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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increased alpha-9 human papillomavirus species viral load in human immunodeficiency virus positive women.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and increased HR-HPV viral load are associated with the development of cancer. This study investigated the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, HIV viral load and CD4 count on the HR-HPV viral load; and also investigated the predictors of cervical abnormalities.
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Distinct cytokine patterns in semen influence local HIV shedding and HIV target cell activation.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Semen is the main vector for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from men to women. We investigated the influence of cytokines in semen on local HIV burden and activated T cells.
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Missed opportunities for retention in pre-ART care in Cape Town, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few studies have evaluated access to and retention in pre-ART care.
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Risk factors for oral human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples in an African setting.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and factors associated with oral HPV infection were investigated.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ?24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte DIvoire, South Africa, and Zambia.
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The impact of human immunodeficiency virus on human papillomavirus transmission in heterosexually active couples.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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This study investigated HPV transmission and the factors influencing it in heterosexually active couples in South Africa.
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HIV testing and counseling leads to immediate consistent condom use among South African stable HIV-discordant couples.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Effective behavioral HIV prevention is needed for stable HIV-discordant couples at risk for HIV, especially those without access to biomedical prevention. This analysis addressed whether HIV testing and counseling with ongoing counseling and condom distribution lead to reduced unprotected sex in HIV-discordant couples.
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Integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with HIV and about a quarter of HIV-related deaths are attributed to tuberculosis. In this Review we identify and synthesise published evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of eight integrated strategies recommended by WHO that represent coordinated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis services. Evidence supports concurrent screening for tuberculosis and HIV, and provision of either co-trimoxazole during routine tuberculosis care or isoniazid during routine HIV care and at voluntary counselling and testing centres. Although integration of antiretroviral therapy into tuberculosis care has shown promise for improving health outcomes for patients, evidence is insufficient to make conclusive claims. Evidence is also insufficient on the accessibility of condoms at tuberculosis facilities, the benefits of risk reduction counselling in patients with tuberculosis, and the effectiveness of tuberculosis infection control in HIV health-care settings. The vertical response to the tuberculosis and HIV epidemics is ineffective and inefficient. Implications for policy makers and funders include further investments in implementing integrated tuberculosis and HIV programmes with known effectiveness, preferably in a way that strengthens health systems; evaluative research that identifies barriers to integration; and research on integrated strategies for which effectiveness, efficiency, and affordability are not well established.
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The role of sexually transmitted infections in the evolution of the South African HIV epidemic.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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To assess the extent to which sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have contributed to the spread of HIV in South Africa and to estimate the extent to which improvements in STI treatment have reduced HIV incidence.
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Immune activation in the female genital tract during HIV infection predicts mucosal CD4 depletion and HIV shedding.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Plasma viral load predicts genital tract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding in HIV-infected women. We investigated whether local mucosal T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD38, CCR5, and Ki67) contributed to HIV shedding in the genital tracts of HIV-infected women. We showed that cervical cytobrush-derived T cells expressed higher frequencies of T-cell activation markers (CD38+ and HLA-DR+) than blood-derived T cells. Expression was significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in uninfected women. We found that the frequency of activated proliferating cervical T cells (Ki67+; Ki67+CCR5+) broadly predicted HIV shedding in the genital tract in HIV-infected women, independently of plasma viral loads. Furthermore, activated cervical T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+ and HLA-DR+CCR5+) and local HIV shedding were independently associated with CD4 depletion in the genital tract. These data suggest that the presence of high frequencies of activated T cells in the female genital mucosa during HIV infection facilitates both local HIV shedding and CD4 T-cell depletion.
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Isolation and characterization of T cells from semen.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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The male genital tract is of major importance in the transmission and acquisition of HIV-1. Studying cellular immunity in the male genital tract is important in development of HIV-1 vaccines protective at mucosal sites. Semen is the primary HIV-1 containing fluid released from the male genital tract and reducing virus levels in semen would also reduce HIV-1 spread. Characterizing lymphocytes from semen requires the isolation of viable T cells that can be analyzed by downstream applications such as flow cytometry. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of various parameters on CD3(+) T cell yields from semen and to compare isolation methods to maximize CD3(+) T cell yields for the purpose of functional characterization by flow cytometry.
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Correcting for mortality among patients lost to follow up on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cohort analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Loss to follow-up (LTF) challenges the reporting of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, since it encompasses patients alive but lost to programme and deaths misclassified as LTF. We describe LTF before and after correction for mortality in a primary care ART programme with linkages to the national vital registration system.
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Influence of human immunodeficiency virus and CD4 count on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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This study investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual couples. More HIV-positive men and women had genital HPV compared with HIV-negative men (77 vs 49%; P<0.001) and women (74 vs 36%; P<0.001). More men and women with partners who were HPV positive had HPV genital infection compared with those with HPV-negative partners (for men, 72% compared with 40%; P<0.001). Men with HIV-positive female partners were at greater risk of high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV (LR HPV) infection compared with men with HIV-negative female partners. This risk increased with decreasing CD4 count { ? 350 ml?¹: odds ratio [OR ], 2.37 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47-3.83]; < 350 ml?¹: OR, 3.02 [95?% CI, 1.86-4.9]}. Conversely, the risk of HPV of any type was not found to differ between women with an HIV-positive or HIV-negative male partner. In men, HIV infection and female partner HIV-positive status were both associated with a higher risk of type-specific HPV concordance with their sexual partner, though the associations were not significant for LR HPV. In women, HIV infection and low CD4 count were significantly associated with increased risk of type-specific HPV concordance, but male partner HIV-positive status was not significantly associated with this concordance. In conclusion, male genital HPV prevalence and type-specific sharing were influenced by their own HIV-positive status and that of their female partner. In contrast, female genital HPV prevalence and HPV type-specific sharing were determined by their own HIV-positive status and not by that of their male partner.
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Coverage of nevirapine-based services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in 4 African countries.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Few studies have objectively evaluated the coverage of services to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from mother to child.
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Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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South Africas antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the countrys quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented.
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Epidemic levels of drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB) in a high HIV prevalence setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2010
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Although multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is emerging as a significant threat to tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence countries such as South Africa, limited data is available on the burden of drug resistant tuberculosis and any association with HIV in such settings. We conducted a community-based representative survey to assess the MDR-TB burden in Khayelitsha, an urban township in South Africa with high HIV and TB prevalence.
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The effect of syndromic management interventions on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa.
Sex Reprod Healthc
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Few studies have assessed the effect of syndromic management interventions on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at a population level. This study aims to determine the effect of syndromic management protocols that have been introduced in South Africa since 1994.
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Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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To investigate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation among pregnant women and the optimum model of service delivery for integrating HAART services into antenatal care.
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Mycobacterium africanum is not a major cause of human tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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While Mycobacterium africanum is an important cause of TB in several sites in West Africa, its distribution in other African countries is not well documented. In this study, conducted in Cape Town, 1175 isolates yielded 110 unique RFLP patterns; one of each of these 110 strains was tested for genomic deletions characteristic of M. africanum and other atypical members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. As none of these strains was marked by the deletion of RD9, we conclude that M. africanum and other atypical members of the M. tuberculosis complex are decidedly uncommon in this part of Africa.
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Seven-year experience of a primary care antiretroviral treatment programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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We report on outcomes after 7 years of a community-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa, with death registry linkages to correct for mortality under-ascertainment.
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Genital human papillomavirus prevalence and human papillomavirus concordance in heterosexual couples are positively associated with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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This study examined the concordance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in 254 heterosexually active couples and the impact of HIV coinfection. Genital HPV detection was significantly more common among HIV-infected women than among HIV-seronegative women (99 [68%] of 145 women vs. 33 [31%] of 107 women; P < .001); similarly, HPV detection was significantly more common among HIV-infected men than among HIV-seronegative men (67 [72%] of 93 and 65 [43%] of 150 men, respectively; P < .001). HIV-seronegative male partners of HIV-infected women had a significantly greater prevalence of HPV infection than did HIV-seronegative male partners of HIV-seronegative women (38 [58%] of 65 men vs. 27 [32%] of 85 men; P = .001), indicating that HIV coinfection in one partner has a significant impact on the prevalence of HPV genital infection in the other partner. HPV concordance between couples was associated with HIV infection status (P < .001, by Pearsons chi2 test) and was significantly higher among HIV-infected couples than among HIV-seronegative couples. Type-specific sharing of HPV was associated with HIV concordance status (P = .024). HIV-seronegative couples were more likely to share 1 HPV type and were unlikely to share >1 type, whereas HIV-infected or HIV-discordant couples were more likely to share >1 HPV type. Women with a high HPV load frequently shared HPV types with their male partners, suggesting that a high HPV load may play a role in HPV transmission between partners. In conclusion, HIV coinfection in one or both sexually active partners increased HPV prevalence and HPV type-specific concordance.
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Impact of human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection and inflammation on the composition and yield of cervical mononuclear cells in the female genital tract.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Cervical cytobrush sampling is a relatively non-invasive method for obtaining mucosal cells from the female genital tract. To define mucosal immune cells sampled by cervical cytobrushing and to validate this approach for local immunity studies, we investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and inflammation on the yield and composition of cervical cytobrush specimens. Cervical cytobrush samples were obtained from 89 chronically HIV-infected and 46 HIV-negative women. The HIV-infected women had significantly higher yields of CD3(+), CD45(+), CD19(+), CD14(+), Langerin(+) and CD24(+) cells than the uninfected women. While cytobrush-derived T cells from uninfected women were predominantly CD4(+) (4.2 CD4 : 1 CD8), CD8(+) T cells were predominant in HIV-infected women (0.6 CD4 : 1 CD8). The majority of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from HIV-infected and uninfected women were of the effector memory (CD45RA(-) CCR7(-) CD27(-)) phenotype. HIV-infected women had significantly elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in cervical supernatants compared with uninfected women. We observed a significant positive correlation between T-cell counts and IL-1beta, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-12 concentrations. Neutrophil counts correlated significantly with cervical concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-10. Antigen-presenting cell numbers correlated significantly with TNF-alpha and IL-12 concentrations. HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy had similar levels of cervical lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation to women naïve to therapy. In conclusion, we suggest that inflammation at the cervix and HIV infection are likely to be key determinants in the absolute number of mucosal immune cells recovered by cervical cytobrushing.
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Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.
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A recent HIV diagnosis is associated with non-completion of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in an HIV-infected cohort in Cape Town.
PLoS ONE
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Despite high rates of successful treatment TB incidence in South Africa remains high, suggesting ongoing transmission and a large reservoir of latently infected persons. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recommended as preventive therapy in HIV-infected persons. However, implementation has been slow, impeded by barriers and challenges including the fear of non-adherence.
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Measuring the degree of integrated tuberculosis and HIV service delivery in Cape Town, South Africa.
Health Policy Plan
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To address the considerable tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected population in Cape Town, a number of clinics have made an effort of varying degrees to integrate TB and HIV services. This article describes the development of a theory-based survey instrument designed to quantify the extent to which services were integrated in 33 clinics and presents the results of the survey. Using principal factor analysis, eight factors were extracted and used to make comparisons across three types of clinics: co-located TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, clinics with TB services only and clinics with ART only. Clinics with co-located services scored highest on measures related to integrated TB/ART service delivery compared to clinics with single services, but within group variability was high indicating that co-location of TB and ART services is a necessary but insufficient condition for integrated service delivery. In addition, we found almost all clinics with only TB services in our sample had highly integrated pre-ART services, suggesting that integration of these services across a large number of clinics is feasible and acceptable to clinic staff. TB clinics with highly integrated pre-ART services appear to be efficient sites for introducing ART given that co-infected patients are already engaged in care, and may potentially facilitate earlier access to treatment and minimize loss to follow-up.
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The effect of complete integration of HIV and TB services on time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a before-after study.
PLoS ONE
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Studies have shown that early ART initiation in TB/HIV co-infected patients lowers mortality. One way to implement earlier ART commencement could be through integration of TB and HIV services, a more efficient model of care than separate, vertical programs. We present a model of full TB/HIV integration and estimate its effect on time to initiation of ART.
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High yield of culture-based diagnosis in a TB-endemic setting.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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In most of the world, microbiologic diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is limited to microscopy. Recent guidelines recommend culture-based diagnosis where feasible.
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Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on the natural history of human papillomavirus genital infection in South African men and women.
J. Infect. Dis.
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This study investigated genital human papillomavirus (HPV) incidence and clearance in 278 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive (HIV-positive) women, 208 HIV-negative women, 161 HIV-positive men, and 325 HIV-negative men, followed at 6-month intervals for up to 24 months.
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Coverage of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in the Western Cape, South Africa using cord blood surveillance.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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The effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs depends on the successful coverage of a series of interventions through pregnancy, intrapartum, and postpartum. Routine monitoring systems based on service data and limited to women on the PMTCT program may overestimate intervention coverage at multiple points along this cascade.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.