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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Substantial effect of efavirenz monotherapy on bilirubin levels in healthy volunteers.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2014
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Efavirenz exhibits multiple interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, and for this reason efavirenz-based HIV therapy is associated with altered pharmacokinetics of coadministered drugs. Probably by the same mechanism, efavirenz-based HIV therapy affects the disposition of endogenous compounds, but this effect is difficult to directly link with efavirenz because it is used in combination with other drugs.
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Is personalized medicine achievable in obstetrics?
Semin. Perinatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Personalized medicine seeks to identify the right dose of the right drug for the right patient at the right time. Typically, individualization of therapy is based on the pharmacogenomic makeup of the individual and environmental factors that alter drug disposition and response. In addition to these factors, during pregnancy, a woman?s body undergoes many changes that can impact the therapeutic efficacy of medications. Yet, there is minimal research regarding personalized medicine in obstetrics. Adoption of pharmacogenetic testing into the obstetrical care is dependent on evidence of analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. Here, we briefly present information regarding the potential utility of personalized medicine for treating the obstetric patient for pain with narcotics, hypertension, and preterm labor, and discuss the impediments of bringing personalized medicine to the obstetrical clinic.
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Estrogens and their precursors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving anastrozole.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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We determined hormone concentrations (estradiol [E2], estrone [E1], estrone conjugates [E1-C], androstenedione [A], testosterone [T]) before and on anastrozole therapy where we also determined plasma concentrations of anastrozole and its metabolites.
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Simulation with cells in vitro of tamoxifen treatment in premenopausal breast cancer patients with different CYP2D6 genotypes.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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TAM is a prodrug that is metabolically activated by 4-hydroxylation to the potent primary metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT) or via another primary metabolite N-desmethytamoxifen (NDMTAM) to a biologically active secondary metabolite endoxifen through a cytochrome P450 variant 2D6 system (CYP2D6). We have determined the antioestrogenic efficacy of TAM and its metabolites, including endoxifen, at concentrations corresponding to serum levels measured in breast cancer patients with various CYP2D6 genotypes, simulating TAM treatment. This could provide new data to understand TAM action further and the relevance of endoxifen.
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Platelet factor XIIIa release during platelet aggregation and plasma clot strength measured by thrombelastography in patients with coronary artery disease treated with clopidogrel.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Abstract It has been estimated that up to half of circulating factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) is stored in platelets. The release of FXIIIa from platelets upon stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in patients with coronary artery disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy has not been previously examined. Samples from 96 patients with established coronary artery disease treated with aspirin and clopidogrel were examined. Platelet aggregation was performed by light transmittance aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), with platelet-poor plasma (PPP) as reference, and ADP 5?µM as agonist. Kaolin-activated thrombelastography (TEG) was performed in citrate PPP. PRP after aggregation was centrifuged and plasma supernatant (PSN) collected. FXIIIa was measured in PPP and PSN. Platelet aggregation after stimulation with ADP 5?µM resulted in 24% additional FXIIIa release in PSN as compared to PPP (99.3?±?27 vs. 80.3?±?24%, p?
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Factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism and recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease.
J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Factor XIII (FXIII) is necessary for cross linking of fibrin strands and generation of stable fibrin clot. FXIII Val34Leu is a common genetic single nucleotide polymorphism that has been associated with accelerated fibrin stabilization and reduced rate of fibrinolysis. The contribution of Val34Leu to long term risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary stenting has not been conclusively established. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of Val34Leu on fibrin generation, platelet aggregation, and long term clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. Patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease who were treated with aspirin and clopidogrel were enrolled (n = 211). Light transmittance aggregometry and plasma fibrin clot formation using thrombelastography (TEG) were determined. Genotyping of Val34Leu was performed using Taqman assay. Clinical events during follow up were recorded. Homozygous carriers of 34 Leu variant had significantly shorter fibrin clot formation time as compared to wild type individuals (TEG K: 1.27 ± 0.3 vs. 1.68 ± 1.1 min, p = 0.011). The Val34Leu variant was associated with gene dose dependent increased risk of MI (log rank, p = 0.002) or occurrence of composite of MI and CV death (log rank, p = 0.005) with highest event rates observed in homozygous carriers of 34 Leu. In summary, FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism was associated with increased rate of fibrin stabilization in homozygous carriers of the variant and may increase risk of recurrent MI and death in patients with angiographically established coronary artery disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy.
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Citalopram and escitalopram plasma drug and metabolite concentrations: genome-wide associations.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Citalopram (CT) and escitalopram (S-CT) are among the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). We applied a genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in plasma concentrations of CT or S-CT and their metabolites in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT.
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One size fits one: pharmacogenetics in gastroenterology.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Individual variability in response and development of adverse effects to drugs is a major challenge in clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics refers to the aspect of personalized medicine where the patient's genetic information instructs the selection and dosage of therapy while also predicting its adverse effects profile. Sequencing of the entire human genome has given us the opportunity to study commonly used drugs as well as newer therapeutic agents in a new light, opening up opportunities for better drug efficacy and decreased adverse effects. This article highlights developments in pharmacogenomics, relates these to practice of gastroenterology, and outlines roadblocks in translation of this knowledge into clinical practice.
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Patient-reported symptoms and discontinuation of adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy results in substantial survival benefits for patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The rates of poor adherence and discontinuation of AI therapy are high, primarily because of treatment-related toxicities like musculoskeletal pain. Although pain-related symptoms may worsen during AI therapy, the authors hypothesized that nonpersistence with AI therapy was associated with symptoms that were present before treatment initiation.
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Regulation of microRNA expression by rifampin in human hepatocytes.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Rifampin causes drug interactions by altering hepatic drug metabolism. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate genes involved in drug metabolism, we determined the effect of rifampin on the expression of hepatic miRNAs. Primary human hepatocytes from seven subjects were treated with rifampin, and the expression of miRNA and cytochrome P450 (P450) mRNAs was measured by TaqMan assays and RNA-seq, respectively. Rifampin induced the expression of 10 clinically important and 13 additional P450 genes and repressed the expression of 9 other P450 genes (P < 0.05). Rifampin induced the expression of 33 miRNAs and repressed the expression of 35 miRNAs (P < 0.05). Several of these changes were highly negatively correlated with the rifampin-induced changes in the expression of their predicted target P450 mRNAs, supporting the possibility of miRNA-induced regulation of P450 mRNA expression. In addition, several other miRNA changes were positively correlated with the changes in P450 mRNA expression, suggesting similar regulatory mechanisms. Despite the interindividual variability in the rifampin effects on miRNA expression, principal components analysis clearly separated the rifampin-treated samples from the controls. In conclusion, rifampin treatment alters miRNA expression patterns in human hepatocytes, and some of the changes were correlated with the rifampin-induced changes in expression of the P450 mRNAs they are predicted to target.
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Effects of clopidogrel and itraconazole on the disposition of efavirenz and its hydroxyl metabolites: exploration of a novel CYP2B6 phenotyping index.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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To evaluate the effects of clopidogrel and itraconazole on the disposition of efavirenz and its hydroxyl metabolites in relation to the CYP2B6*6 genotype and explore potential phenotyping indices for CYP2B6 activity in vivo using a low dose of oral efavirenz.
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Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by the e- and z-isomers of norendoxifen.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and is the main source of endogenous estrogen in postmenopausal women. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are used to treat postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Norendoxifen [4-(1-(4-(2-aminoethoxy)phenyl)-2-phenylbut-1-en-1-yl)phenol], an active metabolite of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen, has been shown to be a potent competitive AI, with an IC50 of 90 nM. To obtain data relevant to the clinical use of norendoxifen, the primary objective of this study was to investigate norendoxifens inhibitory capability on enzymes related to drug-drug interactions. We determined the inhibitory ability of norendoxifen against important drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19, to establish the potency of norendoxifen as a potential cause of drug-drug interactions. A second objective was to determine the effects of E- and Z-norendoxifen on the inhibition of these enzymes to further characterize the isomers selectivity. The inhibitory abilities of E-, mixed, and Z-norendoxifen against recombinant aromatase (CYP19), CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19 were tested using microsomal incubations. Mixed norendoxifen inhibited these enzymes with Ki values of 70 ± 9, 76 ± 3, 375 ± 6, 829 ± 62, and 0.56 ± 0.02 nM, respectively. E-Norendoxifen had a 9.3-fold-higher inhibitory ability than Z-norendoxifen against CYP19, while E- and Z-norendoxifen had similar potencies against CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19. These results suggest that norendoxifen is able to act as a potent AI, and that its E-isomer is 9.3-fold more potent than the Z-isomer.
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Selective estrogen receptor modulators and pharmacogenomic variation in ZNF423 regulation of BRCA1 expression: individualized breast cancer prevention.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) tamoxifen and raloxifene can reduce the occurrence of breast cancer in high-risk women by 50%, but this U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prevention therapy is not often used. We attempted to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in SERM breast cancer prevention, using DNA from the NSABP P-1 and P-2 breast cancer prevention trials. An initial discovery genome-wide association study identified common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in or near the ZNF423 and CTSO genes that were associated with breast cancer risk during SERM therapy. We then showed that both ZNF423 and CTSO participated in the estrogen-dependent induction of BRCA1 expression, in both cases with SNP-dependent variation in induction. ZNF423 appeared to be an estrogen-inducible BRCA1 transcription factor. The OR for differences in breast cancer risk during SERM therapy for subjects homozygous for both protective or both risk alleles for ZNF423 and CTSO was 5.71.
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Synthesis of mixed (E,Z)-, (E)-, and (Z)-norendoxifen with dual aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor modulatory activities.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The first synthesis of the tamoxifen metabolite norendoxifen is reported. This included syntheses of (E)-norendoxifen, (Z)-norendoxifen, and (E,Z)-norendoxifen isomers. (Z)-Norendoxifen displayed affinity for aromatase (Ki 442 nM), estrogen receptor-? (EC50 17 nM), and estrogen receptor-? (EC50 27.5 nM), while the corresponding values for (E)-norendoxifen were aromatase (Ki 48 nM), estrogen receptor-? (EC50 58.7 nM), and estrogen receptor-? (EC50 78.5 nM). Docking and energy minimization studies were performed with (E)-norendoxifen on aromatase, and the results provide a foundation for structure-based drug design. The oral pharmacokinetic parameters for (E,Z)-norendoxifen were determined in mice, and (Z)-norendoxifen was found to result in significantly higher plasma concentrations and exposures (AUC values) than (E)-norendoxifen. The affinities of both isomers for aromatase and the estrogen receptors, as well as the pharmacokinetic results, support the further development of norendoxifen and its analogues for breast cancer treatment.
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Genetic associations with toxicity-related discontinuation of aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Up to 25 % of patients discontinue adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy due to intolerable symptoms. Predictors of which patients will be unable to tolerate these medications have not been defined. We hypothesized that inherited variants in candidate genes are associated with treatment discontinuation because of AI-associated toxicity. We prospectively evaluated reasons for treatment discontinuation in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer initiating adjuvant AI through a multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial of exemestane versus letrozole. Using multiple genetic models, we evaluated potential associations between discontinuation of AI therapy because of toxicity and 138 variants in 24 candidate genes, selected a priori, primarily with roles in estrogen metabolism and signaling. To account for multiple comparisons, statistical significance was defined as p < 0.00036. Of the 467 enrolled patients with available germline DNA, 152 (33 %) discontinued AI therapy because of toxicity. Using a recessive statistical model, an intronic variant in ESR1 (rs9322336) was associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal toxicity-related exemestane discontinuation [HR 5.0 (95 % CI 2.1-11.8), p < 0.0002]. An inherited variant potentially affecting estrogen signaling may be associated with exemestane-associated toxicity, which could partially account for intra-patient differences in AI tolerability. Validation of this finding is required.
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C-reactive protein and fibrin clot strength measured by thrombelastography after coronary stenting.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Inflammation is implicated in the progression of coronary artery disease and the molecular processes of inflammation and thrombosis are closely intertwined. Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with an elevated risk of adverse ischaemic events after coronary stenting and hypercoagulability. Heightened whole blood clot strength measured by thrombelastography (TEG) has been associated with adverse ischaemic events after stenting. We intended to examine the relationship of CRP to plasma fibrin clot strength in patients after coronary stenting. Plasma fibrin clot strength was measured by TEG in 54 patients 16-24?h after undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coagulation was induced in citrated plasma by addition of kaolin and CaCl2. Plasma levels of CRP and fibrinogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Increasing quartiles of CRP were associated with increasing levels of maximal plasma fibrin clot strength measured by TEG (P?
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CYP2D6 genotypes, endoxifen levels, and disease recurrence in 224 Filipino and Vietnamese women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen for operable breast cancer.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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While tamoxifen activity is mainly due to endoxifen and the concentration of this active metabolite is, in part, controlled by CYP2D6 metabolic status, clinical correlative studies have produced mixed results.
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An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases.
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Cytochrome P450 3A4*22, PPAR-?, and ARNT polymorphisms and clopidogrel response.
Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent candidate gene studies using a human liver bank and in vivo validation in healthy volunteers identified polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 gene (CYP3A4*22), Ah-receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) genes that are associated with the CYP3A4 phenotype. We hypothesized that the variants identified in these genes may be associated with altered clopidogrel response, since generation of clopidogrel active metabolite is, partially mediated by CYP3A activity. Blood samples from 211 subjects, of mixed racial background, with established coronary artery disease, who had received clopidogrel, were analyzed. Platelet aggregation was determined using light transmittance aggregometry (LTA). Genotyping for CYP2C19*2, CYP3A4*22, PPAR-? (rs4253728, rs4823613), and ARNT (rs2134688) variant alleles was performed using Taqman® assays. CYP2C19*2 genotype was associated with increased on-treatment platelet aggregation (adenosine diphosphate 20 ?M; P=0.025). No significant difference in on-treatment platelet aggregation, as measured by LTA during therapy with clopidogrel, was demonstrated among the different genotypes of CYP3A4*22, PPAR-?, and ARNT. These findings suggest that clopidogrel platelet inhibition is not influenced by the genetic variants that have previously been associated with reduced CYP3A4 activity.
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A genome-wide association study identifies locus at 10q22 associated with clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients in Japanese.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Although many association studies of polymorphisms in candidate genes with the clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy have been reported, genetic factors determining individual response to tamoxifen are not fully understood. To identify genetic polymorphisms associated with clinical outcomes of patients with tamoxifen treatment, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We studied 462 Japanese patients with hormone receptor-positive, invasive breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Of them, 240 patients were analyzed by genome-wide genotyping using the Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChips, and two independent sets of 105 and 117 cases were used for replication studies. In the GWAS, we detected significant associations with recurrence-free survival at 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on nine chromosomal loci (1p31, 1q41, 5q33, 7p11, 10q22, 12q13, 13q22, 18q12 and 19p13) that satisfied a genome-wide significant threshold (log-rank P= 2.87 × 10(-9)-9.41 × 10(-8)). Among them, rs10509373 in C10orf11 gene on 10q22 was significantly associated with recurrence-free survival in the replication study (log-rank P= 2.02 × 10(-4)) and a combined analysis indicated a strong association of this SNP with recurrence-free survival in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen (log-rank P= 1.26 × 10(-10)). Hazard ratio per C allele of rs10509373 was 4.51 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.72-7.51; P= 6.29 × 10(-9)]. In a combined analysis of rs10509373 genotype with previously identified genetic makers, CYP2D6 and ABCC2, the number of risk alleles of these three genes had cumulative effects on recurrence-free survival among 345 patients receiving tamoxifen monotherapy (log-rank P= 2.28 × 10(-12)). In conclusion, we identified a novel locus associated with recurrence-free survival in Japanese breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
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Comparison of changes in the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer treated with exemestane or letrozole.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Effects of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy on the plasma lipid profile are not clear. Here the authors describe changes in fasting lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) before and after 3 months of exemestane or letrozole treatment. HDL was reduced in the entire cohort (P < .001) and in the exemestane group (P < .001) but unchanged in the letrozole group (P = .169). LDL was increased in the entire cohort (P = .005) and in the letrozole group (P = .002) but unchanged in the exemestane group (P = .361). This effect was at least partially attributable to washout of tamoxifen as only patients with prior use of tamoxifen experienced a significant increase in LDL. Baseline HDL was an independent predictor of the change in HDL (r(2) = -0.128, P < .001), and prior tamoxifen use was associated with greater increases in LDL (r(2) = 0.057, P < .001). Use of lipid-altering medications did not protect against the exemestane-induced drop in HDL or the increase in LDL observed in women with prior use of tamoxifen taking letrozole. In conclusion, AI treatment and/or washout of tamoxifen induced detrimental changes in the lipid profile of postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
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Enhanced sensitivity to drug-induced QT interval lengthening in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Patients with heart failure (HF) are at increased risk for drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP) due to unknown mechanisms. Our objective was to determine if sensitivity to drug-induced QT interval lengthening is enhanced in patients with HF. In this multicenter, prospective study, 15 patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter requiring conversion to sinus rhythm were enrolled: 6 patients with New York Heart Association class II to III HF (mean ejection fraction [EF], 30% ± 9%), and 9 controls (mean EF, 53% ± 6%). Patients received ibutilide 1 mg intravenously. Blood samples and 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained prior to and during 48 hours postinfusion. Serum ibutilide concentrations at 50% maximum effect on Fridericia-corrected QT (QT(F)) intervals (EC(50)) were determined, and areas under the effect (QT(F) interval vs time) curves (AUECs) were calculated. Ibutilide concentration-QT(F) relationships were best described by a sigmoidal E(max) model with a hypothetical effect compartment. Median [interquartile range] AUEC from 0 to 4 hours was larger in the HF group than in controls (1.86 [1.86-1.93] vs 1.82 [1.81-1.84] s·h; P = .04). Median EC(50) was lower in the HF group (0.48 [0.46-0.49] vs 1.85 [1.10-3.23] ?g/L; P = .008). Sensitivity to drug-induced QT interval lengthening is enhanced in patients with systolic HF, which may contribute to the increased risk of drug-induced TdP.
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Comparison of breast cancer recurrence risk and cardiovascular disease incidence risk among postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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The majority of breast cancers are diagnosed in postmenopausal women. Competing comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), should be considered when individualizing adjuvant therapies for these women. We compared the 10-year predicted breast cancer recurrence risk with CVD risk among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), non-metastatic breast cancer. CVD risk factor data were prospectively collected from postmenopausal women with stage I-III, HR+ breast cancer initiating adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy. We compared predicted 10-year CVD risk, including the composite index heart age, computed from modified Framingham risk score, with predicted 10-year risk of breast cancer recurrence using Adjuvant! Online. We created multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for greater CVD risk than breast cancer recurrence risk. Among 415 women, mean age and heart age were 60 and 67 years, respectively. Overall, 43% of women had a predicted 10-year CVD risk equivalent to breast cancer recurrence risk and 37% had CVD risk higher than breast cancer recurrence risk. Predicted CVD risk was higher than breast cancer recurrence risk for stage I disease (OR: 6.1, 95% CI: 3.4-11.2) or heart age >65 (OR: 12.4, 95% CI: 7.0-22.6). The majority of postmenopausal women with HR+ early breast cancer had a predicted 10-year CVD risk that was equivalent to or higher than breast cancer recurrence risk. Physicians should weigh competing risks and offer early screening and cardiac prevention strategies for women at a greater risk for CVD.
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Tamoxifen and its metabolites cause acute vasorelaxation of aortic rings by inducing vasodilator prostanoid synthesis.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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The vascular effects of tamoxifen (Tam) and its metabolites are poorly known. We compared the vasorelaxation induced by Tam and its metabolites (N-desmethyl-Tam, 4-hydroxy-Tam, and endoxifen) in aortic rings from rats using standardized organ bath procedures, and we investigated the mechanisms involved in this effect. Tam and its metabolite-induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. Although 4-hydroxy-Tam and Tam had similar potency (pD2 = 8.5 ± 0.1 vs. 8.8 ± 0.1, respectively) and maximum effect (Emax = 88.5% ± 1.3% vs. 92.6% ± 1.3%, respectively), N-desmethyl-Tam and endoxifen were more potent and showed higher Emax than Tam did (pD2 = 9.0 ± 0.1 and 8.9 ± 0.1; Emax = 101.1% ± 1.8% and 101.0% ± 1.8% for N-desmethyl-Tam and endoxifen, respectively). Although preincubation of aortic rings with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 or with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride induced no changes in the vasorelaxation induced by Tam or 4-hydroxy-Tam, both drugs significantly reduced Emax in response to N-desmethyl-Tam or to endoxifen. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin or the incubation with the prostaglandin D2 and E2 receptor antagonist AH6809 reduced the vasorelaxation-induced Tam and its metabolites by approximately 50%. Preincubation with N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride combined with indomethacin abolished the vasorelaxation-induced Tam and its metabolites. These results show that Tam and its metabolites cause acute vasorelaxation by inducing vasodilator prostanoids synthesis.
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Evaluation of CYP2D6 and efficacy of tamoxifen and raloxifene in women treated for breast cancer chemoprevention: results from the NSABP P1 and P2 clinical trials.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Controversy exists regarding the association between CYP2D6 enzyme activity and tamoxifen effectiveness in the adjuvant treatment of invasive breast cancer; however, this association in the primary prevention of breast cancer is unknown.
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Tamoxifen downregulates ets oncogene family members ETV4 and ETV5 in benign breast tissue: implications for durable risk reduction.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Five years of tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk by nearly 50% but is associated with significant side effects and toxicities. A better understanding of the direct and indirect effects of tamoxifen in benign breast tissue could elucidate new mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis, suggest novel chemoprevention targets, and provide relevant early response biomarkers for phase II prevention trials. Seventy-three women at increased risk for breast cancer were randomized to tamoxifen (20 mg daily) or placebo for 3 months. Blood and breast tissue samples were collected at baseline and posttreatment. Sixty-nine women completed all study activities (37 tamoxifen and 32 placebo). The selected biomarkers focused on estradiol and IGFs in the blood; DNA methylation and cytology in random periareolar fine-needle aspirates; and tissue morphometry, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression (microarray and reverse transcriptase PCR) in the tissue core samples. Tamoxifen downregulated Ets oncogene transcription factor family members ETV4 and ETV5 and reduced breast epithelial cell proliferation independent of CYP2D6 genotypes or effects on estradiol, ESR1, or IGFs. Reduction in proliferation was correlated with downregulation of ETV4 and DNAJC12. Tamoxifen reduced the expression of ETV4- and ETV5-regulated genes implicated in epithelial-stromal interaction and tissue remodeling. Three months of tamoxifen did not affect breast tissue composition, cytologic atypia, preneoplasia, or apoptosis. A plausible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of tamoxifen is restriction of lobular expansion into stroma through downregulation of ETV4 and ETV5. The human equivalent of murine multipotential progenitor cap cells of terminal end buds may be the primary target.
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Genotype-guided tamoxifen dosing increases active metabolite exposure in women with reduced CYP2D6 metabolism: a multicenter study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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We examined the feasibility of using CYP2D6 genotyping to determine optimal tamoxifen dose and investigated whether the key active tamoxifen metabolite, endoxifen, could be increased by genotype-guided tamoxifen dosing in patients with intermediate CYP2D6 metabolism.
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The tamoxifen metabolite norendoxifen is a potent and selective inhibitor of aromatase (CYP19) and a potential lead compound for novel therapeutic agents.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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To improve the treatment of breast cancer, there has been a need for alternative aromatase inhibitors (AIs) that bring about adequate aromatase inhibition, while limiting side effects. Since two tamoxifen metabolites have been documented as AIs, we tested a wide range of tamoxifen metabolites on aromatase in order to better understand structural interactions with aromatase and constructed structure-function relationships as a first step toward the development of novel inhibitors. The ability of ten tamoxifen metabolites to inhibit recombinant aromatase (CYP19) was tested using microsomal incubations. The selectivity of the most potent aromatase inhibitor identified, norendoxifen, was characterized by studying its ability to inhibit CYP450 enzymes important in clinical drug-drug interactions, including CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. Computerized molecular docking with the X-ray crystallographic structure of aromatase was used to describe the detailed biochemical interactions involved. The inhibitory potency order of the tested compounds was as follows: norendoxifen ? 4,4-dihydroxy-tamoxifen > endoxifen > N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, N-desmethyl-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, tamoxifen-N-oxide, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, N-desmethyl-droloxifene > 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, tamoxifen. Norendoxifen inhibited recombinant aromatase via a competitive mechanism with a K ( i ) of 35 nM. Norendoxifen inhibited placental aromatase with an IC(50) of 90 nM, while it inhibited human liver CYP2C9 and CYP3A with IC(50) values of 990 and 908 nM, respectively. Inhibition of human liver CYP2C19 by norendoxifen appeared even weaker. No substantial inhibition of CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 by norendoxifen was observed. These data suggest that multiple metabolites of tamoxifen may contribute to its action in the treatment of breast cancer via aromatase inhibition. Most of all, norendoxifen may be able to serve as a potent and selective lead compound in the development of improved therapeutic agents. The range of structures tested in this study and their pharmacologic potencies provide a reasonable pharmacophore upon which to build novel AIs.
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Pharmacotherapy and pregnancy: highlights from the Third International Conference for Individualized Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy.
Clin Transl Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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To address provider struggles to provide evidence-based, rational drug therapy to pregnant women, this third Conference was convened to highlight the current progress and research in the field. Speakers from academic centers, industry, and governmental institutions spoke about: the Food and Drug Administrations role in pregnancy pharmacology and the new labeling initiative; drug registries in pregnancy; the pharmacists role in medication use in pregnancy; therapeutic areas such as preterm labor, gestational diabetes, nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, and hypertension; breast-feeding and medications; ethical challenges for consent in pregnancy drug studies; the potential for cord blood banks; and concerns about the fetus when studying drugs in pregnancy. The Conference highlighted several areas of collaboration within the current Obstetrics Pharmacology Research Units Network and hoped to educate providers, researchers, and agencies with the common goal to improve the ability to safely and effectively use individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy.
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Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of stable isotope (+/-)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole: Implications for a rapid screening phenotype test of CYP2C19 activity.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Aims: We have previously shown that the (±)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole breath test is a promising noninvasive probe of CYP2C19 activity. As part of that trial, plasma, breath test indices and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, and *17) genotype were collected. Here, we examined whether [(13) C]-pantoprazole exhibits enantioselective pharmacokinetics and whether this enantioselectivity is correlated with indices of breath test. Methods: Plasma (-)- and (+)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole that were measured using a chiral HPLC were compared between CYP2C19 genotypes and correlated with breath test indices. Results: The AUC(() (0-?)) of (+)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole in PM (*2/*2, n = 4) was 10.1- and 5.6-fold higher that EM (*1/*1or *17, n = 10) and IM (*1/*2or *3, n = 10) of CYP2C19, respectively (P < 0.001). The AUC(() (0-?)) of (-)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole only significantly differed between PMs and EMs (1.98-fold; P = 0.05). The AUC(() (0-?)) ratio of (+)-/(-)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole was 3.45, 0.77, and 0.67 in PM, IM, and EM genotypes, respectively. Breath test index, delta over baseline show significant correlation with AUC(() (0-?)) of (+)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole (Pearsons r = 0.62; P < 0.001). Conclusions: [(13) C]-pantoprazole exhibits enantioselective elimination. (+)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole is more dependent on CYP2C19 metabolic status and may serve as a more attractive probe of CYP2C19 activity than (-)-[(13) C]-pantoprazole or the racemic mixture. Chirality, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Enantiomers of naringenin as pleiotropic, stereoselective inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isoforms.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Interactions between naringenin and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system have been of interest since the first demonstration that grapefruit juice reduced CYP3A activity. The effects of naringenin on other CYP isoforms have been less investigated. In addition, it is well known that interactions with enzymes are often stereospecific, but due to the lack of readily available pure naringenin enantiomers, the enantioselectivity of its effects has not been characterized. We isolated pure naringenin enantiomers by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography and tested the ability of (R)-,(S)- and rac-naringenin to inhibit several important drug-metabolizing CYP isoforms using recombinant enzymes and pooled human liver microsomes. Naringenin was able to inhibit CYP19, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 with IC(50) values below 5 ?M. No appreciable inhibition of CYP2B6 or CYP2D6 was observed at concentrations up to 10 ?M. Whereas (S)-naringenin was 2-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP19 and CYP2C19 than (R)-naringenin, (R)-naringenin was 2-fold more potent for CYP2C9 and CYP3A. Chiral flavanones like naringenin are difficult to separate into their enantiomeric forms, but enantioselective effects may be observed that ultimately impact clinical effects. Inhibition of specific drug metabolizing enzymes by naringenin observed in vitro may be exploited to understand pharmacokinetic changes seen in vivo. Chirality, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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A modulated empirical Bayes model for identifying topological and temporal estrogen receptor ? regulatory networks in breast cancer.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Estrogens regulate diverse physiological processes in various tissues through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms that result in activation or repression of gene expression. Transcription regulation upon estrogen stimulation is a critical biological process underlying the onset and progress of the majority of breast cancer. Dynamic gene expression changes have been shown to characterize the breast cancer cell response to estrogens, the every molecular mechanism of which is still not well understood.
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Methadone adverse reaction presenting with large increase in plasma methadone binding: a case series.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The use of methadone as an analgesic is on the increase, but it is widely recognized that the goal of predictable and reproducible dosing is confounded by considerable variability in methadone pharmacokinetics, and unpredictable side effects that include sedation, respiratory depression and cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms underlying these unpredictable effects are frequently unclear. Here, to the best of our knowledge we present the first report of an association between accidental methadone overexposure and increased plasma protein binding, a new potential mechanism for drug interactions with methadone.
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Morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome in Ossabaw miniature swine are associated with increased platelet reactivity.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are associated with increased platelet activation and hyperreactivity of platelets to various agonists. Ossabaw swine develop all the hallmarks of MetS including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and coronary artery disease when being fed excess calorie atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that Ossabaw swine with MetS would exhibit increased platelet reactivity compared with lean pigs without MetS.
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Tamoxifen metabolites as active inhibitors of aromatase in the treatment of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The mechanism of tamoxifen action in the treatment of breast cancer is believed to be via active metabolites that act as potent estrogen receptor antagonists. Attempts to identify relationships between active metabolite concentrations and clinical outcomes have produced mixed results. Since anti-estrogenic effects may be brought about not only by estrogen antagonism, but also by reduced estrogen synthesis, we tested the ability of tamoxifen and its principal metabolites to inhibit aromatase in vitro. The activity of human aromatase in both recombinant and placental microsomal preparations was measured using the rate of generation of a fluorescent metabolite in the presence and absence of multiple concentrations of tamoxifen, endoxifen, N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, and Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Aromatase inhibition was further characterized by measuring the inhibition of testosterone metabolism to estradiol. The biochemical mechanisms of inhibition were documented and their inhibitory potency was compared. Using recombinant human aromatase, endoxifen, and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen were able to inhibit aromatase activity with K (i) values of 4.0 and 15.9 ?M, respectively. Detailed characterization of inhibition by endoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen indicated non-competitive kinetics for both inhibitors. Similarly, endoxifen-inhibited testosterone metabolism via a non-competitive mechanism. No appreciable inhibition by tamoxifen or Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen was observed at similar concentrations. The relative inhibitory potency was: endoxifen > N-desmethyl-tamoxifen > Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen > tamoxifen. Similar data were obtained in human placental microsomes. Endoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen were found to be potent inhibitors of aromatase. Inhibition by these tamoxifen metabolites may contribute to the variability in clinical effects of tamoxifen in patients with breast cancer. Relationships between tamoxifen metabolite concentrations and clinical outcomes may be complex, and the biologic mechanisms that underlie these relationships may include aromatase inhibition.
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In vitro and in vivo oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation of anastrozole.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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Little information is available regarding the metabolic routes of anastrozole and the specific enzymes involved. We characterized anastrozole oxidative and conjugation metabolism in vitro and in vivo.
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Cancer pharmacogenomics and pharmacoepidemiology: setting a research agenda to accelerate translation.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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Recent advances in genomic research have demonstrated a substantial role for genomic factors in predicting response to cancer therapies. Researchers in the fields of cancer pharmacogenomics and pharmacoepidemiology seek to understand why individuals respond differently to drug therapy, in terms of both adverse effects and treatment efficacy. To identify research priorities as well as the resources and infrastructure needed to advance these fields, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop titled "Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Setting a Research Agenda to Accelerate Translation" on July 21, 2009, in Bethesda, MD. In this commentary, we summarize and discuss five science-based recommendations and four infrastructure-based recommendations that were identified as a result of discussions held during this workshop. Key recommendations include 1) supporting the routine collection of germline and tumor biospecimens in NCI-sponsored clinical trials and in some observational and population-based studies; 2) incorporating pharmacogenomic markers into clinical trials; 3) addressing the ethical, legal, social, and biospecimen- and data-sharing implications of pharmacogenomic and pharmacoepidemiologic research; and 4) establishing partnerships across NCI, with other federal agencies, and with industry. Together, these recommendations will facilitate the discovery and validation of clinical, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and genomic markers related to cancer treatment response and adverse events, and they will improve both the speed and efficiency by which new pharmacogenomic and pharmacoepidemiologic information is translated into clinical practice.
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In vitro cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of exemestane.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Exemestane is a potent and irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor drug used for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Our aim was to identify and assess the contribution of the specific cytochromes P450 (P450s) responsible for exemestane primary in vitro metabolism. With the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical techniques, 17-hydroexemestane (MI) formation and 6-hydroxymethylexemestane (MII) formation were found to be the predominant exemestane metabolic pathways. In a bank of 15 well characterized human liver microsomes with known P450 isoform-specific activities, the MI formation rate correlated significantly with CYP1A2 (Spearman r = 0.60, p = 0.02) and CYP4A11 (Spearman r = 0.67, p = 0.01) isoform-specific activities, whereas the MII production rate significantly correlated with CYP2B6 (Spearman r = 0.57, p = 0.03) and CYP3A (Spearman r = 0.76, p = 0.005) isoform-specific activities. Recombinant CYP1A1 metabolized exemestane to MI with a catalytic efficiency (Cl(int)) of 150 nl/pmol P450 × min that was at least 3.5-fold higher than those of other P450s investigated. Recombinant CYP3A4 catalyzed MII formation from exemestane with a catalytic efficiency of 840 nl/pmol P450 × min that was at least 4-fold higher than those of other P450s investigated. Among a panel of 10 chemical inhibitors tested, only ketoconazole and troleandomycin (CYP3A-specific chemical inhibitors) significantly inhibited the formation of MII by 45 and 95%, respectively. None of them markedly inhibited the formation of MI. In summary, exemestane seems to be metabolized to MI by multiple P450s that include CYP4A11 and CYP1A1/2, whereas its oxidation to MII is primarily mediated by CYP3A.
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Genome-wide associations and functional genomic studies of musculoskeletal adverse events in women receiving aromatase inhibitors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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We performed a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with musculoskeletal adverse events (MS-AEs) in women treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for early breast cancer.
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Impact of proton pump inhibitors on the effectiveness of clopidogrel after coronary stent placement: the clopidogrel Medco outcomes study.
Pharmacotherapy
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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To investigate the potential impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the effectiveness of clopidogrel in preventing recurrent ischemic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent placement.
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Differential quantification of CYP2D6 gene copy number by four different quantitative real-time PCR assays.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Copy number variations (CNVs) in the CYP2D6 gene contribute to interindividual variation in drug metabolism. As the most common duplicated allele in Asian populations is the nonfunctional CYP2D6*36 allele, the goal of this study was to identify CNV assays that can differentiate between multiple copies of the CYP2D6*36 allele and multiple copies of other CYP2D6 alleles. We determined CYP2D6 gene copy numbers in 32 individuals with known CYP2D6 CNVs from the Coriell Japanese-Chinese panel using four quantitative real-time PCR assays. These assays target different regions of the CYP2D6 gene: 5-flanking region, intron 2, intron 6, and exon 9 (Ex9). The specific target site of the Ex9 assay was verified by sequencing the PCR amplicon. Three of the CYP2D6 CNV assays (5-flanking region, intron 2, and intron 6) estimated CYP2D6 copy numbers that were concordant for all 32 individuals. However, the Ex9 assay was concordant in only 10 of 32 samples. The 10 concordant samples did not contain any CYP2D6*36 alleles and the 22 discordant samples contained at least one CYP2D6*36 allele. In addition, the Ex9 assay accurately quantified all of the non-CYP2D6*36 alleles in all samples. Ex9 amplicon sequencing indicated that it targets a region of CYP2D6 exon 9 that undergoes partial gene-conversion in the CYP2D6*36 allele. In conclusion, CYP2D6 Ex9 CNV assay can be used to determine the copy number of non-CYP2D6*36 alleles. Selective amplification of non-CYP2D6*36 sequence by the Ex9 assay should be useful in determining the number of functional copies of CYP2D6 in Asian populations.
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A penalized mixture model approach in genotype/phenotype association analysis for quantitative phenotypes.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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A mixture normal model has been developed to partition genotypes in predicting quantitative phenotypes. Its estimation and inference are performed through an EM algorithm. This approach can conduct simultaneous genotype clustering and hypothesis testing. It is a valuable method for predicting the distribution of quantitative phenotypes among multi-locus genotypes across genes or within a gene. This mixture models performance is evaluated in data analyses for two pharmacogenetics studies. In one example, thirty five CYP2D6 genotypes were partitioned into three groups to predict pharmacokinetics of a breast cancer drug, Tamoxifen, a CYP2D6 substrate (p-value = 0.04). In a second example, seventeen CYP2B6 genotypes were categorized into three clusters to predict CYP2B6 protein expression (p-value = 0.002). The biological validities of both partitions are examined using established function of CYP2D6 and CYP2B6 alleles. In both examples, we observed genotypes clustered in the same group to have high functional similarities. The power and recovery rate of the true partition for the mixture model approach are investigated in statistical simulation studies, where it outperforms another published method.
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Methadone: a substrate and mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP19 (aromatase).
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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The peripheral conversion of testosterone to estradiol by aromatase is the primary source of endogenous estrogen in postmenopausal women. Studies indicating that placental aromatase is able to metabolize methadone to its primary metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1, 5-dimethyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrrolidin (EDDP), led us to test the hypothesis that methadone is able to act as an inhibitor of aromatase. Using recombinant human CYP19, we examined the ability of methadone to bring about either reversible or mechanism-based inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. To test for reversible inhibition, racemic methadone or its metabolite EDDP or 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrroline (EMDP) was incubated for 30 min with testosterone at the K(m) (4 microM). To test for mechanism-based inhibition, microsomal preincubations were performed for up to 30 min using racemic methadone (1-1000 microM), R- or S-methadone (0.5-500 microM), or EDDP or EMDP (10 and 100 microM) followed by incubation with testosterone at a V(max) concentration (50 microM). Racemic methadone, EDDP, and EMDP did not act as competitive inhibitors of CYP19. Preincubation of methadone, EDDP, or EMDP with CYP19 resulted in time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, indicating a mechanism-based reaction that destroys CYP19 activity. The K(I) and k(inact) values for racemic methadone were calculated to be 40.6 +/- 2.8 microM and 0.061 +/- 0.001 min(-1), respectively. No stereoselectivity was observed. Methadone is metabolized by CYP19 and may act as a potent inhibitor of CYP19 in vivo. These findings may contribute to variability in methadone clearance, to drug-drug interactions, and to side effects observed in individual patients.
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Variation in anastrozole metabolism and pharmacodynamics in women with early breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Aromatase inhibitors play a prominent role in the management of postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive breast cancer, but there is large variability in both efficacy and tolerability. The purpose of our study was to define interindividual variation in anastrozole metabolism and pharmacodynamics among patients treated with the approved daily dose of 1 mg in a standard practice setting as adjuvant therapy for resected early breast cancer. This study was performed in 191 women in whom pretreatment and during anastrozole plasma concentrations of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone conjugates, androstenedione, and testosterone were determined and correlated with plasma concentrations of anastrozole and anastrozole metabolites. There were large interindividual variations in plasma anastrozole and anastrozole metabolite concentrations, as well as pretreatment and postdrug plasma E1, E2, and E1 conjugate and estrogen precursor (androstenedione and testosterone) concentrations. E1 and E2 concentrations were below the lower limit of quantitation (LLQ) in most patients after anastrozole therapy (83% for both), but those with detectable concentrations had a broad range (1.58-45.2 and 0.635-97.0 pg/mL, respectively). E1 conjugates after anastrozole therapy were above the LLQ in most patients (93%), with wide interpatient variability (3.50-2,990 pg/mL). Two patients seemed to extensively metabolize anastrozole and failed to display substantial decreases in estrogens. Acknowledging the potential factor of variable compliance, our results showed large interindividual variation in anastrozole metabolism and its effect on circulating estrogens in postmenopausal patients. These findings may have implications with regard to efficacy and adverse events and may indicate the need to "individualize" therapy with this drug.
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Significant effect of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and ABCC2 on clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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The clinical efficacy of tamoxifen is suspected to be influenced by the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters involved in the formation, metabolism, and elimination of its active forms. We investigated relationships of polymorphisms in transporter genes and CYP2D6 to clinical outcome of patients receiving tamoxifen.
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Composite functional genetic and comedication CYP2D6 activity score in predicting tamoxifen drug exposure among breast cancer patients.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Accurate assessment of CYP2D6 phenotypes from genotype is inadequate in patients taking CYP2D6 substrate together with CYP2D6 inhibitors. A novel CYP2D6 scoring system is proposed that incorporates the impact of concomitant medications with the genotype in calculating the CYP2D6 activity score. Training (n = 159) and validation (n = 81) data sets were obtained from a prospective cohort tamoxifen pharmacogenetics registry. Two inhibitor factors were defined: 1 genotype independent and 1 genotype based. Three CYP2D6 gene scoring systems, and their combination with the inhibitor factors, were compared. These 3 scores were based on Zineh, Zanger, and Gaedigks approaches. Endoxifen/NDM-Tam plasma ratio was used as the phenotype. The overall performance of the 3 gene scoring systems without consideration of CYP2D6-inhibiting medications in predicting CYP2D6 phenotype was poor in both the training set (R(2) = 0.24, 0.22, and 0.18) and the validation set (R(2) = 0.30, 0.24, and 0.15). Once the CYP2D6 genotype-independent inhibitor factor was integrated into the score calculation, the R(2) values in the training and validation data sets were nearly twice as high as the genotype-only scoring model: (0.44, 0.43, 0.38) and (0.53, 0.50, 0.41), respectively. The integration of the inhibitory effect of concomitant medications with the CYP2D6 genotype into the composite CYP2D6 activity score doubled the ability to predict the CYP2D6 phenotype. However, endoxifen phenotypes still varied substantially, even with incorporation of CYD2D6 genotype and inhibiting factors, suggesting that other, as yet unidentified factors must be involved in tamoxifen activation.
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Pharmacotherapy and pregnancy: highlights from the Second International Conference for Individualized Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy.
Clin Transl Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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To address provider struggles to provide evidence-based, rational drug therapy to pregnant women, a second conference was convened to highlight the current research in the field. Speakers from academic centers and institutions spoke about: the unique physiology and pathology of pregnancy; pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy; thyroid disorders in pregnancy; pharmacogenetics in pregnancy; the role of CYP2D6 in pregnancy; treating addiction in pregnancy; the power of teratology networks to inform clinical decisions; the use of anti-depressants in pregnancy; and how to utilize computer-based modeling to aid with individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy. The Conference highlighted several areas of collaboration with the current Obstetrics Pharmacology Research Units Network (OPRU) and hoped to stimulate further collaboration and knowledge in the area with the common goal to improve the ability to safely and effectively use individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy.
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Exploratory study evaluating the association of polymorphisms of angiogenesis genes with hot flashes.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Hot flashes are a common symptom and an important cause of decreased quality of life in women with breast cancer. Hot flashes involve vasodilatation and flushing, however, their complex etiology is not fully understood. We evaluated the association between germline polymorphisms in genes important to angiogenesis and subjective reporting of hot flashes.
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Estrogen receptor genotype is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism during tamoxifen therapy.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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Thromboembolism is a serious complication of tamoxifen therapy in women with breast cancer. Banked DNA from tamoxifen-treated individuals with breast cancer from the Marshfield Clinic Personalized Medicine Research Project, a population-based DNA repository, was tested for association between incidence of tamoxifen-associated thromboembolic events (TTE) and single nucleotide polymorphisms encoding the estrogen receptors 1,2 (ESR1, ESR2) or drug metabolism enzymes cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and aromatase (CYP19). TTE were experienced by 16/220 subjects with risk association noted for XbaI (rs9340799) genotype and ESR1 Xbal/PvuII diplotype (rs9340799 and rs2234693) (hazard ratio 3.47, 95% CI 0.97-12.44, P = 0.035). Association persisted after adjusting for classical risk factors including age at diagnosis and body mass index at enrollment. Initial evidence of association between increased risk for TTE and ESR1 genotype and ESR1 diplotype is presented. Determination of estrogen receptor genotype may identify a subset of women at increased risk for thromboembolism with tamoxifen exposure.
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Identification of genetic variants in the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) gene, which have altered enzyme activity.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan catabolism, is a key regulator of immune tolerance. We identified genetic variations in the IDO1 gene and evaluated their functional activities using in-vitro transfection studies.
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Comparison of subjective and objective hot flash measures over time among breast cancer survivors initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Hot flashes are valuable indicators of physiological condition and drug effect; however, subjective and objective measures do not always agree. No study has examined both subjective and objective hot flashes in women prescribed aromatase inhibitors. The study (1) compared subjective and objective hot flash measures, (2) examined changes in subjective and objective hot flashes over time, and (3) evaluated predictors of change in hot flashes in aromatase inhibitor-treated women.
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Assessment of vascular effects of tamoxifen and its metabolites on the rat perfused hindquarter vascular bed.
Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Tamoxifen has been suggested to produce beneficial cardiovascular effects, although the mechanisms for these effects are not fully known. Moreover, although tamoxifen metabolites may exhibit 30-100 times higher potency than the parent drug, no previous study has compared the effects produced by tamoxifen and its metabolites on vascular function. Here, we assessed the vascular responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside on perfused hindquarter vascular bed of rats treated with tamoxifen or its main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, and endoxifen) for 2 weeks. Plasma and whole-blood thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations were determined using a fluorometric method. Plasma nitrite and NOx (nitrite + nitrate) concentrations were determined using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay and Griess reaction, respectively. Treatment with tamoxifen reduced the responses to acetylcholine (pD(2) = 2.2 +/- 0.06 and 1.9 +/- 0.05 after vehicle and tamoxifen, respectively; P < 0.05), while its metabolites improved these responses (pD(2) = 2.5 +/- 0.04 after N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 2.5 +/- 0.03 after 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen, and 2.6 +/- 0.08 after endoxifen; P < 0.01). Tamoxifen and its metabolites showed no effect on endothelial-independent responses to sodium nitroprusside (P > 0.05). While tamoxifen treatment resulted in significantly higher plasma and whole blood lipid peroxide levels (37% and 62%, respectively; both P < 0.05), its metabolites significantly decreased lipid peroxide levels (by approximately 50%; P < 0.05). While treatment with tamoxifen decreased the concentrations of markers of nitric oxide formation by approximately 50% (P < 0.05), tamoxifen metabolites had no effect on these parameters (P > 0.05). These results suggest that while tamoxifen produces detrimental effects, its metabolites produce counteracting beneficial effects on the vascular system and on nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species formation.
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Pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen: who should undergo CYP2D6 genetic testing?
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Many women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer will receive tamoxifen at some point in their treatment course. Tamoxifen is biotransformed to the potent antiestrogen endoxifen almost exclusively through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoform. Although prospective data are lacking, the balance of evidence available currently suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2D6 gene, particularly the presence of 2 null alleles, predicts for reduced tamoxifen metabolism and possibly poorer outcome than expected in patients with a wild-type genotype. Studies evaluating the impact of genetic polymorphisms that result in CYP2D6 with reduced or no activity on long-term outcome have been mostly retrospective and conducted on archival tissues or those obtained previously in prospective studies of tamoxifen. Until data are available from retrospective examinations of the large prospective trials already conducted, or adequately powered prospective analyses, transforming this information into guidelines for individual patients remains challenging. The authors do not currently recommend routine testing for CYP2D6 genotype for making clinical decisions regarding tamoxifen. Use of concomitant strong or intermediate inhibitors of CYP2D6 should be avoided when alternate medications are available. Ongoing research is directed toward identifying other polymorphisms that may influence the efficacy and safety of tamoxifen, other hormonal agents, and chemotherapies used to treat breast cancer. The hope is that in the future, not only tumor-associated factors but also germ-line host genetics can be used to determine whether a woman should receive treatment, and with which specific agents, to prevent breast cancer recurrence or death or avoid drug-related toxicities.
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Rapid identification of the hepatic cytochrome P450 2C19 activity using a novel and noninvasive [13C]pantoprazole breath test.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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We tested the hypothesis that the stable isotope [(13)C]pantoprazole is O-demethylated by cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 and that the (13)CO(2) produced and exhaled in breath as a result can serve as a safe, rapid, and noninvasive phenotyping marker of CYP2C19 activity in vivo. Healthy volunteers who had been genotyped for the CYP2C19(*)2, CYP2C19(*)3, and CYP2C19(*)17 alleles were administered a single oral dose of [(13)C]pantoprazole sodium-sesquihydrate (100 mg) with 2.1 g of sodium bicarbonate. Exhaled (13)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) were measured by IR spectroscopy before (baseline) and 2.5 to 120 min after dosing. Ratios of (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) after [(13)C]pantoprazole relative to (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) at baseline were expressed as change over baseline (DOB). Maximal DOB, DOB(15) to DOB(120), and area under the DOB versus time curve (AUC(0-120) and AUC(0-infinity)) were significantly different among three genotype groups (CYP2C19(*)1/(*)1, n = 10; CYP2C19(*)1/(*)2 or CYP2C19(*)1/(*)3, n = 10; and CYP2C19(*)2/(*)2, n = 5) with predicted extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2C19, respectively (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.01); linear regression analysis indicated a gene-dose effect relationship (r(2) ranged between 0.236 and 0.522; all p < 0.05). These breath test indices were significantly lower in PMs than IMs (p < 0.05) or EMs (p < 0.01) of CYP2C19. [(13)C]Pantoprazole plasma exposure showed significant inverse correlation with breath test indices in the respective subjects (Pearson r = -0.74; p = 0.038). These feasibility data suggest that the [(13)C]pantoprazole breath test is a reliable, rapid, and noninvasive probe of CYP2C19 and seems to be a useful tool to optimize drug therapy metabolized by CYP2C19.
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Inhibition of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450s by the aromatase inhibitor drug letrozole and its major oxidative metabolite 4,4-methanol-bisbenzonitrile in vitro.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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To determine the inhibitory potency of letrozole and its main human metabolite, 4,4-methanol-bisbenzonitrile, on the activities of eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.
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Association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Women with reduced CYP2D6 activity have low endoxifen concentrations and likely worse long term benefits from tamoxifen. We investigated the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort. We collected hot flash frequency and severity data over 12 months from 297 women initiating tamoxifen. We performed CYP2D6 genotyping using the AmpliChip CYP450 test and correlated inherited genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. Intermediate metabolizers had greater mean hot flash scores after 4 months of tamoxifen therapy (44.3) compared to poor metabolizers (20.6, P = 0.038) or extensive metabolizers (26.9, P = 0.011). At 4 months, we observed a trend toward fewer severe hot flashes in poor metabolizers compared to intermediate plus extensive metabolizers (P = 0.062). CYP2D6 activity may be a modest predictive factor for tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. The presence or absence of hot flashes should not be used to determine tamoxifens efficacy.
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Is (+)-[13C]-pantoprazole better than (±)-[13C]-pantoprazole for the breath test to evaluate CYP2C19 enzyme activity?
J Breath Res
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Recently, we have shown that the (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole is more dependent on CYP2C19 metabolic status than (-)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole is a more sensitive and selective probe for evaluating CYP2C19 enzyme activity than the racemic mixture. (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole (95 mg) was administered orally in a sodium bicarbonate solution to healthy volunteers. Breath and plasma samples were collected before and up to 720 min after dosing. The (13)CO2 in exhaled breath samples was measured by infrared spectrometry. Ratios of (13)CO2/(12)CO2 after (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole relative to (13)CO2/(12)CO2 at baseline were expressed as delta over baseline (DOB). (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole concentrations were measured by HPLC. Genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was genotyped for CYP2C19*2, *3 and *17 using Taqman assays. Statistically significant differences in the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUCplasma(0-?) (p < 0.001) and oral clearance (<0.01) of (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole as well as in the breath test indices (delta over baseline, DOB30; and area under the DOB versus time curve, AUCDOB(0-120)) (p < 0.01) were observed among poor, intermediate and extensive metabolizer of CYP2C19. DOB30 and AUCDOB(0-120) adequately distinguished poor metabolizer from intermediate and extensive metabolizer of CYP2C19. Breath test indices significantly correlated with plasma elimination parameters of (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole (Pearson correlations: -0.68 to -0.73). Although relatively higher breath test indices were observed after administration of (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole (this study) than after (±)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole (previous study), the performance of the racemic and the enantiomer as marker of CYP2C19 activity remained similar. Our data confirm that the metabolism of (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole is highly dependent on CYP2C19 metabolic status, but the breath test derived from it is not superior to the racemic [(13)C]-pantoprazole in evaluating CYP2C19 activity in vivo. Thus, racemic [(13)C]-pantoprazole which is relatively easy to synthesize and more stable than (+)-[(13)C]-pantoprazole is adequate as a probe of this enzyme.
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Impact of the Interaction between 3-UTR SNPs and microRNA on the Expression of Human Xenobiotic Metabolism Enzyme and Transporter Genes.
Front Genet
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Genetic variation in the expression of human xenobiotic metabolism enzymes and transporters (XMETs) leads to inter-individual variability in metabolism of therapeutic agents as well as differed susceptibility to various diseases. Recent expression quantitative traits loci (eQTL) mapping in a few human cells/tissues have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with mRNA expression of many XMET genes. These eQTLs are therefore important candidate markers for pharmacogenetic studies. However, questions remain about whether these SNPs are causative and in what mechanism these SNPs may function. Given the important role of microRNAs (miRs) in gene transcription regulation, we hypothesize that those eQTLs or their proxies in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) altering miR targeting are likely causative SNPs affecting gene expression. The aim of this study is to identify eQTLs potentially regulating major XMETs via interference with miR targeting. To this end, we performed a genome-wide screening for eQTLs for 409 genes encoding major drug metabolism enzymes, transporters and transcription factors, in publically available eQTL datasets generated from the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines and human liver and brain tissue. As a result, 308 eQTLs significantly (p?
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Dietary restrictions and drug interactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors: an update.
J Clin Psychiatry
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective treatments for depression that has atypical features or that has failed to respond to other antidepressants. However, MAOIs are underused because clinicians are concerned about dietary and drug interactions with this class of medication. Hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome can occur in rare cases due to interactions between MAOIs and foods containing tyramine as well as interactions with serotonergic and sympathomimetic agents. A better understanding of the foods and drugs that can cause adverse reactions, as well as knowledge of newer MAOIs with mechanisms of action and delivery methods that reduce these risks, may help clinicians to consider the use of these medications, when appropriate, in their patients with depression.
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Literature based drug interaction prediction with clinical assessment using electronic medical records: novel myopathy associated drug interactions.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
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Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a common cause of adverse drug events. In this paper, we combined a literature discovery approach with analysis of a large electronic medical record database method to predict and evaluate novel DDIs. We predicted an initial set of 13197 potential DDIs based on substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism enzymes identified from published in vitro pharmacology experiments. Using a clinical repository of over 800,000 patients, we narrowed this theoretical set of DDIs to 3670 drug pairs actually taken by patients. Finally, we sought to identify novel combinations that synergistically increased the risk of myopathy. Five pairs were identified with their p-values less than 1E-06: loratadine and simvastatin (relative risk or RR?=?1.69); loratadine and alprazolam (RR?=?1.86); loratadine and duloxetine (RR?=?1.94); loratadine and ropinirole (RR?=?3.21); and promethazine and tegaserod (RR?=?3.00). When taken together, each drug pair showed a significantly increased risk of myopathy when compared to the expected additive myopathy risk from taking either of the drugs alone. Based on additional literature data on in vitro drug metabolism and inhibition potency, loratadine and simvastatin and tegaserod and promethazine were predicted to have a strong DDI through the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes, respectively. This new translational biomedical informatics approach supports not only detection of new clinically significant DDI signals, but also evaluation of their potential molecular mechanisms.
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The dual role of pharmacogenetics in HIV treatment: mutations and polymorphisms regulating antiretroviral drug resistance and disposition.
Pharmacol. Rev.
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Significant intra- and interindividual variability has been observed in response to use of pharmacological agents in treatment of HIV infection. Treatment of HIV infection is limited by high rates of adverse drug reactions and development of resistance in a significant proportion of patients as a result of suboptimal drug concentrations. The efficacy of antiretroviral therapy is challenged by the emergence of resistant HIV-1 mutants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, pharmacotherapy of patients infected with HIV is challenging because a great number of comorbidities increase polypharmacy and the risk for drug-drug interactions. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters regulate drug access to the systemic circulation, target cells, and sanctuary sites. These factors, which determine drug exposure, along with the emergence of mutations conferring resistance to HIV medications, could explain variability in efficacy and adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs. In this review, the major factors affecting the disposition of antiretroviral drugs, including key drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane drug transporters, are outlined. Genetic polymorphisms affecting the activity and/or the expression of cytochromes P450 or UGT isozymes and membrane drug transport proteins are highlighted and include such examples as the association of neurotoxicity with efavirenz, nephrotoxicity with tenofovir, hepatotoxicity with nevirapine, and hyperbilirubinemia with indinavir and atazanavir. Mechanisms of drug resistance conferred by specific viral mutations are also reviewed, with particular attention to replicative viral fitness and transmitted HIV drug resistance with the objectives of providing a better understanding of mechanisms involved in HIV drug resistance and helping health care providers to better manage interpatient variability in drug efficacy and toxicity.
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Reduced methadone clearance during aromatase inhibition.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
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Methadone is increasingly used in pain management and is a cornerstone in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. It is subject to highly variable clearance among patients. The complete metabolic disposition of methadone is likely to involve a number of enzymes, including specifically CYP2B6. Previous studies in vitro suggest that metabolism by aromatase may also contribute. Single-dose methadone pharmacokinetics (2 mg, intravenous) were studied in 15 healthy postmenopausal women in the presence and absence of a potent aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. A sequential design was used, involving a control period followed by treatment with letrozole (2.5 mg/d, 11 days), in which each subject served as her own control. On average, letrozole treatment reduced methadone systemic clearance by 22% (P = 0.001), increased methadone AUC by 23% (P = 0.007), and increased elimination half-life by 21% (P = 0.042). The plasma parent-to-metabolite ratio also increased (P = 0.009), and there was a linear relationship (R2 = 0.74) between change in this plasma ratio and change in methadone AUC0-?. In contrast, there was no such association with change in apparent urinary methadone clearance. Letrozole did not change methadone distribution half-life or its volume of distribution. Overall, these data demonstrate a significant decrease in methadone clearance during coadministration of letrozole, consistent with decreased metabolism brought about by aromatase inhibition. An involvement of aromatase in the disposition of methadone may help explain the difficulty in methadone dosing and suggests a broader role for this catalyst of endogenous steroid metabolism in xenobiotic drug disposition.
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Pharmacogenetics and healthcare outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
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To test for associations between genetic polymorphisms of adrenergic receptors (AR) and other candidate genes and healthcare utilization in heart failure patients, taking into account other important factors, such as medication adherence.
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Whole genome amplification of DNA for genotyping pharmacogenetics candidate genes.
Front Pharmacol
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Whole genome amplification (WGA) technologies can be used to amplify genomic DNA when only small amounts of DNA are available. The Multiple Displacement Amplification Phi polymerase based amplification has been shown to accurately amplify DNA for a variety of genotyping assays; however, it has not been tested for genotyping many of the clinically relevant genes important for pharmacogenetic studies, such as the cytochrome P450 genes, that are typically difficult to genotype due to multiple pseudogenes, copy number variations, and high similarity to other related genes. We evaluated whole genome amplified samples for Taqman(™) genotyping of SNPs in a variety of pharmacogenetic genes. In 24 DNA samples from the Coriell human diversity panel, the call rates, and concordance between amplified (?200-fold amplification) and unamplified samples was 100% for two SNPs in CYP2D6 and one in ESR1. In samples from a breast cancer clinical trial (Trial 1), we compared the genotyping results in samples before and after WGA for three SNPs in CYP2D6, one SNP in CYP2C19, one SNP in CYP19A1, two SNPs in ESR1, and two SNPs in ESR2. The concordance rates were all >97%. Finally, we compared the allele frequencies of 143 SNPs determined in Trial 1 (whole genome amplified DNA) to the allele frequencies determined in unamplified DNA samples from a separate trial (Trial 2) that enrolled a similar population. The call rates and allele frequencies between the two trials were 98 and 99.7%, respectively. We conclude that the whole genome amplified DNA is suitable for Taqman(™) genotyping for a wide variety of pharmacogenetically relevant SNPs.
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Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) mediated platelet aggregation is dependent on clopidogrel response.
Thromb. Res.
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Clopidogrel inhibits ADP mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor by its active metabolite. Thrombin induces platelet aggregation by binding to protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and inhibition of PAR-1 has been evaluated in patients treated with clopidogrel to reduce ischemic events after acute coronary syndromes. Residual PAR-1 mediated platelet aggregation may be dependent on extent of clopidogrel response.
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Influence of paraoxonase-1 Q192R and cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms on clopidogrel response.
Clin Pharmacol
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The metabolic activation of clopidogrel is a two-step process. It has been suggested that paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of 2-oxo- clopidogrel to an active thiol metabolite. Conflicting results have been reported in regard to (1) the association of a common polymorphism of PON1 (Q192R) with reduced rates of coronary stent thrombosis in patients taking clopidogrel and (2) its effects on platelet inhibition in patient populations of European descent.
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Inhibition of platelet aggregation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in diabetic patients during therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin.
Platelets
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased platelet activation and reduced platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulates adenyl cyclase activity in platelets and increases cyclic AMP concentrations, which inhibit Ca(2+)release and platelet aggregation induced by P2Y1 receptor activation. PGE1 is included in the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay to suppress P2Y1 induced platelet aggregation. We hypothesized that diabetes mellitus may be associated with altered response to PGE1 in subjects treated with clopidogrel. Subjects with established coronary artery disease who were taking clopidogrel 75?mg daily and aspirin for >14 days were enrolled (n?=?96). Diabetic (n?=?34) were compared with non-diabetic subjects (n?=?62). VerifyNow P2Y12 assay and light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) were performed using ADP as agonist with and without addition of PGE1. Genomic DNA was genotyped for common cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 variants using Taqman assays. Residual on-treatment platelet aggregation induced by 20?µM ADP was not significantly different between subjects with and without DM. Addition of 22?nM and 88?nM PGE1 to 20?µM ADP resulted in a significant reduction of maximal platelet aggregation (MPA). Residual LTA platelet aggregation with PGE1 and VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet reactivity were significantly higher in subjects with DM than those without DM and in carriers of CYP 2C19*2 polymorphism. We conclude that an impaired inhibitory response to PGE1 may contribute to the high platelet reactivity phenotype in subjects with DM treated with clopidogrel. Addition of PGE1 to ADP agonist platelet assays may identify subjects with blunted inhibitory response to prostaglandins and result in a higher proportion of subjects with DM being classified as non-responders.
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Predictors of aromatase inhibitor discontinuation as a result of treatment-emergent symptoms in early-stage breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are effective for treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but adherence and persistence with therapy are poor. Predictors of treatment discontinuation are not clearly defined. It is unknown whether patients with intolerable toxicity from one AI are able to tolerate another.
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In silico and in vitro identification of microRNAs that regulate hepatic nuclear factor 4? expression.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
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Hepatic nuclear factor 4? (HNF4A) is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of many genes involved in drug disposition. To identify additional molecular mechanisms that regulate HNF4A, we identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that target HNF4A expression. In silico analyses suggested that HNF4A is targeted by many miRNAs. We conducted in vitro studies to validate several of these predictions. With use of an HNF4A 3-untranslated region (UTR) luciferase reporter assay, five of six miRNAs tested significantly down-regulated (?20-40%) the luciferase activity. In HepG2 cells, miR-34a and miR-449a also down-regulated the expression of both the HNF4A protein and an HNF4A target gene, PXR (?30-40%). This regulation appeared without reduction in HNF4A mRNA expression, suggesting that they must be blocking HNF4A translation. Using additional bioinformatic algorithms, we identified polymorphisms that are predicted to alter the miRNA targeting of HNF4A. Luciferase assays indicated that miR-34a and miR-449a were less effective in regulating a variant (rs11574744) than the wild-type HNF4A 3-UTR. In vivo, subjects with the variant HNF4A had lower CYP2D6 enzyme activity, although this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.16). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate strong evidence for a role of miRNAs in the regulation of HNF4A.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.