblasts (HEK293T), application of water extract deriving from Rhodiola induced the expression of EPO both in mRNA and protein levels. The activation of the Hypoxia Response Element (HRE) located on the promoter region of the EPO gene is one of the mechanisms accounting for transcriptional activation. In addition, the Rhodiola-induced EPO expression was triggered by an increase of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ? (HIF-1 ?) protein, via the reduction of HIF-1 ? degradation but not the induction of HIF-1 ? mRNA. Moreover, the same EPO induction effect by Rhodiola was also observed in cultured liver cells since liver is another vital organ to provide EPO regulation apart from the kidney. These results therefore elucidate one of the molecular mechanisms of this herb in mediating the anti-hypoxia function.
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Quality assessment of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction, Kaixinsan, by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry: A chemical evaluation of different historical formulae.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
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Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three different formulations, each recorded at a different point in time. In this study, the chemical compositions of all three Kaixinsan formulae were analyzed. By using rapid resolution LC coupled with a diode-array detector and an ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS (QQQ-MS/MS), the Radix and Rhizome Ginseng-derived ginsenosides including Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), the Radix Polygalae-derived 3,6-disinapoyl sucrose, the Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii-derived ?- and ?-asarone and the Poria-derived pachymic acid were compared among the three different formulations. The results showed variations in the solubility of different chemicals between one formula and the others. This systematic method developed could be used for the quality assessment of this herbal decoction.
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The establishment of a highly sensitive method in detecting ketamine and norketamine simultaneously in human hairs by HPLC-Chip-MS/MS.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
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An effective way to reveal the history of drug abuse is to determine the parental drug and its metabolites in hair. Here, a quantitative HPLC-Chip-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous measurement of ketamine and its metabolite norketamine in human hair. Ketamine and norketamine were extracted from hair by acid hydrolysis, and then enriched by organic solvent extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved in 15 min, with the drug identification and quantification by a tandem mass spectrometer. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards with a R(2) of over 0.996. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for ketamine and norketamine were 0.5 and 1 pg/mg of hair, respectively. The standard curves were linear from the value of LOQ up to 100 pg/mg of hair. The validation parameters including selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability and matrix effect were also determined. In conclusion, this method was able to reveal the present of ketamine and norketamine with less hair from the drug abusers, and which had the sensitivity of ?1000-fold higher than the conventional method. In addition, the amount of ketamine and norketamine being detected in different hair segments would be useful in revealing the historical record of ketamine uptake in the drug abusers.
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Biological pacemakers in canines exhibit positive chronotropic response to emotional arousal.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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Biological pacemakers based on the HCN2 channel isoform respond to beta-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation, suggesting a capacity to respond to autonomic input.
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The expression of erythropoietin triggered by danggui buxue tang, a Chinese herbal decoction prepared from radix Astragali and radix Angelicae Sinensis, is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor in cultured HEK293T cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Danggui buxue tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction that is being commonly used as hematopoietic medicine to treating woman menopausal irregularity, contains two herbs: radix Astragali and radix Angelicae Sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate the production of erythropoietin (EPO), a specific hematopoietic growth factor, in cultured cells.
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Diabetes and weight management.
Prim Care Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Diabetes has become the tsunami of non-communicable chronic diseases, with its alarmingly high prevalence largely driven by the global obesity epidemic. Achieving a healthy weight and preventing weight gain are integral components of optimal diabetes management. A modest weight loss of 5-10% is associated with significant reduction in blood sugar, lipid and blood pressure levels. Insulin detemir is an effective basal insulin analogue associated with less weight gain compared with both insulin NPH and insulin glargine. Once-daily insulin detemir could be considered an effective therapy for people with type 2 diabetes on lifestyle interventions and oral anti-diabetic agent therapy who require insulin.
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Validity of administrative data claim-based methods for identifying individuals with diabetes at a population level.
Can J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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This study assessed the validity of a widely-accepted administrative data surveillance methodology for identifying individuals with diabetes relative to three laboratory data reference standard definitions for diabetes.
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BST-2 mediated restriction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner. We show that human and pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) restrict SHIV. We found that sequential "humanization" of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) protein resulted in a fluctuation in sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. Our results also show that the length of the TMD in human and ptBST-2 proteins is important for BST-2 restriction and susceptibility to Vpu. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of tertiary structure in BST-2 antagonism and suggests that the HIV-1 Vpu transmembrane domain may have additional functions in vivo unrelated to BST-2 antagonism.
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Metabolism of fostamatinib, the oral methylene phosphate prodrug of the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor R406 in humans: contribution of hepatic and gut bacterial processes to the overall biotransformation.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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The metabolism of the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor N4-(2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-4-pyrid[1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-5-fluoro-N2-(3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine (R406) and its oral prodrug N4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-[(dihydrogenphosphonoxy)methyl]-3-oxo-5-pyrid[1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-5-fluoro-N2-(3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine disodium hexahydrate (R788, fostamatinib) was determined in vitro and in humans. R788 was rapidly converted to R406 by human intestinal microsomes, and only low levels of R788 were observed in plasma of human subjects after oral administration of (14)C-R788. R406 was the major drug-related compound in plasma from human subjects, and only low levels of metabolites were observed in plasma. The plasma metabolites of R406 were identified as a sulfate conjugate and glucuronide conjugate of the para-O-demethylated metabolite of R406 (R529) and a direct N-glucuronide conjugate of R406. Elimination of drug-related material into the urine accounted for 19% of the administered dose, and the major metabolite in urine from all the human subjects was the lactam N-glucuronide of R406. On average, 80% of the total drug was recovered in feces. Two drug-related peaks were observed; one peak was identified as R406, and the other peak was identified as a unique 3,5-benzene diol metabolite of R406. The 3,5-benzene diol metabolite appeared to result from the subsequent O-demethylations and dehydroxylation of R529 by anaerobic gut bacteria because only R529 was converted to this metabolite after the in vitro incubation with human fecal samples. These data indicate that the major fecal metabolite of R406 observed in humans is a product of a hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated O-demethylation and subsequent O-demethylations and dehydroxylation by gut bacteria.
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Anti-oxidative effects of the biennial flower of Panax notoginseng against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured PC12 cells.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Radix notoginseng is used in Chinese medicine to improve blood circulation and clotting; however, the pharmacological activities of other parts of Panax notoginseng have yet to be explored. The present study reports the anti-oxidative effects of various parts of Panax notoginseng.
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Cardiac expression of skeletal muscle sodium channels increases longitudinal conduction velocity in the canine 1-week myocardial infarction.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Skeletal muscle sodium channel (Nav1.4) expression in border zone myocardium increases action potential upstroke velocity in depolarized isolated tissue. Because resting membrane potential in the 1-week canine infarct is reduced, we hypothesized that conduction velocity (CV) is greater in Nav1.4 dogs compared with in control dogs.
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Fo Shou San, an ancient herbal decoction prepared from Rhizoma Chuanxiong and Radix Angelicae Sinensis, stimulates the production of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in cultured cells.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Rhizoma Chuanxiong (RC; Chuanxiong) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS; Danggui) in a ratio of 2?:?3. It is mainly prescribed for patients having a blood deficiency. This combination is considered the most popular herb pair among Chinese medicines; however, the rationale of having these two chemically similar herbs within the decoction has historically not been made clear. Here, we attempted to reveal the chemical and biological properties of this decoction as a means to deduce its mechanism of action. The effects of FSS were determined in different cell culture models. With respect to stimulation of blood circulation, FSS inhibited ADP-mediated platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. In order to reveal the hematopoietic effect of this decoction, FSS was applied onto cultured K562 human leukemia cells and Hep3B human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Application of FSS in cultured K562 cells inhibited cell proliferation and subsequently induced the production of hemoglobin. Additionally, the mRNA expression of erythropoietin (EPO) was induced in a dose-dependent manner when FSS was applied to Hep3B cells. The current results reveal the effects of FSS in different cell models, paving a direction for mechanistic studies.
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Correlating voice handicap index and quantitative videostroboscopy following injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal paralysis.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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1) Determine the correlation between voice handicap index and quantitative videostroboscopy for patients undergoing injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal paralysis; 2) assess which videostroboscopy measurements correlate best with voice handicap index in patients demonstrating progressive improvement beyond six months following injection laryngoplasty.
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Determinants of CREB degradation and KChIP2 gene transcription in cardiac memory.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Left ventricular pacing (LVP) to induce cardiac memory (CM) in dogs results in a decreased transient outward K current (I(to)) and reduced mRNA and protein of the I(to) channel accessory subunit, KChIP2. The KChIP2 decrease is attributed to a decrease in its transcription factor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB).
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Long-term dietary restriction influences plasma ghrelin and GOAT mRNA level in rats.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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The objective of this study was to examine the effect of chronic dietary restriction on the physical characteristics of the intestine and gut-derived satiety hormone production. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks) were randomized to ad libitum (AL) or 35% dietary restriction (DR) for 5 months. At the end of the study, physical measurements were made on the intestine and satiety hormone secretion and mRNA expression determined. A comparison group of young, growing AL rats (5 weeks) was also examined. The adult DR rats gained less weight over 5 months and had lower fat mass than adult AL rats (p<0.05). The weight of the small intestine as a percentage of total body weight was greater in adult DR compared to adult AL but lower than young AL rats. Compared to AL, DR down-regulated proglucagon and cholecystokinin mRNA in the duodenum and ghrelin mRNA in the stomach of adult rats but was not different from young AL. Ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) mRNA in the stomach was up-regulated 21-fold in adult AL rats compared to young AL and 14-fold compared to adult DR rats. Total and des-acyl ghrelin was approximately 50% higher in adult DR and young AL rats compared to adult AL. Plasma leptin and insulin were lower in adult DR and young AL rats compared to adult AL. Our findings suggest that long-term energy deficits continue to drive up ghrelin levels which may have profound implications for practical implementation of DR as an anti-aging or anti-obesity strategy in humans.
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Pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone solution following intratympanic injection in guinea pig and sheep.
Audiol. Neurootol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Information on inner ear pharmacokinetics is limited in the literature, especially in large animals and in humans. A preliminary study was designed to explore the differences in inner ear exposure between guinea pigs and sheep following a single intratympanic injection of a 2% dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution. In both species, significant levels of dexamethasone were observed in the perilymph within 1 h, and decreasing by 50- to 100-fold within 12 h. Overall, the exposure to dexamethasone in the inner ear was significantly lower in sheep by 17- to 27-fold than in guinea pigs. Systemic and CNS exposure were minimal in both species as indicated by the low drug levels observed in plasma and CSF. Altogether, the preliminary evidence presented herein suggests the sheep as a practical and acceptable animal model to study the inner ear pharmacokinetics of drug candidates in large mammals and its potential towards extrapolation to human exposure.
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Alberta Diabetes and Physical Activity Trial (ADAPT): a randomized theory-based efficacy trial for adults with type 2 diabetes--rationale, design, recruitment, evaluation, and dissemination.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three physical activity (PA) behavioural intervention strategies in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes.
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Ligustilide suppresses the biological properties of Danggui Buxue Tang: a Chinese herbal decoction composed of radix astragali and radix angelica sinensis.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction composed of Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Angelica sinensis (RAS), has been used for treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. According to the old tradition, RAS had to be processed with yellow wine before DBT preparation, which markedly reduced the amount of ligustilide in RAS and DBT, as well as enhanced the bioactivities of DBT. Here, we hypothesized that ligustilide would be an ingredient that possessed suppressive effects on DBTs functions. In the presence of ligustilide, the amount of astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, and total polysaccharides extracted from RA were decreased. An increase of ligustilide caused a decrease of DBTs osteogenic activity in stimulating proliferation and differentiation of cultured bone cells. In addition, in the presence of a high level of ligustilide, DBT caused a side effect inducing the proliferation of breast MCF-7 cells. The current results strongly suggest that ligustilide is a negative regulator that hinders DBT to achieve its biological efficacy, which supports the traditional practice of preparing DBT using the ethanol-treated RAS.
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Penetration of 1% voriconazole eye drops into human vitreous humour: a prospective, open-label study.
Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Although there have been reports describing the use of 1% voriconazole eye drops in the treatment of fungal infections, little is known about the penetration of voriconazole eye drops into the vitreous humour. The aim of this study was to elucidate if topical application of 1% voriconazole eye drops could reach therapeutic levels in the vitreous humour.
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An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction between the cytoplasmic domain (CD) of MHC-I, Nef, and the clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1). The CD of MHC-I contains a key tyrosine within the sequence YSQA that is required for down-regulation by Nef, but this sequence does not conform to the canonical AP-binding tyrosine-based motif Yxxphi, which mediates binding to the medium (micro) subunits of AP complexes. We previously proposed that Nef allows the MHC-I CD to bind the mu subunit of AP-1 (micro1) as if it contained a Yxxphimotif.
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Nuclear calcium signaling controls expression of a large gene pool: identification of a gene program for acquired neuroprotection induced by synaptic activity.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Synaptic activity can boost neuroprotection through a mechanism that requires synapse-to-nucleus communication and calcium signals in the cell nucleus. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons nuclear calcium is one of the most potent signals in neuronal gene expression. The induction or repression of 185 neuronal activity-regulated genes is dependent upon nuclear calcium signaling. The nuclear calcium-regulated gene pool contains a genomic program that mediates synaptic activity-induced, acquired neuroprotection. The core set of neuroprotective genes consists of 9 principal components, termed Activity-regulated Inhibitor of Death (AID) genes, and includes Atf3, Btg2, GADD45beta, GADD45gamma, Inhibin beta-A, Interferon activated gene 202B, Npas4, Nr4a1, and Serpinb2, which strongly promote survival of cultured hippocampal neurons. Several AID genes provide neuroprotection through a common process that renders mitochondria more resistant to cellular stress and toxic insults. Stereotaxic delivery of AID gene-expressing recombinant adeno-associated viruses to the hippocampus confers protection in vivo against seizure-induced brain damage. Thus, treatments that enhance nuclear calcium signaling or supplement AID genes represent novel therapies to combat neurodegenerative conditions and neuronal cell loss caused by synaptic dysfunction, which may be accompanied by a deregulation of calcium signal initiation and/or propagation to the cell nucleus.
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Expression and Localization of PRiMA-linked globular form acetylcholinesterase in vertebrate neuromuscular junctions.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
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Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is well known to process different molecular forms via the distinct interacting partners. Proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked tetrameric globular AChE (G4 AChE) is mainly found in the vertebrate brain; however, recent studies from our laboratory have suggested its existence at neuromuscular junctions (nmjs). Both muscle and motor neuron express AChE at the nmjs. In muscle, the expression of PRiMA-linked AChE is down-regulated during myogenic differentiation and by motor neuron innervation. As compared with muscle, spinal cord possessed higher total AChE activity and contained PRiMA-linked AChE forms. The spinal cord expression of this form increased during development. More importantly, PRiMA-linked G4 AChE identified as aggregates localized at nmjs. These findings suggest that the restricted localization of PRiMA-linked G4 AChE at the nmjs could be contributed by the pre-synaptic motor neuron and/or the post-synaptic muscle fiber.
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Injection laryngoplasty with hyaluronic acid for unilateral vocal cord paralysis. Randomized controlled trial comparing two different particle sizes.
J Voice
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The objective was to determine if particle size affects durability of medialization in patients undergoing injection laryngoplasty (IL) with hyaluronic acid (HA) for unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP). We hypothesized that large particle-size HA (LPHA) persists longer after injection to produce a more durable vocal result. The study design used was a prospective randomized controlled single-blind trial. Patients underwent IL with Restylane (small particle-size HA, SPHA) or Perlane (LPHA) (Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden). Injections were performed transcutaneously in the outpatient clinic. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) at 6 months postinjection was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included videostroboscopic findings, and objective acoustic and aerodynamic measures. Seventeen patients (eight SPHA, nine LPHA) were available for follow-up at 6 months. Normalized VHI scores at 6 months after IL were significantly lower in the LPHA group compared to the SPHA group when not adjusted for age and sex (P=0.027). After adjustment, the difference was not significant (P=0.053) but the LPHA group trended toward lower normalized VHI scores. The findings support the hypothesis that the larger particle-size of LPHA makes this material more durable than SPHA for IL. This material may be considered for temporary medialization in patients with UVCP in whom medium-term improvement of at least 6 months is desirable. The transcutaneous route can be used safely in the office setting in non-anticoagulated patients.
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Metabolic syndrome: perception or reality?
Curr Atheroscler Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It has garnered considerable clinical and research interest as a potential target to reduce cardiovascular risk in addition to the classical risk factors. Whether it exists as a distinct clinical entity has become a subject of controversy and debate. This review appraises the evidence in support of or against recognizing metabolic syndrome as a clinical condition that requires therapeutic intervention. Proper evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk should start with consideration of traditional risk factors using validated tools, such as the short-term 10-year Framingham risk score. Individuals with abdominal obesity should be further assessed for associated cardiometabolic risks. Global cardiovascular disease risk should take into consideration not only short-term but also lifetime risks.
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Vpu antagonizes BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release via beta-TrCP and endo-lysosomal trafficking.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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The interferon-induced transmembrane protein BST-2/CD317 (tetherin) restricts the release of diverse enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu antagonizes this restriction by an unknown mechanism that likely involves the down-regulation of BST-2 from the cell surface. Here, we show that the optimal removal of BST-2 from the plasma membrane by Vpu requires the cellular protein beta-TrCP, a substrate adaptor for a multi-subunit SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and a known Vpu-interacting protein. beta-TrCP is also required for the optimal enhancement of virion-release by Vpu. Mutations in the DSGxxS beta-TrCP binding-motif of Vpu impair both the down-regulation of BST-2 and the enhancement of virion-release. Such mutations also confer dominant-negative activity, consistent with a model in which Vpu links BST-2 to beta-TrCP. Optimal down-regulation of BST-2 from the cell surface by Vpu also requires the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2, although the rate of endocytosis is not increased; these data suggest that Vpu induces post-endocytic membrane trafficking events whose net effect is the removal of BST-2 from the cell surface. In addition to its marked effect on cell-surface levels, Vpu modestly decreases the total cellular levels of BST-2. The decreases in cell-surface and intracellular BST-2 are inhibited by bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification; these data suggest that Vpu induces late endosomal targeting and partial degradation of BST-2 in lysosomes. The Vpu-mediated decrease in surface expression is associated with reduced co-localization of BST-2 and the virion protein Gag along the plasma membrane. Together, the data support a model in which Vpu co-opts the beta-TrCP/SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to induce endosomal trafficking events that remove BST-2 from its site of action as a virion-tethering factor.
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Hibifolin, a flavonol glycoside, prevents beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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The toxicity of aggregated beta-amyloid (A beta) has been implicated as a critical cause in the development of Alzheimers disease (AD). Hibifolin, a flavonol glycoside derived from herbal plants, possessed a strong protective activity against cell death induced by aggregated A beta. Application of hibifolin in primary cortical neurons prevented the A beta-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In cultured cortical neurons, the pre-treatment of hibifolin abolished A beta-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, and also reduced A beta-induced caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation. Moreover, DNA fragmentation induced by A beta could be suppressed by hibifolin. In addition to such protection mechanisms, hibifolin was able to induce Akt phosphorylation in cortical neurons, which could be another explanation for the neuroprotection activity. These results therefore provided the first evidence that hibifolin protected neurons against A beta-induced apoptosis and stimulated Akt activation, which would be useful in developing potential drugs or food supplements for treating AD.
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Synaptic activity-mediated suppression of p53 and induction of nuclear calcium-regulated neuroprotective genes promote survival through inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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Cellular stress caused by genetic or environmental factors are considered to be the major inducers of cell death under pathological conditions. Induction of the apoptotic function of the tumor suppressor p53 is a common cellular response to severe genotoxic and oxidative stresses. In the nervous system, accumulation of p53 and increased p53 activity are associated with neuronal loss in acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that regulation of the p53 gene (trp53) is an integral part of a synaptic activity-controlled, calcium-dependent neuroprotective transcriptional program. Action potential (AP) bursting suppresses trp53 expression and downregulates key proapoptotic p53 target genes, apaf1 and bbc3 (puma). At the same time, AP bursting activates the nuclear calcium-induced neuroprotective gene, btg2. Depletion of endogenous p53 levels using RNA interference or expression of Btg2 renders neurons more resistant against excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial permeability transitions and promotes neuronal survival under severe cellular stresses. We propose that suppression of p53 functions together with nuclear calcium-regulated neuroprotective genes in a coordinate and synergistic manner to promote neuronal survival through the stabilization of mitochondria against cellular stresses.
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Cordysinocan, a polysaccharide isolated from cultured Cordyceps, activates immune responses in cultured T-lymphocytes and macrophages: signaling cascade and induction of cytokines.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, possesses activities in anti-tumor, anti-oxidation and stimulating the immune response; however, the identity of active component(s) is not determined. A strain of Cordyceps sinensis, namely UST 2000, has been isolated. By using activity-guided purification, a novel polysaccharide of molecular weight approximately 82 kDa was isolated from the conditioned medium of cultured Cordyceps. The isolated exo-polysaccharide, namely cordysinocan, contains glucose, mannose, galactose in a ratio of 2.4:2:1. In cultured T-lymphocytes, application of cordysinocan induced the cell proliferation and the secretion of interleukin-2, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8. In addition, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) was induced transiently by the treatment of cordysinocan. Moreover, application of cordysinocan in cultured macrophages increased the phagocytosis activity and the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase. These results therefore verify the important role of Cordyceps polysaccharide in triggering such immune responses.
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Epicardial border zone overexpression of skeletal muscle sodium channel SkM1 normalizes activation, preserves conduction, and suppresses ventricular arrhythmia: an in silico, in vivo, in vitro study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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In depolarized myocardial infarct epicardial border zones, the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) is largely inactivated, contributing to low action potential upstroke velocity (V(max)), slow conduction, and reentry. We hypothesized that a fast inward current such as the skeletal muscle sodium channel (SkM1) operating more effectively at depolarized membrane potentials might restore fast conduction in epicardial border zones and be antiarrhythmic.
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Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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In this work, we evaluated the diagnostic ability of near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy associated with the ensemble recursive partitioning algorithm based on random forests for identifying cancer from normal tissue in the larynx. A rapid-acquisition NIR Raman system was utilized for tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation, and 50 human laryngeal tissue specimens (20 normal; 30 malignant tumors) were used for NIR Raman studies. The random forests method was introduced to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra of different laryngeal tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800-1800 cm(-1) can be acquired from laryngeal tissue within 5 seconds. Raman spectra differed significantly between normal and malignant laryngeal tissues. Classification results obtained from the random forests algorithm on tissue Raman spectra yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 88.0% and specificity of 91.4% for laryngeal malignancy identification. The random forests technique also provided variables importance that facilitates correlation of significant Raman spectral features with cancer transformation. This study shows that NIR Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with random forests algorithm has a great potential for the rapid diagnosis and detection of malignant tumors in the larynx.
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Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.
PLoS ONE
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Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+) and a reduction of ROS.
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The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER) cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors.
BMC Cancer
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Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER) Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death.
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Case-control study of markers of insulin resistance and endometrial cancer risk.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
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Markers of insulin resistance such as the adiponectin:leptin ratio (A:L) and the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-IR) are associated with obesity and hyperinsulinemia, both established risk factors for endometrial cancer, and may therefore be informative regarding endometrial cancer risk. This study investigated the association between endometrial cancer risk and markers of insulin resistance, namely adiponectin, leptin, the A:L ratio, insulin, fasting glucose, and the HOMA-IR. We analyzed data from 541 incident endometrial cancer cases and 961 frequency age-matched controls in a population-based case-control study in Alberta, Canada from 2002 to 2006. Participants completed interview-administered questionnaires were assessed for anthropometric measures, and provided 8-h fasting blood samples either pre- or postoperatively. Blood was analyzed for concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin by immunoassay, and fasting plasma glucose levels were determined by fluorimetric quantitative determination. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of insulin and HOMA-IR was associated with 64% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.12-2.40) and 72% (95% CI: 1.17-2.53) increased risks of endometrial cancer, respectively, and the highest quartile of adiponectin was associated with a 45% (95% CI: 0.37-0.80) decreased risk after multivariable adjustments. Null associations were observed between fasting glucose, leptin and A:L, and endometrial cancer risk. This population-based study provides evidence for a role of insulin resistance in endometrial cancer etiology and may provide one possible pathway whereby obesity increases the risk of this common cancer. Interventions aimed at decreasing both obesity and insulin resistance may decrease endometrial cancer risk.
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A standardized chinese herbal decoction, kai-xin-san, restores decreased levels of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in the brain of chronic stress-induced depressive rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression.
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Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.
Phytomedicine
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The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD.
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