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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mesenchymal-like pancreatic cancer cells harbor specific genomic alterations more frequently than their epithelial-like counterparts.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer is associated with the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics by a subset of pancreatic cancer cells. The factors driving the development of this subset are not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype occurs selectively in tumor cells that harbor specific enabling genetic alterations. We obtained whole-genome comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) measurements on pancreatic cancer cell lines that have either an epithelial-like (17 cell lines) or a mesenchymal-like (9 cell lines) phenotype in vitro. The total amounts of amplifications and deletions were equivalent between the epithelial and mesenchymal groups, but 20 genes showed a major difference between the groups in prevalence of alterations. All 20 alterations (18 deletions and 2 amplifications) were more prevalent in the mesenchymal group, confirming the advanced nature of this cellular subtype. CDKN2A was altered in more than 50% of both groups, but co-deletions in neighboring genes, and concomitant loss of gene expression, were more prevalent in the mesenchymal group, suggesting that the size of the loss around CDKN2A affects cell phenotype. Whole-genome CGH on 11 primary cancer tissues revealed that the 20 genes were altered at a higher prevalence (up to 55% of the cases for certain genes) than randomly selected sets of 20 genes, with the same direction of alteration as in the cell lines. These findings support the concept that specific genetic alterations enable phenotype plasticity and provide promising candidate genes for further research.
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Using a rhabdomyosarcoma patient-derived xenograft to examine precision medicine approaches and model acquired resistance.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Precision (Personalized) medicine has the potential to revolutionize patient health care especially for many cancers where the fundamental disease etiology remains either elusive or has no available therapy. Here we outline a study in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, in which we use gene expression profiling and a series of drug prediction algorithms combined with a matched patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model to test bioinformatically predicted therapies.
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Sox2 promotes malignancy in glioblastoma by regulating plasticity and astrocytic differentiation.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The high-mobility group-box transcription factor sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is essential for the maintenance of stem cells from early development to adult tissues. Sox2 can reprogram differentiated cells into pluripotent cells in concert with other factors and is overexpressed in various cancers. In glioblastoma (GBM), Sox2 is a marker of cancer stemlike cells (CSCs) in neurosphere cultures and is associated with the proneural molecular subtype. Here, we report that Sox2 expression pattern in GBM tumors and patient-derived mouse xenografts is not restricted to a small percentage of cells and is coexpressed with various lineage markers, suggesting that its expression extends beyond CSCs to encompass more differentiated neoplastic cells across molecular subtypes. Employing a CSC derived from a patient with GBM and isogenic differentiated cell model, we show that Sox2 knockdown in the differentiated state abolished dedifferentiation and acquisition of CSC phenotype. Furthermore, Sox2 deficiency specifically impaired the astrocytic component of a biphasic gliosarcoma xenograft model while allowing the formation of tumors with sarcomatous phenotype. The expression of genes associated with stem cells and malignancy were commonly downregulated in both CSCs and serum-differentiated cells on Sox2 knockdown. Genes previously shown to be associated with pluripontency and CSCs were only affected in the CSC state, whereas embryonic stem cell self-renewal genes and cytokine signaling were downregulated, and the Wnt pathway activated in differentiated Sox2-deficient cells. Our results indicate that Sox2 regulates the expression of key genes and pathways involved in GBM malignancy, in both cancer stemlike and differentiated cells, and maintains plasticity for bidirectional conversion between the two states, with significant clinical implications.
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Prospective molecular profiling of canine cancers provides a clinically relevant comparative model for evaluating personalized medicine (PMed) trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Molecularly-guided trials (i.e. PMed) now seek to aid clinical decision-making by matching cancer targets with therapeutic options. Progress has been hampered by the lack of cancer models that account for individual-to-individual heterogeneity within and across cancer types. Naturally occurring cancers in pet animals are heterogeneous and thus provide an opportunity to answer questions about these PMed strategies and optimize translation to human patients. In order to realize this opportunity, it is now necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting molecularly-guided analysis of tumors from dogs with naturally occurring cancer in a clinically relevant setting.
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Molecular-guided therapy predictions reveal drug resistance phenotypes and treatment alternatives in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare highly aggressive sarcomas that affect 8-13% of people with neurofibromatosis type 1. The prognosis for patients with MPNST is very poor. Despite TOP2A overexpression in these tumors, doxorubicin resistance is common, and the mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in MPNST are poorly understood. Molecular-guided therapy prediction is an emerging strategy for treatment refractory sarcomas that involves identification of therapy response and resistance mechanisms in individual tumors. Here, we report the results from a personalized, molecular-guided therapy analysis of MPNST samples.
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A multi-site feasibility study for personalized medicine in canines with Osteosarcoma.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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A successful therapeutic strategy, specifically tailored to the molecular constitution of an individual and their disease, is an ambitious objective of modern medicine. In this report, we highlight a feasibility study in canine osteosarcoma focused on refining the infrastructure and processes required for prospective clinical trials using a series of gene expression-based Personalized Medicine (PMed) algorithms to predict suitable therapies within 5 days of sample receipt.
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Comparative RNA-Seq and microarray analysis of gene expression changes in B-cell lymphomas of Canis familiaris.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Comparative oncology is a developing research discipline that is being used to assist our understanding of human neoplastic diseases. Companion canines are a preferred animal oncology model due to spontaneous tumor development and similarity to human disease at the pathophysiological level. We use a paired RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)/microarray analysis of a set of four normal canine lymph nodes and ten canine lymphoma fine needle aspirates to identify technical biases and variation between the technologies and convergence on biological disease pathways. Surrogate Variable Analysis (SVA) provides a formal multivariate analysis of the combined RNA-Seq/microarray data set. Applying SVA to the data allows us to decompose variation into contributions associated with transcript abundance, differences between the technology, and latent variation within each technology. A substantial and highly statistically significant component of the variation reflects transcript abundance, and RNA-Seq appeared more sensitive for detection of transcripts expressed at low levels. Latent random variation among RNA-Seq samples is also distinct in character from that impacting microarray samples. In particular, we observed variation between RNA-Seq samples that reflects transcript GC content. Platform-independent variable decomposition without a priori knowledge of the sources of variation using SVA represents a generalizable method for accomplishing cross-platform data analysis. We identified genes differentially expressed between normal lymph nodes of disease free dogs and a subset of the diseased dogs diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma using each technology. There is statistically significant overlap between the RNA-Seq and microarray sets of differentially expressed genes. Analysis of overlapping genes in the context of biological systems suggests elevated expression and activity of PI3K signaling in B-cell lymphoma biopsies compared with normal biopsies, consistent with literature describing successful use of drugs targeting this pathway in lymphomas.
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MEK2 is sufficient but not necessary for proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKK or MEK) 1 and 2 are usually treated as redundant kinases. However, in assessing their relative contribution towards ERK-mediated biologic response investigators have relied on tests of necessity, not sufficiency. In response we developed a novel experimental model using lethal toxin (LeTx), an anthrax toxin-derived pan-MKK protease, and genetically engineered protease resistant MKK mutants (MKKcr) to test the sufficiency of MEK signaling in melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells. Surprisingly, ERK activity persisted in LeTx-treated cells expressing MEK2cr but not MEK1cr. Microarray analysis revealed non-overlapping downstream transcriptional targets of MEK1 and MEK2, and indicated a substantial rescue effect of MEK2cr on proliferation pathways. Furthermore, LeTx efficiently inhibited the cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of SK-MEL-28 cells expressing MKK1cr but not MEK2cr. These results indicate in SK-MEL-28 cells MEK1 and MEK2 signaling pathways are not redundant and interchangeable for cell proliferation. We conclude that in the absence of other MKK, MEK2 is sufficient for SK-MEL-28 cell proliferation. MEK1 conditionally compensates for loss of MEK2 only in the presence of other MKK.
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MicroRNA 92a-2*: a biomarker predictive for chemoresistance and prognostic for survival in patients with small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Although the majority of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) respond to initial chemotherapy, those with disease progression at first response assessment (chemoresistance) have inferior outcomes. There is a need for predictive biomarkers to aid investigators in designing future clinical trials that better stratify patients beyond standard clinical and laboratory parameters and to identify new treatments for this patient subpopulation. We hypothesized that tumor microRNAs (miRNAs) could serve as predictive biomarkers for chemoresistance and prognostic biomarkers for survival of patients with SCLC treated with systemic chemotherapy.
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Identifying disease-specific genes based on their topological significance in protein networks.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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The identification of key target nodes within complex molecular networks remains a common objective in scientific research. The results of pathway analyses are usually sets of fairly complex networks or functional processes that are deemed relevant to the condition represented by the molecular profile. To be useful in a research or clinical laboratory, the results need to be translated to the level of testable hypotheses about individual genes and proteins within the condition of interest.
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Genomic characterization of explant tumorgraft models derived from fresh patient tumor tissue.
J Transl Med
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There is resurgence within drug and biomarker development communities for the use of primary tumorgraft models as improved predictors of patient tumor response to novel therapeutic strategies. Despite perceived advantages over cell line derived xenograft models, there is limited data comparing the genotype and phenotype of tumorgrafts to the donor patient tumor, limiting the determination of molecular relevance of the tumorgraft model. This report directly compares the genomic characteristics of patient tumors and the derived tumorgraft models, including gene expression, and oncogenic mutation status.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.