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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Opioid use is associated with decreased quality of life in patients with Crohn's disease.
Saudi J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Quality of life is an important consideration in the management of patients with Crohn's disease. Previous studies suggest that Crohn's disease patients using opioids may have decreased quality of life and increased risk of mortality. Our aim was to determine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and opioid use in patients with Crohn's disease while controlling for disease severity.
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A high-throughput, multiplexed assay for superfamily-wide profiling of enzyme activity.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The selectivity of an enzyme inhibitor is a key determinant of its usefulness as a tool compound or its safety as a drug. Yet selectivity is never assessed comprehensively in the early stages of the drug discovery process, and only rarely in the later stages, because technical limitations prohibit doing otherwise. Here, we report EnPlex, an efficient, high-throughput method for simultaneously assessing inhibitor potency and specificity, and pilot its application to 96 serine hydrolases. EnPlex analysis of widely used serine hydrolase inhibitors revealed numerous previously unrecognized off-target interactions, some of which may help to explain previously confounding adverse effects. In addition, EnPlex screening of a hydrolase-directed library of boronic acid- and nitrile-containing compounds provided structure-activity relationships in both potency and selectivity dimensions from which lead candidates could be more effectively prioritized. Follow-up of a series of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors showed that EnPlex indeed predicted efficacy and safety in animal models. These results demonstrate the feasibility and value of high-throughput, superfamily-wide selectivity profiling and suggest that such profiling can be incorporated into the earliest stages of drug discovery.
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Eszopiclone and dexmedetomidine depress ventilation in obese rats with features of metabolic syndrome.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Obesity alters the therapeutic window of sedative/hypnotic drugs and increases the probability of respiratory complications. The current experiments used an established rodent model of obesity to test the hypothesis that the sedative/hypnotic drugs eszopiclone and dexmedetomidine alter ventilation differentially in obese rats compared with lean/fit rats.
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Development of Myasthenia Gravis in a Patient with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia during Treatment with Nilotinib.
Hematol Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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We report on a patient diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who developed myasthenia gravis while on treatment with nilotinib. Autoimmune disease, including the development of myasthenia gravis, has been described in association with CML as well as the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors are highly effective in the treatment of CML, although can result in adverse effects related to off-target kinase inhibition, and longer term reporting of adverse effects is required.
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Anesthetic management of a simultaneous emergency craniotomy and cesarean delivery.
AANA J
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Fetal heart tone monitoring is a frequently used tool during nonobstetric maternal surgery to evaluate the immediate well-being of a fetus. We present a case of a parturient requiring an emergency craniotomy, during which fetal heart tone monitoring demonstrated fetal distress patterns. A simultaneous emergency craniotomy and emergency cesarean delivery proceeded with favorable outcomes for both mother and infant. We present several issues associated with managing an emergent and concurrent maternal-fetal procedure.
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Custom Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Protect against a Free Radical Mediated Autoimmune Degenerative Disease in the Brain.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Cerium oxide nanoparticles are potent antioxidants, based on their ability to either donate or receive electrons as they alternate between the +3 and +4 valence states. The dual oxidation state of ceria has made it an ideal catalyst in industrial applications, and more recently, nanocerias efficacy in neutralizing biologically generated free radicals has been explored in biological applications. Here, we report the in vivo characteristics of custom-synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in an animal model of immunological and free-radical mediated oxidative injury leading to neurodegenerative disease. The CeNPs are 2.9 nm in diameter, monodispersed and have a -23.5 mV zeta potential when stabilized with citrate/EDTA. This stabilizer coating resists being washed off in physiological salt solutions, and the CeNPs remain monodispersed for long durations in high ionic strength saline. The plasma half-life of the CeNPs is ?4.0 h, far longer than previously described, stabilized ceria nanoparticles. When administered intravenously to mice, the CeNPs were well tolerated and taken up by the liver and spleen much less than previous nanoceria formulations. The CeNPs were also able to penetrate the brain, reduce reactive oxygen species levels, and alleviate clinical symptoms and motor deficits in mice with a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, CeNPs may be useful in mitigating tissue damage arising from free radical accumulation in biological systems.
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A General Method for Making Peptide Therapeutics Resistant to Serine Protease Degradation: Application to Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Substrates.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Bioactive peptides have evolved to optimally fulfill specific biological functions, a fact which has long attracted attention for their use as therapeutic agents. While there have been some recent commercial successes fostered in part by advances in large-scale peptide synthesis, development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been significantly impeded by their inherent susceptibility to protease degradation in the bloodstream. Here we report that incorporation of specially designed amino acid analogues at the P1 position, directly C-terminal of the enzyme cleavage site, renders peptides, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) and six other examples, highly resistant to serine protease degradation without significant alteration of their biological activity. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to a variety of proteases, including dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), dipeptidyl peptidase 8 (DPP8), fibroblast activation protein ? (FAP?), ?-lytic protease (?LP), trypsin, and chymotrypsin. In summary, the "P1 modification" represents a simple, general, and highly adaptable method of generating enzymatically stable peptide-based therapeutics.
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Three-loop corrections to the Higgs boson mass and implications for supersymmetry at the LHC.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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In supersymmetric models with minimal particle content and without left-right squark mixing, the conventional wisdom is that the 125.6 GeV Higgs boson mass implies top squark masses of O(10)??TeV, far beyond the reach of colliders. This conclusion is subject to significant theoretical uncertainties, however, and we provide evidence that it may be far too pessimistic. We evaluate the Higgs boson mass, including the dominant three-loop terms at O(?t?s2), in currently viable models. For multi-TeV top squarks, the three-loop corrections can increase the Higgs boson mass by as much as 3 GeV and lower the required top-squark masses to 3-4 TeV, greatly improving prospects for supersymmetry discovery at the upcoming run of the LHC and its high-luminosity upgrade.
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Molecular characterization of field resistance to Fusarium head blight in two US soft red winter wheat cultivars.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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In the soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) regions of the US, Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium spp.) resistance derived from locally adapted germplasm has been used predominantly. Two soft red winter wheat cultivars, Massey and Ernie, have moderate resistance to FHB. Mapping populations derived from Becker/Massey (B/M) and Ernie/MO 94-317 (E/MO) were evaluated for FHB resistance and other traits in multiple environments. Eight QTL in B/M and five QTL in E/MO were associated with FHB variables including incidence, severity (SEV), index (IND), Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), deoxynivalenol (DON), and morphological traits flowering time and plant height. Four QTL were common to both populations. Three of them were located at or near known genes: Ppd-D1 on chromosome 2DS, Rht-B1 on 4BS, and Rht-D1 on 4DS. Alleles for dwarf plant height (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) and photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd-D1a) had pleiotropic effects in reducing height and increasing FHB susceptibility. The other QTL detected for FHB variables were on 3BL in both populations, 1AS, 1DS, 2BL, and 4DL in B/M, and 5AL (B1) and 6AL in E/MO. The additive effects of FHB variables ranged from 0.4 mg kg(-1) of DON to 6.2 % for greenhouse (GH) SEV in B/M and ranged from 0.3 mg kg(-1) of DON to 8.3 % for GH SEV in E/MO. The 4DS QTL had epistasis with Ppd-D1, Qdon.umc-6AL, and Qht.umc-4BS, and additive × additive × environment interactions with the 4BS QTL for SEV, IND, and FDK in E/MO. Marker-assisted selection might be used to enhance FHB resistance through selection of favorable alleles of significant QTL, taking into account genotypes at Rht-B1b, Rht-D1a and Ppd-D1a.
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Identification of selective and potent inhibitors of fibroblast activation protein and prolyl oligopeptidase.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease selectively expressed on reactive stromal fibroblasts of epithelial carcinomas. It is widely believed to play a role in tumor invasion and metastasis and therefore to represent a potential new drug target for cancer. Investigation into its biological function, however, has been hampered by the current unavailability of selective inhibitors. The challenge has been in identifying inhibitors that are selective for FAP over both the dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs), with which it shares exopeptidase specificity, and prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP), with which it shares endopeptidase specificity. Here, we report the first potent FAP inhibitor with selectivity over both the DPPs and PREP, N-(pyridine-4-carbonyl)-d-Ala-boroPro (ARI-3099, 6). We also report a similarly potent and selective PREP inhibitor, N-(pyridine-3-carbonyl)-Val-boroPro (ARI-3531, 22). Both are boronic acid based inhibitors, demonstrating that high selectivity can be achieved using this electrophile. The inhibitors are stable, easy to synthesize, and should prove to be useful in helping to elucidate the biological functions of these two unique and interesting enzymes, as well as their potential as drug targets.
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Chemical and biological evaluation of dipeptidyl boronic acid proteasome inhibitors for use in prodrugs and pro-soft drugs targeting solid tumors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Bortezomib, a dipeptidyl boronic acid and potent inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, is remarkably effective against multiple myeloma (MM) but not against solid tumors. Dose-limiting adverse effects from "on target" inhibition of the proteasome in normal cells and tissues appear to be a key obstacle. Achieving efficacy against solid tumors therefore is likely to require making the inhibitor more selective for tumor tissue over normal tissues. The simplest strategy that might provide such tissue specificity would be to employ a tumor specific protease to release an inhibitor from a larger, noninhibitory structure. However, such release would necessarily generate an inhibitor with a free N-terminal amino group, raising a key question: Can short peptide boronic acids with N-terminal amino groups have the requisite properties to serve as warheads in prodrugs? Here we show that dipeptides of boroLeu, the smallest plausible candidates for the task, can indeed be sufficiently potent, cell-penetrating, cytotoxic, and stable to degradation by cellular peptidases to serve in this capacity.
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Pro-soft Val-boroPro: a strategy for enhancing in vivo performance of boronic acid inhibitors of serine proteases.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Val-boroPro, 1, is a potent, but relatively nonspecific inhibitor of the prolyl peptidases. It has antihyperglycemic activity from inhibition of DPPIV but also striking anticancer activity and a toxicity for which the mechanisms are unknown. 1 cyclizes at physiological pH, which attenuates its inhibitory potency >100-fold, which is a "soft drug" effect. Here we show that this phenomenon can be exploited to create prodrugs with unique properties and potential for selective in vivo targeting. Enzyme-mediated release delivers 1 to the target in the active form at physiological pH; cyclization attenuates systemic pharmacological effects from subsequent diffusion. This "pro-soft" design is demonstrated with a construct activated by and targeted to DPPIV, including in vivo results showing improved antihyperglycemic activity and reduced toxicity relative to 1. Pro-soft derivatives of 1 can help to illuminate the mechanisms underlying the three biological activities, or to help localize 1 at a tumor and thereby lead to improved anticancer agents with reduced toxicity. The design concept can also be applied to a variety of other boronic acid inhibitors.
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4-Substituted boro-proline dipeptides: synthesis, characterization, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, 8, and 9 activities.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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The boroProline-based dipeptidyl boronic acids were among the first DPP-IV inhibitors identified, and remain the most potent known. We introduced various substitutions at the 4-position of the boroProline ring regioselectively and stereoselectively, and incorporated these aminoboronic acids into a series of 4-substituted boroPro-based dipeptides. Among these dipeptidyl boronic acids, Arg-(4S)-boroHyp (4q) was the most potent inhibitor of DPP-IV, DPP8 and DPP9, while (4S)-Hyp-(4R)-boroHyp (4o) exhibited the most selectivity for DPP-IV over DPP8 and DPP9.
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Management of a pulmonary artery embolectomy and recurrent embolus.
AANA J
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Pulmonary emboli are complex syndromes of altered coagulation and perfusion that remain prevalent among the population, especially the hospitalized. Adequate preparation by the clinicians and realization of the subtle yet potentially catastrophic nature of pulmonary emboli are critical when surgical intervention is required. This case report describes a 49-year-old woman with a diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism who was brought to the operating room for emergent pulmonary artery embolectomy. Despite a profound Venouobstruction in her main pulmonary artery, she arrived in no acute distress and with stable hemodynamic values. During induction of general anesthesia, she quickly decompensated, requiring emergent cardiopulmonary bypass. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography guided the multistep surgery, resulting in the recognition of a recurrent right atrial embolus. The patient tolerated the procedure and ultimately had a favorable hospital course.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.