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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Telomere dysfunction accurately predicts clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, even in patients with early stage disease.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Defining the prognosis of individual cancer sufferers remains a significant clinical challenge. Here we assessed the ability of high-resolution single telomere length analysis (STELA), combined with an experimentally derived definition of telomere dysfunction, to predict the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We defined the upper telomere length threshold at which telomere fusions occur and then used the mean of the telomere 'fusogenic' range as a prognostic tool. Patients with telomeres within the fusogenic range had a significantly shorter overall survival (P < 0·0001; Hazard ratio [HR] = 13·2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11·6-106·4) and this was preserved in early-stage disease patients (P < 0·0001, HR=19·3, 95% CI = 17·8-802·5). Indeed, our assay allowed the accurate stratification of Binet stage A patients into those with indolent disease (91% survival at 10 years) and those with poor prognosis (13% survival at 10 years). Furthermore, patients with telomeres above the fusogenic mean showed superior prognosis regardless of their IGHV mutation status or cytogenetic risk group. In keeping with this finding, telomere dysfunction was the dominant variable in multivariate analysis. Taken together, this study provides compelling evidence for the use of high-resolution telomere length analysis coupled with a definition of telomere dysfunction in the prognostic assessment of CLL.
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A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL.
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Proteomic analysis of B-cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia reveals a possible role for kininogen.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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CLL is an incurable disease with variable prognosis. The hyper reactivity of the B-cell receptor (BCR) to unknown antigen ligation plays a pivotal role in CLL-cell survival. We aimed to investigate the BCR signalling pathway using proteomics to identify novel proteins which may have clinical relevance in this disease. Three CLL samples were selected based upon BCR responsiveness, demonstrated by upregulation of phospho-ERK following in vitro stimulation. The differential expression of proteins, upon artificial stimulation of the BCR, was examined in these samples using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry. Proteins of interest were subsequently examined using immunoblotting. Proteomic analysis revealed that kininogen, a critical protein of kinin-kallikrein system, was upregulated in all 3 clinical samples upon BCR stimulation. There are 2 forms of kininogen: HMWK and LMWK. The upregulation of LMWK upon BCR stimulation was confirmed by immunoblotting in all 3 of these samples. In a pilot series of 52 unselected CLL samples, 71% demonstrated basal LMWK expression. There was a trend towards shorter median survival in LMWK positive cases (147months versus 253months for LMWK negative cases; p=0.125). Kininogen may be a novel therapeutic target in CLL and the possible association with prognosis warrants further investigation.
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The kinin-kallikrein system: physiological roles, pathophysiology and its relationship to cancer biomarkers.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The kinin-kallikrein system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein cascade, the activation of which leads to triggering of the intrinsic coagulation pathway and enzymatic hydrolysis of kininogens with the consequent release of bradykinin-related peptides. This system plays a crucial role in inflammation, vasodilation, smooth muscle contraction, cardioprotection, vascular permeability, blood pressure control, coagulation and pain. In this review, we will outline the physiology and pathophysiology of the KKS and also highlight the association of this system with carcinogenesis and cancer progression.
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The automated monocyte count is independently predictive of overall survival from diagnosis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and of survival following first-line chemotherapy.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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We conducted an analysis of the effect of monocytosis at diagnosis of CLL on subsequent overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS). Monocyte counts were performed using the Sysmex XE2100 analyser. A monocyte count >0.9 × 10(9)L(-1) at the time of diagnosis was associated with a shortened OS and TFS. Monocytosis at diagnosis was associated with lymphocyte count, deletions of chromosomes 17p and 11q, the extent of IgVH somatic hypermutation and Binet stage. A multivariate analysis model which excluded somatic hypermutation found only monocyte count and age to be independently predictive of OS. The automated monocyte count is predictive of OS and TFS in newly diagnosed CLL.
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Perioperative Management of Type 2N Von Willebrands Disease with Recombinant Factor VIII in a Patient Undergoing Knee-Replacement Surgery.
Case Rep Hematol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Type 2N Von Willebrands disease (2N VWD) is a rare, recessively inherited bleeding disorder, comprising 1-2% of all VWD patients, usually manifesting as a mild bleeding diathesis. Treatment includes desmopressin (DDAVP) or intermediate purity plasma-derived FVIII concentrates containing residual VWF. We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman, incidentally diagnosed with type 2N VWD in 2002 on routine blood testing before surgery with an ISTH bleeding score of 1-2, who was treated with recombinant FVIII preoperatively.
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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The literature is sparse on the incidence in the most common lymphoid malignancy, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We calculated the incidence rates for VTE in an unselected UK CLL clinic population at 1.45% per patient year. This represents a tenfold increase over previously published estimates of incidence in the general population and a twofold increase over that of the local hospital inpatient population. In our cohort, the risk of VTE was related to stage C disease. Clinicians should be aware that CLL patients are at risk of VTE.
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Thalidomide enhances cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone-mediated cytotoxicity towards cultured chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Numerous chemotherapeutic regimens exist for the treatment of symptomatic or progressive chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). However, once the disease becomes refractory to nucleoside-based therapy the prognosis is poor. In this study we investigated the cytotoxicity of thalidomide in combination with dexamethasone, fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Cells from a cohort of 25 CLL patients were incubated for 72 h with each of these three agents, at 3 concentrations, both with and without thalidomide. Cell viability was assessed using the Annexin V:FITC assay. Fludarabine was highly toxic to the cells, producing very high levels of cell death; however, thalidomide did not increase this effect. Cyclophosphamide combined with thalidomide showed a small, non-significant improvement in toxicity compared with monotherapy. Median cell death for 5 µM dexamethasone monotherapy and for combination with thalidomide was 15% [interquartile range (IQR) 0-38%] and 17% (IQR 0-54%), respectively (Wilcoxon Signed Rank analysis, p=0.034). Cell death for 10 µM dexamethasone monotherapy was 15% (IQR 0-45%) and 16% (IQR 0-62%) in combination with thalidomide (Wilcoxon Signed Rank analysis, p=0.035). At the highest doses tested 11 of 25 cases displayed an enhancement of cyclophosphamide-mediated cytotoxicity, and 14 of 25 cases showed enhanced dexamethasone-mediated cytotoxicity in the presence of thalidomide. Some CLL cells in which dexamethasone-mediated killing was enhanced were derived from patients with poor prognostic markers, including p53 mutations and unmutated IgVH genes. In summary, thalidomide enhances cyclophosphamide- and dexamethasone-mediated cytotoxicity of CLL cells in vitro in a proportion of cases.
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Common variants at 2q37.3, 8q24.21, 15q21.3 and 16q24.1 influence chronic lymphocytic leukemia risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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To identify new risk variants for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we conducted a genome-wide association study of 299,983 tagging SNPs, with validation in four additional series totaling 2,503 cases and 5,789 controls. We identified four new risk loci for CLL at 2q37.3 (rs757978, FARP2; odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P = 2.11 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs2456449; OR = 1.26; P = 7.84 x 10(-10)), 15q21.3 (rs7169431; OR = 1.36; P = 4.74 x 10(-7)) and 16q24.1 (rs305061; OR = 1.22; P = 3.60 x 10(-7)). We also found evidence for risk loci at 15q25.2 (rs783540, CPEB1; OR = 1.18; P = 3.67 x 10(-6)) and 18q21.1 (rs1036935; OR = 1.22; P = 2.28 x 10(-6)). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy.
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Increased inducible heat shock protein 72 expression associated with PBMC isolated from patients with haematological tumours.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
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Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) is a highly inducible stress protein and molecular chaperone. Cancers have been shown to be associated with increased Hsp72 expression within the tumour itself and this may lead to resistance to apoptosis.
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Alemtuzumab in combination with methylprednisolone is a highly effective induction regimen for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and deletion of TP53: final results of the national cancer research institute CLL206 trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), TP53 deletion/mutation is strongly associated with an adverse outcome and resistance to chemotherapy-based treatment. In contrast, TP53 defects are not associated with resistance to the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab or methylprednisolone. In an attempt to improve the treatment of TP53-defective CLL, a multicenter phase II study was developed to evaluate alemtuzumab and methylprednisolone in combination.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.