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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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Long-term Survival and Late Effects among 1-year Survivors of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We analyzed the outcomes of patients who survived disease-free for 1-year or more following second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for relapsed acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes between 1980 and 2009. A total of 1285 patients received a second allogeneic transplant following disease relapse; among these 325 survived relapse-free at 1-year after the second HCT. The median time from first to second HCT was 17 and 24 months for children and adults, respectively. A myeloablative preparative regimen was used in the second transplant in 62% of children and 45% of adult patients. The overall 10-year conditional survival rates after second transplantation in this cohort of patients who had survived disease-free for at least one year were 55% in children and 39% in adults. Relapse was the leading cause of mortality (77% and 54% of deaths in children and adults, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only disease status prior to second HCT was significantly associated with higher risk for overall mortality (HR 1.71 for patients with disease not in complete remission prior to second HCT, P<0.01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 43% and 75% of children and adults following second transplant. Chronic GVHD was the leading cause of non-relapse mortality followed by organ failure and infection. The cumulative incidence of developing at least one of the studied late effects at 10-years after second HCT was 63% in children and 55% in adults. The most frequent late effects in children were growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence 22%) and cataracts (20%), and in adults were cataracts (20%) and avascular necrosis (13%). Among patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who receive a second allogeneic HCT for relapse and survive disease-free for at least 1-year, many can be expected to survive long term. However, they continue to be at risk for relapse and non-relapse morbidity and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to minimize relapse risk and long-term transplant morbidity in this population.
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Second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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We examined risk of second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) using reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NMC). RIC/NMC recipients with leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 2833) and lymphoma (n = 1436) between 1995 and 2006 were included. In addition, RIC/NMC recipients 40 to 60 years of age (n = 2138) were compared with patients of the same age receiving myeloablative conditioning (MAC, n = 6428). The cumulative incidence of solid cancers was 3.35% at 10 years. There was no increase in overall cancer risk compared with the general population (leukemia/MDS: standardized incidence ratio [SIR] .99, P = 1.00; lymphoma: SIR .92, P = .75). However, risks were significantly increased in leukemia/MDS patients for cancers of lip (SIR 14.28), tonsil (SIR 8.66), oropharynx (SIR 46.70), bone (SIR 23.53), soft tissue (SIR 12.92), and vulva (SIR 18.55) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.04). Lymphoma patients had significantly higher risks of oropharyngeal cancer (SIR 67.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.52). Among RIC/NMC recipients, age >50 years was the only independent risk factor for solid cancers (hazard ratio [HR] 3.02, P < .001). Among patients ages 40 to 60 years, when adjusted for other factors, there was no difference in cancer risks between RIC/NMC and MAC in leukemia/MDS patients (HR .98, P = .905). In lymphoma patients, risks were lower after RIC/NMC (HR .51, P = .047). In conclusion, the overall risks of second solid cancers in RIC/NMC recipients are similar to the general population, although there is an increased risk of cancer at some sites. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to realize the complete risks of solid cancers after RIC/NMC AHCT.
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Assessment of joint and fascia manifestations in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To investigate the usefulness of various scales for evaluating joint and fascia manifestations in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and to compare the scales in terms of simplicity of use and ability to yield reliable and clinically meaningful results.
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Opportunities and challenges of proteomics in pediatric patients: Circulating biomarkers after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a successful example.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, facilitate-targeted treatment, and reduce health care costs. Thus, there is great hope that biomarkers will be integrated in all clinical decisions in the near future. A decade ago, the biomarker field was launched with great enthusiasm because MS revealed that blood contains a rich library of candidate biomarkers. However, biomarker research has not yet delivered on its promise due to several limitations: (i) improper sample handling and tracking as well as limited sample availability in the pediatric population, (ii) omission of appropriate controls in original study designs, (iii) lability and low abundance of interesting biomarkers in blood, and (iv) the inability to mechanistically tie biomarker presence to disease biology. These limitations as well as successful strategies to overcome them are discussed in this review. Several advances in biomarker discovery and validation have been made in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current most effective tumor immunotherapy, and these could serve as examples for other conditions. This review provides fresh optimism that biomarkers clinically relevant in pediatrics are closer to being realized based on: (i) a uniform protocol for low-volume blood collection and preservation, (ii) inclusion of well-controlled independent cohorts, (iii) novel technologies and instrumentation with low analytical sensitivity, and (iv) integrated animal models for exploring potential biomarkers and targeted therapies.
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Pulmonary Symptoms Measured by the National Institutes of Health Lung Score Predict Overall Survival, Nonrelapse Mortality, and Patient-Reported Outcomes In Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference recommended assessment of lung function in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by both pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and assessment of pulmonary symptoms. We tested whether pulmonary measures were associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Clinician and patient-reported data were collected serially in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Available PFT data were abstracted. Cox regression models were fit for outcomes using a time-varying covariate model for lung function measures and adjusting for patient and transplantation characteristics and nonlung chronic GVHD severity. A total of 1591 visits (496 patients) were used in this analysis. The NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with NRM (P = .02), OS (P = .02), patient-reported symptoms (P < .001) and functional status (P < .001). Worsening of NIH symptom-based lung score over time was associated with higher NRM and lower survival. All other measures were not associated with OS or NRM; although, some were associated with patient-reported lung symptoms. In conclusion, the NIH symptom-based lung symptom score of 0 to 3 is associated with NRM, OS, and PRO measures in patients with chronic GVHD. Worsening of the NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with increased mortality.
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Hand grip strength and 2-minute walk test in chronic graft-versus-host disease assessment: analysis from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Hand grip strength (HGS) and the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) have been proposed as elements of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) assessment in clinical trials. Using all available data (n = 584 enrollment visits, 1689 follow-up visits, total of 2273 visits) from a prospective observational cohort study, we explored the relationship between HGS and 2MWT and patient-reported measures (Lee symptom scale, MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT]-Bone Marrow Transplantation quality of life instruments and Human Activity Profile [HAP]), chronic GVHD global severity (National Institutes of Health global score, clinician global score, and patient-reported global score), calculated and clinician-reported chronic GVHD response, and mortality (overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and failure-free survival) in multivariable analyses adjusted for significant covariates. 2MWT was significantly associated with intuitive domains of the Lee Symptom Scale (overall, skin, lung, energy), SF-36 domain and summary scores, FACT summary and domain scores, and HAP scores (all P < .001). Fewer associations were detected with the HGS. The 2MWT and HGS both had significant association with global chronic GVHD severity. In multivariable analysis, 2MWT was significantly associated with overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and failure-free survival, whereas no association was found for HGS. 2MWT and HGS were not sensitive to National Institutes of Health or clinician-reported response. Based on independent association with mortality, these data support the importance of the 2MWT for identification of high-risk chronic GVHD patients. However, change in 2MWT is not sensitive to chronic GVHD response, limiting its usefulness in clinical trials.
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Overlap subtype of chronic graft-versus-host disease is associated with an adverse prognosis, functional impairment, and inferior patient-reported outcomes: a Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Consortium study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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The National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference proposed the term "overlap" graft-versus-host disease to describe the situation when both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are present.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Global and organ-specific chronic graft-versus-host disease severity according to the 2005 NIH Consensus Criteria.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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In 2005, the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic GVHD proposed a new scoring system for individual organs and an algorithm for calculating global severity (mild, moderate, severe). The Chronic GVHD Consortium was established to test these new criteria. This report includes the first 298 adult patients enrolled at 5 centers of the Consortium. Patients were assessed every 3-6 months using standardized forms recommended by the Consensus Conference. At the time of study enrollment, global chronic GVHD severity was mild in 10% (n = 32), moderate in 59% (n = 175), and severe in 31% (n = 91). Skin, lung, or eye scores determined the global severity score in the majority of cases, with the other 5 organs determining 16% of the global severity scores. Conventional risk factors predictive for onset of chronic GVHD and nonrelapse mortality in people with chronic GVHD were not associated with NIH global severity scores. Global severity scores at enrollment were associated with nonrelapse mortality (P < .0001) and survival (P < .0001); 2-year overall survival was 62% (severe), 86% (moderate), and 97% (mild). Patients with mild chronic GVHD have a good prognosis, while patients with severe chronic GVHD have a poor prognosis. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT00637689.
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Validation of measurement scales in ocular graft-versus-host disease.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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To validate measurement scales for rating ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Candidate scales were recommended for use in clinical trials by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic GVHD Consensus Conference or have been previously validated in dry eye syndromes.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Long-term survival and late deaths after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative but is associated with life-threatening complications. Most deaths occur within the first 2 years after transplantation. In this report, we examine long-term survival in 2-year survivors in the largest cohort ever studied.
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Randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for newly diagnosed chronic graft-versus-host disease in children: a Childrens Oncology Group study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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The Childrens Oncology Group conducted a multicenter Phase III trial for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study evaluated hydroxychloroquine added to standard therapy for children with newly diagnosed cGVHD. The study also used a novel grading and response scoring system and evaluated clinical laboratory correlates of cGVHD. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) after 9 months of therapy. Fifty-four patients (27 on each arm) were enrolled before closure because of slow accrual. The CR rate was 28% in the hydroxychloroquine arm versus 33% in the placebo arm (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20-2.93, P = .75) for 42 evaluable patients. For 41 patients with severity assessment at enrollment, 20 (49%) were severe and 18 (44%) moderate according to the National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference global scoring system. The CR rate was 15% for severe cGVHD and 44% for moderate cGVHD (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.05-1.06, P = .07). Although the study could not resolve the primary question, it provided important information for future cGVHD study design in this population.
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Patient-reported quality of life is associated with severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease as measured by NIH criteria: report on baseline data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Quality of life (QOL) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is compromised by chronic GVHD. In a prospectively assembled multicenter cohort of adults with chronic GVHD (n = 298), we examined the relationship between chronic GVHD severity defined by National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria and QOL as measured by the SF-36 and FACT-BMT instruments at time of enrollment. Chronic GVHD severity was independently associated with QOL, adjusting for age. Compared with population normative data, SF-36 scores were more than a SD (10 points) lower on average for the summary physical component score (PCS) and role-physical subscale, and significantly lower (with magnitude 4-10 points) for several other subscales. Patients with moderate and severe cGVHD had PCS scores comparable with scores reported for systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis, and greater impairment compared with common chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension, and chronic lung disease. Moderate to severe cGVHD as defined by NIH criteria is associated with significant compromise in multiple QOL domains, with PCS scores in the range of other systemic autoimmune diseases. Compromised QOL provides a functional assessment of the effects of chronic GVHD, and may be measured in cGVHD clinical studies using either the SF-36 or the FACT-BMT.
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Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation in pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes: improved outcomes for de novo disease.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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We report 23 consecutive pediatric patients with MDS who received allogeneic HSCT on IRB approved protocols between 1992 and 2009 at Childrens Memorial Hospital (Chicago, IL). Nine patients had de novo MDS, whereas 14 patients had treatment-related MDS. All patients had a documented cytogenetic abnormality, and monosomy 7/7q- was seen in 12 patients (52%). Fourteen of 23 patients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; RIC regimens were used for the remaining nine. Five patients relapsed post-transplant, including four patients who received RIC transplant and four patients with treatment-related MDS. For the entire group, estimated five-yr RFS and OS were 47% and 50%, respectively. Treatment-related MDS was associated with decreased RFS in comparison with de novo MDS (33% vs. 70%, p = 0.05). Five-year OS rates reached 80% for those with de novo MDS. RIC regimens were associated with decreased three-yr RFS in comparison with myeloablative regimens (22% vs. 68%, p = 0.02). There was no correlation of survival with blast count at diagnosis, IPSS score, cytogenetic abnormality, donor type, or HLA match. Larger series are needed to confirm prognostic factors so that higher-risk patients can be targeted with novel approaches.
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Long-term survival in a pediatric patient with supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor and extraneural metastasis at diagnosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Extraneural metastases of central nervous system (CNS) tumors are rare occurrences most commonly observed in medulloblastomas. Survival outcomes are generally dismal. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (stPNET) are rare childhood tumors with few documented cases of extraneural metastases. We present a rare occurrence of a 23-month-old patient with long-term survival after diagnosis of stPNET with metastases to the lungs. This patient was treated with surgical resection, induction chemotherapy, tandem autologous hematopoietic cell rescues, and focal radiotherapy. We report long-term survival for a patient with a stPNET and extraneural metastases at diagnosis following an intensive approach to treatment.
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A multicenter pilot evaluation of the National Institutes of Health chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) therapeutic response measures: feasibility, interrater reliability, and minimum detectable change.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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The lack of standardized criteria for measuring therapeutic response is a major obstacle to the development of new therapeutic agents for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for evaluating therapeutic response were published in 2006. We report the results of 4 consecutive pilot trials evaluating the feasibility and estimating the interrater reliability and minimum detectable change of these response criteria. Hematology-oncology clinicians with limited experience in applying the NIH cGVHD response criteria (n = 34) participated in a 2.5-hour training session on response evaluation in cGVHD. Feasibility and interrater reliability between subspecialty cGVHD experts and this panel of clinician raters were examined in a sample of 25 children and adults with cGVHD. The minimum detectable change was calculated using the standard error of measurement. Clinicians impressions of the brief training session, the photo atlas, and the response criteria documentation tools were generally favorable. Performing and documenting the full set of response evaluations required a median of 21 minutes (range: 12-60 minutes) per rater. The Schirmer tear test required the greatest time of any single test (median: 9 minutes). Overall, interrater agreement for skin and oral manifestations was modest; however, in the third and fourth trials, the agreement between clinicians and experts for all dimensions except movable sclerosis approached satisfactory values. In the final 2 trials, the threshold for defining change exceeding measurement error was 19% to 22% body surface area (BSA) for erythema, 18% to 26% BSA for movable sclerosis, 17% to 21% BSA for nonmovable sclerosis, and 2.1 to 2.6 points on the 15-point NIH Oral cGHVD scale. Agreement between clinician-expert pairs was moderate to substantial for the measures of functional capacity and for the gastrointestinal and global cGVHD rating scales. These results suggest that the NIH response criteria are feasible for use, and these reliability estimates are encouraging, because they were observed following a single 2.5-hour training session given at multiple transplant centers, with no opportunity for iterative training and calibration. Research is needed to evaluate inter- and intrarater reliability in larger samples, and to evaluate these response criteria as predictors of outcomes in clinical trials.
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Optimal management of chronic graft-versus-host disease in children.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Not only is it the major cause of late mortality in HSCT patients, but it also accounts for significant morbidity. Much of the literature on chronic GVHD has focused on adults. Chronic GVHD is of major importance in children, especially since they have years to live following the complications of chronic GVHD and its therapy. The goal is to review incidence, manifestations, and therapies, especially when applicable to the paediatric population.
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Pregnancy after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the late effects working committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Preservation of fertility after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have a significant influence on the quality of life of transplant survivors. We describe 178 pregnancies in HCT recipients that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 2002 and 2007. There were 83 pregnancies in female HCT recipients and 95 pregnancies in female partners of male HCT recipients. Indications for transplantation included hematologic and other malignancies (N = 99) and nonmalignant disorders (N = 79, of which 75 patients had severe aplastic anemia). The cohort included recipients of autologous HCT (20 women, 13 men), myeloablative (MA) allogeneic HCT (12 women, 50 men), and nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (2 women, 2 men). Age at HCT was <20 years for 50% of women and 19% of men. Conditioning regimens included total body irradiation (TBI) in 16% of women and 19% of men; doses were MA in 10% of women and in 16% of men. Live births were reported in 86% of pregnancies in partners of male transplant patients and 85% of pregnancies in female transplant patients, with most pregnancies occurring 5 to 10 years after HCT. We conclude that some HCT recipients can retain fertility, including patients who have received TBI and/or MA conditioning. Young patients undergoing HCT should be counseled both before and after HCT about potential loss of fertility, methods for preserving fertility, and planning for future pregnancy. Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after HCT need prospective evaluation in large transplant cohorts.
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Efficacy and safety of ex vivo cultured adult human mesenchymal stem cells (Prochymal™) in pediatric patients with severe refractory acute graft-versus-host disease in a compassionate use study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Preliminary studies using directed-donor ex vivo expanded human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown promise in the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). However, their production is cumbersome and standardization is difficult. We describe the first experience of using a premanufactured, universal donor, formulation of hMSCs (Prochymal) in children (n = 12; 10 boys; 9 Caucasian; age range: 0.4-15 years) with treatment-resistant grade III and IV aGVHD who received therapy on compassionate use basis between July 2005 and June 2007 at 5 transplant centers. All patients had stage III or IV gut (GI) symptoms and half had additional liver and/or skin involvement. Disease was refractory to steroids in all cases and additionally to a median of 3 other immunosuppressive therapies. The hMSCs (8 × 10(6)cells/kg/dose in 2 patients and 2 × 10(6)cells/kg/dose in the rest) were infused intravenously over 1 hour twice a week for 4 weeks. Partial and mixed responders received subsequent weekly therapy for 4 weeks. HLA or other matching was not needed. The hMSCs were started at a median of 98 days (range: 45-237) posttransplant. A total of 124 doses were administered, with a median of 8 doses (range: 2-21) per patient. Overall, 7 (58%) patients had complete response, 2 (17%) partial response, and 3 (25%) mixed response. Complete resolution of GI symptoms occurred in 9 (75%) patients. Two patients relapsed after initial response and showed partial response to retreatment. The cumulative incidence of survival at 100 days from the initiation of Prochymal therapy was 58%. Five of 12 patients (42%) were still alive after a median follow-up of 611 days (range: 427-1111) in surviving patients. No infusional or other identifiable acute toxicity was seen in any patient. Multiple infusions of hMSCs were well tolerated and appeared to be safe in children. Clinical responses, particularly in the GI system, were seen in the majority of children with severe refractory aGVHD. Given the favorable results observed in a patient population with an otherwise grave prognosis, we conclude that hMSCs hold potential for the treatment of aGVHD, and should be further studied in phase III trials in pediatric and adult patients.
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The use of fluid boluses to safely perform extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in low-weight children: a novel procedure.
J Clin Apher
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Apheresis procedures in small children are technically challenging and require special planning with attention to extracorporeal volume. Discontinuous procedures such as extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) require additional consideration. Alternative methods to perform ECP have been utilized in small children that require manipulation of mononuclear cells outside the standard closed-loop system. We present a safe and feasible alternative to the procedure for children who weigh less than 40 Kg, while maintaining a closed loop, sterile system utilizing the UVAR XTS device. A retrospective chart review was performed analyzing the use of fluid boluses (normal saline in those between 20 and 40 Kg, 5% albumin in those under 20 Kg) before ECP. Eleven patients underwent 334 ECP procedures for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (n = 9), and for prevention of graft-versus-host disease (n = 2). Volumes of fluid boluses were calculated based on the expected extracorporeal volume during the first draw cycle. Treatments consisted of at least three draw cycles using the 125 mL bowl. The median weight was 28.5 Kg (range 19 to 39); nine of 11 required red cell transfusions to maintain adequate hematocrit. Complications attributed to ECP included tachycardia, dizziness, nausea, and hypotension; these occurred either in combination or isolation in 31% of the procedures and resolved following additional fluid boluses. Only three (0.8%) required early photoactivation due to these complications. The median time to completion of treatment was 2 h and 58 min (range 1:30 to 5:03). ECP is well tolerated in low-weight pediatric patients if hematocrit and hydration are carefully maintained.
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Advancement of pediatric blood and marrow transplantation research in North America: priorities of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Advances in pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are slowed by the small number of patients with a given disease who undergo transplantation, a lack of sufficient infrastructure to run early-phase oncology protocols and studies of rare nonmalignant disorders, and challenges associated with funding multi-institutional trials. Leadership of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC), a large pediatric BMT clinical trials network representing 77 active and 45 affiliated centers worldwide, met in April 2009 to develop strategic plans to address these issues. Key barriers, including infrastructure development and funding, along with scientific initiatives in malignant and nonmalignant disorders, cellular therapeutics, graft-versus-host disease, and supportive care were discussed. The PBMTCs agenda for approaching these issues will result in infrastructure and trials specific to pediatrics that will run through the PBMTC or its partners, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network and the Childrens Oncology Group.
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Evaluation of pentostatin in corticosteroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease in children: a Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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There is no standard therapy for steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This problem is particularly daunting in children with chronic GVHD, whereby the effects of the disease and its treatment may impair normal growth and development. Children are also particularly vulnerable to failure and/or toxicity of therapy; for example, joint contractures or joint damage may result in life-long disability. The Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium performed a phase 2 trial of pentostatin for steroid-refractory chronic GVHD in 51 children (median age, 9.8 years) from 24 institutions. Overall response was 53% (95% confidence interval, 40%-64%), with a response of 59% (95% confidence interval, 42%-75%) in sclerosis. Thirteen subjects (25%) had toxicity requiring them to stop pentostatin. The drug had a significant steroid-sparing effect in those that responded. A trend was also observed toward increased survival at 3 years in responders versus nonresponders (69% vs 50%; P = .06). The intravenous administration of the drug ensures compliance in a patient group in which oral therapy is difficult to monitor. Pentostatin has activity in refractory chronic GVHD in children, and future studies, including treatment of children newly diagnosed with high-risk chronic GVHD, are warranted. The trial was registered at www.Clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00144430.
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A phase II prospective study of sequential myeloablative chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue for the treatment of selected high risk and recurrent central nervous system tumors.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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High risk/recurrent CNS tumors have a poor prognosis. We studied tandem high dose chemotherapy (HDC) with hematopoietic progenitor stem cell rescues (HPCR) as potentially curative therapy. Twenty-four patients (mean age 6.8 years) were enrolled, 19 underwent HDC/HPCR. Diagnoses were medulloblastoma (n = 9), germ cell tumor (n = 4), high grade astrocytoma (n = 2), supratentorial PNET (n = 1), pineoblastoma (n = 2), or papillary meningioma (n = 1). Cytoreduction regimen #1 consisted of carboplatin (500 mg/m(2)) x 3 days, etoposide (250 mg/m(2)) x 3 days, and thiotepa (300 mg/m(2)) x 3 days. Patients without progression or excessive toxicity (n = 11), received regimen #2 with melphalan (60 mg/m(2)) x 3 days and cyclophosphamide (1,500 mg/m(2)) x 4 days. Projected overall/event-free survival for the 19 patients was 51/37% and 34/28% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Toxicity was significant with six treatment related deaths including four with veno-occlusive disease. This regimen of sequential HDC/HPCR in high risk/recurrent CNS tumor patients is not feasible due to toxicity.
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High WT1 gene expression before haematopoietic stem cell transplant in children with acute myeloid leukaemia predicts poor event-free survival.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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WT1 gene expression has been proposed as a useful marker of minimal residual disease in leukaemia. Its utility in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been studied. We studied the prognostic value of WT1 expression in peripheral blood prior to HSCT in 36 children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Samples were obtained 2 weeks pre-transplant to determine the level of WT1 expression. WT1 expression was normalized using K562 cells as a control and a relative value of 0.5 was chosen as the cut-off point between high and low WT1 expression. The median level of pre-transplant WT1 expression in the 36 patients was 0.09 (range 0.0001-11.0), with 11 patients having WT1 >or= 0.5 and 25, WT1 < 0.5. After HSCT, 76% of patients with high pre-transplant WT1 expression relapsed, in contrast to 0% of the patients with low WT1 expression. Those with high WT1 expression had significantly lower 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (18%, 95% CI 0-40%) as compared to those with low WT1 expression (68%, 95% CI 50-86%, P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that pre-transplant WT1 level is the only significant prognostic factor for the difference in EFS. Our finding suggests that elevated WT1 gene expression before HSCT in paediatric AML predicts relapse and poor long-term EFS. A larger prospective study is warranted to compare the value of high WT1 expression and other markers of minimal residue disease in predicting clinical outcomes after HSCT.
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Late effects in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with acquired severe aplastic anemia: a report from the late effects working committee of the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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With improvements in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), there is a growing population of SAA survivors after HCT. However, there is a paucity of information regarding late effects that occur after HCT in SAA survivors. This study describes the malignant and nonmalignant late effects in survivors with SAA after HCT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 1718 patients post-HCT for acquired SAA between 1995 and 2006 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The prevalence and cumulative incidence estimates of late effects are reported for 1-year HCT survivors with SAA. Of the HCT recipients, 1176 (68.5%) and 542 (31.5%) patients underwent a matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) HCT, respectively. The median age at the time of HCT was 20 years. The median interval from diagnosis to transplantation was 3 months for MSD HCT and 14 months for URD HCT. The median follow-up was 70 months and 67 months for MSD and URD HCT survivors, respectively. Overall survival at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years for the entire cohort was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74-78), 73% (95% CI: 71-75), and 70% (95% CI: 68-72). Among 1-year survivors of MSD HCT, 6% had 1 late effect and 1% had multiple late effects. For 1-year survivors of URD HCT, 13% had 1 late effect and 2% had multiple late effects. Among survivors of MSD HCT, the cumulative incidence estimates of developing late effects were all <3% and did not increase over time. In contrast, for recipients of URD HCT, the cumulative incidence of developing several late effects exceeded 3% by 5 years: gonadal dysfunction 10.5% (95% CI: 7.3-14.3), growth disturbance 7.2% (95% CI: 4.4-10.7), avascular necrosis 6.3% (95% CI: 3.6-9.7), hypothyroidism 5.5% (95% CI: 2.8-9.0), and cataracts 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9-8.0). Our results indicated that all patients undergoing HCT for SAA remain at risk for late effects, must be counseled about, and should be monitored for late effects for the remainder of their lives.
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Correlation between NIH composite skin score, patient-reported skin score, and outcome: results from the Chronic GVHD Consortium.
Blood
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There are no validated criteria to measure skin response in chronic GVHD. In a prospectively assembled, multicenter cohort of patients with chronic GVHD (N = 458), we looked for correlation of change in several different scales recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus with clinician and patient perception of change and overall survival. Of the clinician scales, the NIH composite 0-3 skin score was the only one that correlated with both clinician and patient perception of improvement or worsening. Of the patient-reported scales, the skin subscale of the Lee Symptom Scale was the only one that correlated with both clinician and patient perception of improvement or worsening. At study entry, NIH skin score 3 and Lee skin symptom score > 15 were both associated with worse overall survival. Worsening of NIH skin score at 6 months was associated with worse overall survival. Improvement in the Lee skin symptom score at 6 months was associated with improved overall survival. Our findings support the use of the NIH composite 0-3 skin score and the Lee skin symptom score as simple and sensitive measures to evaluate skin involvement in clinical trials as well as in the clinical monitoring of patients with cutaneous chronic GVHD.
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Poor agreement between clinician response ratings and calculated response measures in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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In 2005, a National Institutes of Health consensus conference was held to refine methods for research in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease, including proposed objective response measures and a provisional algorithm for calculating organ-specific and overall response. In this study, we used weighted kappa statistics to evaluate the level of agreement between clinician response ratings and calculated response categories in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. The study included 290 patients who had paired enrollment and follow-up visits. Based on a set of objective measures, 37% of the patients had an overall complete or partial response, whereas clinicians reported an overall complete or partial response rate of 71% (slight to fair agreement, weighted kappa 0.20). Agreement rates between calculated organ-specific responses and clinician-reported changes in skin, mouth, and eyes were fair to moderate (weighted kappa, 0.28-0.54). We conclude that for both overall and organ-specific comparisons, clinician response ratings did not agree well with calculated response categories. Possible reasons for this discrepancy include a high clinical sensitivity for detecting response, a clinical predisposition to recognize selective improvements as overall response, the large change in objective measures proposed to define response, and the high incidence of progressive disease based on new manifestations. Conclusions from prior literature reporting high overall response rates based on clinician judgment would not be supported if the provisional algorithm had been applied to calculate response. Our analysis also highlights the need to define an overall response measure that incorporates both patient-reported and objective measures and accurately reflects the outcome in patients with a mixed response in which one organ or site improves, whereas another shows new involvement.
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Clinical benefit of response in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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To determine whether changes in objective response measures proposed by the National Institutes of Health correlate with clinical benefit, such as symptom burden, quality of life, and survival outcomes, we analyzed data from a multicenter prospective cohort of 283 patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment. The median follow-up time of survivors was 25.1 months (range, 5.4-47.7 months) after enrollment. Symptom measures included the Lee symptom scale and 10-point patient-reported symptoms. Quality-of-life measures included the Short Form-36, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplantation, and Human Activities Profile. Overall and organ-specific responses were calculated by comparing manifestations at the 6-month visit and those at the enrollment visit using a provisional algorithm. Complete or partial responses were considered "response," and stable or progressive disease was considered "no response." Overall response rate at 6 months was 32%. Organ-specific response rates were 45% for skin, 23% for eyes, 32% for mouth, and 51% for gastrointestinal tract. Response at 6 months, as calculated according to the provisional response algorithm, was correlated with changes in symptom burden in patients with newly diagnosed chronic graft-versus-host disease, but not with changes in quality of life or survival outcomes. Modification of the algorithm or validation of other more meaningful clinical endpoints is warranted for future clinical trials of treatment for chronic graft-versus-host disease.
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Child and parent perspectives of the chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) symptom experience: a concept elicitation study.
Support Care Cancer
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant and is associated with a wide range of distressing symptoms. A pediatric measure of cGVHD-related symptoms is needed to advance clinical research. Our aim was to elicit descriptions of the cGVHD symptom experience directly from children and to compare the specific language used by children to describe their symptoms and the comprehension of symptom concepts across the developmental spectrum.
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