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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Covalent Small Molecule Inhibitors of Ca(2+)-Bound S100B.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Elevated levels of the tumor marker S100B are observed in malignant melanoma, and this EF-hand-containing protein was shown to directly bind wild-type (wt) p53 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, dissociate the p53 tetramer, and inhibit its tumor suppression functions. Likewise, inhibiting S100B with small interfering RNA (siRNA(S100B)) is sufficient to restore wild-type p53 levels and its downstream gene products and induce the arrest of cell growth and UV-dependent apoptosis in malignant melanoma. Therefore, it is a goal to develop S100B inhibitors (SBiXs) that inhibit the S100B-p53 complex and restore active p53 in this deadly cancer. Using a structure-activity relationship by nuclear magnetic resonance approach (SAR by NMR), three persistent binding pockets are found on S100B, termed sites 1-3. While inhibitors that simultaneously bind sites 2 and 3 are in place, no molecules that simultaneously bind all three persistent sites are available. For this purpose, Cys84 was used in this study as a potential means to bridge sites 1 and 2 because it is located in a small crevice between these two deeper pockets on the protein. Using a fluorescence polarization competition assay, several Cys84-modified S100B complexes were identified and examined further. For five such SBiX-S100B complexes, crystallographic structures confirmed their covalent binding to Cys84 near site 2 and thus present straightforward chemical biology strategies for bridging sites 1 and 3. Importantly, one such compound, SC1982, showed an S100B-dependent death response in assays with WM115 malignant melanoma cells, so it will be particularly useful for the design of SBiX molecules with improved affinity and specificity.
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Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of N-Benzyl-2-phenylpyrimidin-4-amine Derivatives as Potent USP1/UAF1 Deubiquitinase Inhibitors with Anticancer Activity against Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Deregulation of ubiquitin conjugation or deconjugation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 (ubiquitin-specific protease 1), in association with UAF1 (USP1-associated factor 1), is a known regulator of DNA damage response and has been shown as a promising anticancer target. To further evaluate USP1/UAF1 as a therapeutic target, we conducted a quantitative high throughput screen of >400000 compounds and subsequent medicinal chemistry optimization of small molecules that inhibit the deubiquitinating activity of USP1/UAF1. Ultimately, these efforts led to the identification of ML323 (70) and related N-benzyl-2-phenylpyrimidin-4-amine derivatives, which possess nanomolar USP1/UAF1 inhibitory potency. Moreover, we demonstrate a strong correlation between compound IC50 values for USP1/UAF1 inhibition and activity in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells, specifically increased monoubiquitinated PCNA (Ub-PCNA) levels and decreased cell survival. Our results establish the druggability of the USP1/UAF1 deubiquitinase complex and its potential as a molecular target for anticancer therapies.
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Comorbidity-age index: a clinical measure of biologic age before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Age has long been used as a major factor for assessing suitability for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was developed as a measure of health status to predict mortality risk after HCT. Whether age, comorbidities, or both should guide decision making for HCT is unknown.
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Shape-directional growth of Pt and Pd nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The design and synthesis of shape-directed nanoscale noble metal particles have attracted much attention due to their enhanced catalytic properties and the opportunities to study fundamental aspects of nanoscale systems. As such, numerous methods have been developed to synthesize crystals with tunable shapes, sizes, and facets by adding foreign species that promote or restrict growth on specific sites. Many hypotheses regarding how and why certain species direct growth have been put forward, however there has been no consensus on a unifying mechanism of nanocrystal growth. Herein, we develop and demonstrate the capabilities of a mathematical growth model for predicting metal nanoparticle shapes by studying a well known procedure that employs AgNO3 to produce {111} faceted Pt nanocrystals. The insight gained about the role of auxiliary species is then utilized to predict the shape of Pd nanocrystals and to corroborate other shape-directing syntheses reported in literature. The fundamental understanding obtained herein by combining modeling with experimentation is a step toward computationally guided syntheses and, in principle, applicable to predictive design of the growth of crystalline solids at all length scales (nano to bulk).
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A high throughput screen identifies potent and selective inhibitors to human epithelial 15-lipoxygenase-2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes catalyze the hydroperoxidation of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids with varying positional specificity to yield important biological signaling molecules. Human epithelial 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) is a highly specific LOX isozyme that is expressed in epithelial tissue and whose activity has been correlated with suppression of tumor growth in prostate and other epithelial derived cancers. Despite the potential utility of an inhibitor to probe the specific role of 15-LOX-2 in tumor progression, no such potent/specific 15-LOX-2 inhibitors have been reported to date. This study employs high throughput screening to identify two novel, specific 15-LOX-2 inhibitors. MLS000545091 is a mixed-type inhibitor of 15-LOX-2 with a Ki of 0.9+/-0.4 µM and has a 20-fold selectivity over 5-LOX, 12-LOX, 15-LOX-1, COX-1, and COX-2. MLS000536924 is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 2.5+/-0.5 µM and also possesses 20-fold selectivity toward 15-LOX-2 over the other oxygenases, listed above. Finally, neither compound possesses reductive activity towards the active-site ferrous ion.
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Platelet 12-LOX is essential for Fc?RIIa-mediated platelet activation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Platelets are essential in maintaining hemostasis following inflammation or injury to the vasculature. Dysregulated platelet activity often results in thrombotic complications leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. Activation of the Fc?RIIa receptor leads to immune-mediated thrombosis, which is often life threatening in patients undergoing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or sepsis. Inhibiting Fc?RIIa-mediated activation in platelets has been shown to limit thrombosis and is the principal target for prevention of immune-mediated platelet activation. In this study, we show for the first time that platelet 12(S)-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a highly expressed oxylipin-producing enzyme in the human platelet, is an essential component of Fc?RIIa-mediated thrombosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of 12-LOX in human platelets resulted in significant attenuation of Fc?RIIa-mediated aggregation. Platelet 12-LOX was shown to be essential for Fc?RIIa-induced phospholipase C?2 activity leading to activation of calcium mobilization, Rap1 and protein kinase C activation, and subsequent activation of the integrin ?IIb?3. Additionally, platelets from transgenic mice expressing human Fc?RIIa but deficient in platelet 12-LOX, failed to form normal platelet aggregates and exhibited deficiencies in Rap1 and ?IIb?3 activation. These results support an essential role for 12-LOX in regulating Fc?RIIa-mediated platelet function and identifies 12-LOX as a potential therapeutic target to limit immune-mediated thrombosis.
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A randomized phase II trial of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus after non-myeloablative unrelated donor transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The study is a randomized phase II trial investigating graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after non-myeloablative (90 mg/m(2) fludarabine and 2 Gy total body irradiation) human leukocyte antigen matched unrelated donor transplantation. Patients were randomized as follows: arm 1 - tacrolimus 180 days and mycophenolate mofetil 95 days (n=69); arm 2 - tacrolimus 150 days and mycophenolate mofetil 180 days (n=71); arm 3 - tacrolimus 150 days, mycophenolate mofetil 180 days and sirolimus 80 days (n=68). All patients had sustained engraftment. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease rates in the 3 arms were 64%, 48% and 47% at Day 150, respectively (arm 3 vs. arm 1 (hazard ratio 0.62; P=0.04). Owing to the decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease, systemic steroid use was lower at Day 150 in arm 3 (32% vs. 55% in arm 1 and 49% in arm 2; overall P=0.009 by hazard ratio analysis). The Day 150 incidence of cytomegalovirus reactivation was lower in arm 3 (arm 1, 54%; arm 2, 47%; arm 3, 22%; overall P=0.002 by hazard ratio analysis). Non-relapse mortality was comparable in the three arms at two years (arm 1, 26%; arm 2, 23%; arm 3, 18%). Toxicity rates and other outcome measures were similar between the three arms. The addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil is safe and associated with lower incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus reactivation. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 00105001).
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90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy in allogeneic transplantation in B-cell lymphoma with extensive marrow involvement and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: utility of pretransplantation biodistribution.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Biodistribution data to date using In-ibritumomab tiuxetan have been initially obtained in patients with less than 25% lymphomatous bone marrow involvement and adequate hematopoietic synthetic function. In this article we present the results of an analysis of the biodistribution data obtained from a cohort of patients with extensive bone marrow involvement, baseline cytopenias, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
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Treatment recommendations for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and related disorders: IWWM-7 consensus.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder for which clearly defined criteria for the diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and treatment strategy have been proposed as part of the consensus panels of International Workshops on WM (IWWM). As part of the IWWM-7 and based on recently published and ongoing clinical trials, the panels updated treatment recommendations. Therapeutic strategy in WM should be based on individual patient and disease characteristics (age, comorbidities, need for rapid disease control, candidacy for autologous transplantation, cytopenias, IgM-related complications, hyperviscosity, and neuropathy). Mature data show that rituximab combinations with cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone, bendamustine, or bortezomib/dexamethasone provided durable responses and are indicated for most patients. New monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab), second-generation proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib), mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors are promising and may expand future treatment options. A different regimen is typically recommended for relapsed or refractory disease. In selected patients with relapsed disease after long-lasting remission, reuse of a prior effective regimen may be appropriate. Autologous stem cell transplantation may be considered in young patients with chemosensitive disease and in newly diagnosed patients with very-high-risk features. Active enrollment of patients with WM in clinical trials is encouraged.
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Biochemical assays for the discovery of TDP1 inhibitors.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Drug screening against novel targets is warranted to generate biochemical probes and new therapeutic drug leads. TDP1 and TDP2 are two DNA repair enzymes that have yet to be successfully targeted. TDP1 repairs topoisomerase I-, alkylation-, and chain terminator-induced DNA damage, whereas TDP2 repairs topoisomerase II-induced DNA damage. Here, we report the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository using recombinant human TDP1. We also developed a secondary screening method using a multiple loading gel-based assay where recombinant TDP1 is replaced by whole cell extract (WCE) from genetically engineered DT40 cells. While developing this assay, we determined the importance of buffer conditions for testing TDP1, and most notably the possible interference of phosphate-based buffers. The high specificity of endogenous TDP1 in WCE allowed the evaluation of a large number of hits with up to 600 samples analyzed per gel via multiple loadings. The increased stringency of the WCE assay eliminated a large fraction of the initial hits collected from the qHTS. Finally, inclusion of a TDP2 counter-screening assay allowed the identification of two novel series of selective TDP1 inhibitors.
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Impact of donor age on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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As older patients are eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), older siblings are increasingly proposed as donors. We studied the impact of donor age on the tempo of hematopoietic engraftment and donor chimerism, acute and chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) among 1,174 consecutive patients undergoing myeloablative and 367 patients undergoing non-myeloablative HCT from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors with G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (G-PBMC) allografts. Sustained engraftment rates were 97% and 98% in patients undergoing myeloablative and non-myeloablative conditioning, respectively, for grafts from donors <60 years old (younger; n=1,416) and 98% and 100%, respectively, for those from donors ?60 years old (older; n=125). No significant differences were seen in the tempo of neutrophil and platelet recoveries and donor chimerism except for an average 1.3-day delay in neutrophil recovery among myeloablative patients with older donors (P = 0.04). CD34(+) cell dose had an independent effect on the tempo of engraftment. Aged stem cells did not convey an increased risk of donor-derived clonal disorders after HCT. Myeloablative and non-myeloablative recipients with older sibling donors had significantly less grade II-IV acute GVHD than recipients with grafts from younger unrelated donors. Rates of grade III-IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and NRM for recipients with older donors were not significantly different from recipients with younger donors. In conclusion, grafts from donors ?60 years old do not adversely affect outcomes of allogeneic HCT compared to grafts from younger donors.
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Brentuximab vedotin administered to platinum-refractory, transplant-naïve Hodgkin lymphoma patients can increase the proportion achieving FDG PET negative status.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Normalization of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging prior to high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) improves outcomes in relapsed and refractory (RR) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but many patients refractory to platinum-based salvage regimens are unable to achieve this goal. We therefore investigated whether brentuximab vedotin (BV) could normalize FDG PET in platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT. Fifteen consecutive patients with RR HL and FDG PET positive disease after platinum-based salvage therapy were treated with a median of 4 cycles of BV. Normalization of FDG PET (Deauville ?2) occurred in 8/15 (53%) patients but was only observed in patients that had achieved partial remission or stable disease after platinum-based salvage therapy. All patients eventually proceeded to ASCT, regardless of FDG PET status. Our data suggest that BV can normalize FDG PET in a subset of patients with platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Early Failure of Frontline Rituximab-Containing Chemo-immunotherapy in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Does Not Predict Futility of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The poor prognosis for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who relapse within 1 year of initial diagnosis after first-line rituximab-based chemo-immunotherapy has created controversy about the role of autologous transplantation (HCT) in this setting. We compared autologous HCT outcomes for chemosensitive DLBCL patients between 2000 and 2011 in 2 cohorts based on time to relapse from diagnosis. The early rituximab failure (ERF) cohort consisted of patients with primary refractory disease or those with first relapse within 1 year of initial diagnosis. The ERF cohort was compared with those relapsing >1 year after initial diagnosis (late rituximab failure [LRF] cohort). ERF and LRF cohorts included 300 and 216 patients, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of ERF versus LRF cohorts at 3 years were 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6% to 13%) versus 9% (95% CI, 5% to 13%), 47% (95% CI, 41% to 52%) versus 39% (95% CI, 33% to 46%), 44% (95% CI, 38% to 50%) versus 52% (95% CI, 45% to 59%), and 50% (95% CI, 44% to 56%) versus 67% (95% CI, 60% to 74%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, ERF was not associated with higher NRM (relative risk [RR], 1.31; P = .34). The ERF cohort had a higher risk of treatment failure (progression/relapse or death) (RR, 2.08; P < .001) and overall mortality (RR, 3.75; P <.001) within the first 9 months after autologous HCT. Beyond this period, PFS and OS were not significantly different between the ERF and LRF cohorts. Autologous HCT provides durable disease control to a sizeable subset of DLBCL despite ERF (3-year PFS, 44%) and remains the standard-of-care in chemosensitive DLBCL regardless of the timing of disease relapse.
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Structural insight into exosite binding and discovery of novel exosite inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A through in silico screening.
J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is the most lethal toxin among the Tier 1 Select Agents. Development of potent and selective small molecule inhibitors against BoNT/A zinc metalloprotease remains a challenging problem due to its exceptionally large substrate binding surface and conformational plasticity. The exosites of the catalytic domain of BoNT/A are intriguing alternative sites for small molecule intervention, but their suitability for inhibitor design remains largely unexplored. In this study, we employed two recently identified exosite inhibitors, D-chicoric acid and lomofungin, to probe the structural features of the exosites and molecular mechanisms of synergistic inhibition. The results showed that D-chicoric acid favors binding at the ?-exosite, whereas lomofungin preferentially binds at the ?-exosite by mimicking the substrate ?-sheet binding interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations and binding interaction analysis of the exosite inhibitors with BoNT/A revealed key elements and hotspots that likely contribute to the inhibitor binding and synergistic inhibition. Finally, we performed database virtual screening for novel inhibitors of BoNT/A targeting the exosites. Hits C1 and C2 showed non-competitive inhibition and likely target the ?- and ?-exosites, respectively. The identified exosite inhibitors may provide novel candidates for structure-based development of therapeutics against BoNT/A intoxication.
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Targeting human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deficient melanoma cells for personalized therapy.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss is associated with genomic instability. APE1 is a key player in DNA base excision repair (BER) and an emerging drug target in cancer. We have developed small molecule inhibitors against APE1 repair nuclease activity. In the current study we explored a synthetic lethal relationship between PTEN and APE1 in melanoma. Clinicopathological significance of PTEN mRNA and APE1 mRNA expression was investigated in 191 human melanomas. Preclinically, PTEN-deficient BRAF-mutated (UACC62, HT144, and SKMel28), PTEN-proficient BRAF-wildtype (MeWo), and doxycycline-inducible PTEN-knockout BRAF-wildtype MeWo melanoma cells were DNA repair expression profiled and investigated for synthetic lethality using a panel of four prototypical APE1 inhibitors. In human tumours, low PTEN mRNA and high APE1 mRNA was significantly associated with reduced relapse free and overall survival. Pre-clinically, compared to PTEN-proficient cells, PTEN-deficient cells displayed impaired expression of genes involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Synthetic lethality in PTEN-deficient cells was evidenced by increased sensitivity, accumulation of DSBs and induction of apoptosis following treatment with APE1 inhibitors. We conclude that PTEN deficiency is not only a promising biomarker in melanoma, but can also be targeted by a synthetic lethality strategy using inhibitors of BER, such as those targeting APE1.
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Potent and selective inhibitors of human reticulocyte 12/15-lipoxygenase as anti-stroke therapies.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A key challenge facing drug discovery today is variability of the drug target between species, such as with 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), which contributes to ischemic brain injury, but its human and rodent isozymes have different inhibitor specificities. In the current work, we have utilized a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen to identify compound 1 (ML351), a novel chemotype for 12/15-LOX inhibition that has nanomolar potency (IC50 = 200 nM) against human 12/15-LOX and is protective against oxidative glutamate toxicity in mouse neuronal HT22 cells. In addition, it exhibited greater than 250-fold selectivity versus related LOX isozymes, was a mixed inhibitor, and did not reduce the active-site ferric ion. Lastly, 1 significantly reduced infarct size following permanent focal ischemia in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. As such, this represents the first report of a selective inhibitor of human 12/15-LOX with demonstrated in vivo activity in proof-of-concept mouse models of stroke.
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Pretransplant comorbidities predict severity of acute graft-versus-host disease and subsequent mortality.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Whether the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) can provide prognostic information about development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and subsequent mortality is unknown. Five institutions contributed information on 2985 patients given human leukocyte antigen-matched grafts to address this question. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazards of acute GVHD and post-GVHD mortality after adjustment for known risk variables. Higher HCT-CI scores predicted increased risk of grades 3 to 4 acute GVHD (P < .0001 and c-statistic of 0.64), and tests of interaction suggested that this association was consistent among different conditioning intensities, donor types, and stem cell sources. Probabilities of grades 3 to 4 GVHD were 13%, 18%, and 24% for HCT-CI risk groups of 0, 1 to 4, and ?5. The HCT-CI was statistically significantly associated with mortality rates following diagnosis of grade 2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24; P < .0001) or grades 3 to 4 acute GVHD (HR = 1.19; P < .0001). Patients with HCT-CI scores of ?3 who developed grades 3 to 4 acute GVHD had a 2.63-fold higher risk of mortality than those with scores of 0 to 2 and did not develop acute GVHD. Thus, pretransplant comorbidities are associated with the development and severity of acute GVHD and with post-GVHD mortality. The HCT-CI could be useful in designing trials for GVHD prevention and could inform expectations for GVHD treatment trials.
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Suppression of the FOXM1 transcriptional programme via novel small molecule inhibition.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The transcription factor FOXM1 binds to sequence-specific motifs on DNA (C/TAAACA) through its DNA-binding domain (DBD) and activates proliferation- and differentiation-associated genes. Aberrant overexpression of FOXM1 is a key feature in oncogenesis and progression of many human cancers. Here-from a high-throughput screen applied to a library of 54,211 small molecules-we identify novel small molecule inhibitors of FOXM1 that block DNA binding. One of the identified compounds, FDI-6 (NCGC00099374), is characterized in depth and is shown to bind directly to FOXM1 protein, to displace FOXM1 from genomic targets in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and induce concomitant transcriptional downregulation. Global transcript profiling of MCF-7 cells by RNA-seq shows that FDI-6 specifically downregulates FOXM1-activated genes with FOXM1 occupancy confirmed by ChIP-PCR. This small molecule-mediated effect is selective for FOXM1-controlled genes with no effect on genes regulated by homologous forkhead family factors.
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Autologous transplant for relapsed follicular lymphoma: impact of pre-transplant rituximab sensitivity.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Patients with rituximab-refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) have limited options. Before the rituximab era, autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was shown to improve outcomes in chemotherapy-sensitive, relapsed FL, but the impact of rituximab-sensitivity on these results is unknown. We analyzed 194 consecutive relapsed patients with FL who underwent ASCT at out center and categorized them as rituximab-sensitive (RS, n = 35), rituximab-refractory (RR, n = 65) or no rituximab (NoR, n = 94) if transplanted before rituximab was used. Progression-free survival at 3 years was 85% in RS and 35% in RR patients (p = 0.0004). Only rituximab-sensitivity was significant on multivariate analysis with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.24, p = 0.01) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 0.35, p = 0.006) in RS patients and increased relapse in RR patients (HR 2.11, p = 0.01). Pre-transplant rituximab-sensitivity is a strong independent predictor of post-transplant outcomes in relapsed FL, although one-third of RR patients achieved a PFS of over 3 years with ASCT.
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Radiolabeled anti-CD45 antibody with reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic transplantation for younger patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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We treated patients under age 50 years with iodine-131 ((131)I)-anti-CD45 antibody combined with fludarabine and 2 Gy total body irradiation to create an improved hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) strategy for advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Fifteen patients received 332 to 1561 mCi of (131)I, delivering an average of 27 Gy to bone marrow, 84 Gy to spleen, and 21 Gy to liver. Although a maximum dose of 28 Gy was delivered to the liver, no dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Marrow doses were arbitrarily capped at 43 Gy to avoid radiation-induced stromal damage; however, no graft failure or evidence of stromal damage was observed. Twelve patients (80%) developed grade II graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 1 patient developed grade III GVHD, and no patients developed grade IV GVHD during the first 100 days after HCT. Of the 12 patients with chronic GVHD data, 10 developed chronic GVHD, generally involving the skin and mouth. Six patients (40%) are surviving after a median of 5.0 years (range, 4.2 to 8.3 years). The estimated survival at 1 year was 73% among the 15 treated patients. Eight patients relapsed, 7 of whom subsequently died. The median time to relapse among these 8 patients was 54 days (range, 26 to 1364 days). No cases of nonrelapse mortality were observed in the first year after transplantation. However, 2 patients died in remission from complications of chronic GVHD and cardiomyopathy, at 18 months and 14 months after transplantation, respectively. This study suggests that patients may tolerate myeloablative doses >28 Gy delivered to the liver using (131)I-anti-CD45 antibody in addition to standard reduced-intensity conditioning. Moreover, the arbitrary limit of 43 Gy to the marrow may be unnecessarily conservative, and continued escalation of targeted radioimmunotherapy doses may be feasible to further reduce relapse.
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Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells of defined subset composition.
Cancer J
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The ability to engineer T cells to recognize tumor cells through genetic modification with a synthetic chimeric antigen receptor has ushered in a new era in cancer immunotherapy. The most advanced clinical applications are in targeting CD19 on B-cell malignancies. The clinical trials of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor therapy have thus far not attempted to select defined subsets before transduction or imposed uniformity of the CD4 and CD8 cell composition of the cell products. This review will discuss the rationale for and challenges to using adoptive therapy with genetically modified T cells of defined subset and phenotypic composition.
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Genomic and protein expression analysis reveals flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) as a key biomarker in breast and ovarian cancer.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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FEN1 has key roles in Okazaki fragment maturation during replication, long patch base excision repair, rescue of stalled replication forks, maintenance of telomere stability and apoptosis. FEN1 may be dysregulated in breast and ovarian cancers and have clinicopathological significance in patients. We comprehensively investigated FEN1 mRNA expression in multiple cohorts of breast cancer [training set (128), test set (249), external validation (1952)]. FEN1 protein expression was evaluated in 568 oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers, 894 ER positive breast cancers and 156 ovarian epithelial cancers. FEN1 mRNA overexpression was highly significantly associated with high grade (p = 4.89 × 10(-57)), high mitotic index (p = 5.25 × 10(-28)), pleomorphism (p = 6.31 × 10(-19)), ER negative (p = 9.02 × 10(-35)), PR negative (p = 9.24 × 10(-24)), triple negative phenotype (p = 6.67 × 10(-21)), PAM50.Her2 (p = 5.19 × 10(-13)), PAM50. Basal (p = 2.7 × 10(-41)), PAM50.LumB (p = 1.56 × 10(-26)), integrative molecular cluster 1 (intClust.1) (p = 7.47 × 10(-12)), intClust.5 (p = 4.05 × 10(-12)) and intClust. 10 (p = 7.59 × 10(-38)) breast cancers. FEN1 mRNA overexpression is associated with poor breast cancer specific survival in univariate (p = 4.4 × 10(-16)) and multivariate analysis (p = 9.19 × 10(-7)). At the protein level, in ER positive tumours, FEN1 overexpression remains significantly linked to high grade, high mitotic index and pleomorphism (ps < 0.01). In ER negative tumours, high FEN1 is significantly associated with pleomorphism, tumour type, lymphovascular invasion, triple negative phenotype, EGFR and HER2 expression (ps < 0.05). In ER positive as well as in ER negative tumours, FEN1 protein overexpression is associated with poor survival in univariate and multivariate analysis (ps < 0.01). In ovarian epithelial cancers, similarly, FEN1 overexpression is associated with high grade, high stage and poor survival (ps < 0.05). We conclude that FEN1 is a promising biomarker in breast and ovarian epithelial cancer.
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A selective USP1-UAF1 inhibitor links deubiquitination to DNA damage responses.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are central to the control of a large number of cellular pathways and signaling networks in eukaryotes. Although the essential roles of ubiquitination have been established in the eukaryotic DNA damage response, the deubiquitination process remains poorly defined. Chemical probes that perturb the activity of deubiquitinases (DUBs) are needed to characterize the cellular function of deubiquitination. Here we report ML323 (2), a highly potent inhibitor of the USP1-UAF1 deubiquitinase complex with excellent selectivity against human DUBs, deSUMOylase, deneddylase and unrelated proteases. Using ML323, we interrogated deubiquitination in the cellular response to UV- and cisplatin-induced DNA damage and revealed new insights into the requirement of deubiquitination in the DNA translesion synthesis and Fanconi anemia pathways. Moreover, ML323 potentiates cisplatin cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer and osteosarcoma cells. Our findings point to USP1-UAF1 as a key regulator of the DNA damage response and a target for overcoming resistance to the platinum-based anticancer drugs.
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A cell-permeable ester derivative of the JmjC histone demethylase inhibitor IOX1.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent Jumonji?C domain (JmjC) family is the largest family of histone lysine demethylases. There is interest in developing small-molecule probes that modulate JmjC activity to investigate their biological roles. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) is the most potent broad-spectrum inhibitor of 2OG oxygenases, including the JmjC demethylases, reported to date; however, it suffers from low cell permeability. Here, we describe structure-activity relationship studies leading to the discovery of an n-octyl ester form of IOX1 with improved cellular potency (EC50 value of 100 to 4??M). These findings are supported by in vitro inhibition and selectivity studies, docking studies, activity versus toxicity analysis in cell cultures, and intracellular uptake measurements. The n-octyl ester was found to have improved cell permeability; it was found to inhibit some JmjC demethylases in its intact ester form and to be more selective than IOX1. The n-octyl ester of IOX1 should find utility as a starting point for the development of JmjC inhibitors and as a use as a cell-permeable tool compound for studies investigating the roles of 2OG oxygenases in epigenetic regulation.
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Myeloablative I-131-tositumomab with escalating doses of fludarabine and autologous hematopoietic transplantation for adults age ? 60 years with B cell lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Myeloablative therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are underutilized in older patients with B cell non-Hodgkin (B-NHL) lymphoma. We hypothesized that myeloablative doses of (131)I-tositumomab could be augmented by concurrent fludarabine, based on preclinical data indicating synergy. Patients were ? 60 years of age and had high-risk, relapsed, or refractory B-NHL. Therapeutic infusions of (131)I-tositumomab were derived from individualized organ-specific absorbed dose estimates delivering ? 27 Gy to critical organs. Fludarabine was initiated 72 hours later followed by ASCT to define the maximally tolerated dose. Thirty-six patients with a median age of 65 years (range, 60 to 76), 2 (range, 1 to 9) prior regimens, and 33% with chemoresistant disease were treated on this trial. Dose-limiting organs included lung (30), kidney (4), and liver (2) with a median administered (131)I activity of 471 mCi (range, 260 to 1620). Fludarabine was safely escalated to 30 mg/m(2) × 7 days. Engraftment was prompt, there were no early treatment-related deaths, and 2 patients had ? grade 4 nonhematologic toxicities. The estimated 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality were 54%, 53%, and 7%, respectively (median follow up of 3.9 years). Fludarabine up to 210 mg/m(2) can be safely delivered with myeloablative (131)I-tositumomab and ASCT in older adults with B-NHL.
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High-throughput combinatorial screening identifies drugs that cooperate with ibrutinib to kill activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The clinical development of drug combinations is typically achieved through trial-and-error or via insight gained through a detailed molecular understanding of dysregulated signaling pathways in a specific cancer type. Unbiased small-molecule combination (matrix) screening represents a high-throughput means to explore hundreds and even thousands of drug-drug pairs for potential investigation and translation. Here, we describe a high-throughput screening platform capable of testing compounds in pairwise matrix blocks for the rapid and systematic identification of synergistic, additive, and antagonistic drug combinations. We use this platform to define potential therapeutic combinations for the activated B-cell-like subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We identify drugs with synergy, additivity, and antagonism with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, which targets the chronic active B-cell receptor signaling that characterizes ABC DLBCL. Ibrutinib interacted favorably with a wide range of compounds, including inhibitors of the PI3K-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling cascade, other B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors, Bcl-2 family inhibitors, and several components of chemotherapy that is the standard of care for DLBCL.
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4-(3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide (ML267), a potent inhibitor of bacterial phosphopantetheinyl transferase that attenuates secondary metabolism and thwarts bacterial growth.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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4'-Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) catalyze a post-translational modification essential to bacterial cell viability and virulence. We present the discovery and medicinal chemistry optimization of 2-pyridinyl-N-(4-aryl)piperazine-1-carbothioamides, which exhibit submicromolar inhibition of bacterial Sfp-PPTase with no activity toward the human orthologue. Moreover, compounds within this class possess antibacterial activity in the absence of a rapid cytotoxic response in human cells. An advanced analogue of this series, ML267 (55), was found to attenuate production of an Sfp-PPTase-dependent metabolite when applied to Bacillus subtilis at sublethal doses. Additional testing revealed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and chemical genetic studies implicated efflux as a mechanism for resistance in Escherichia coli . Additionally, we highlight the in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of compound 55 to further demonstrate the potential utility of this small-molecule inhibitor.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)benzenesulfonamide derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of 12-lipoxygenase.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Human lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a family of iron-containing enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to provide the corresponding bioactive hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) metabolites. These eicosanoid signaling molecules are involved in a number of physiologic responses such as platelet aggregation, inflammation, and cell proliferation. Our group has taken a particular interest in platelet-type 12-(S)-LOX (12-LOX) because of its demonstrated role in skin diseases, diabetes, platelet hemostasis, thrombosis, and cancer. Herein, we report the identification and medicinal chemistry optimization of a 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)benzenesulfonamide-based scaffold. Top compounds, exemplified by 35 and 36, display nM potency against 12-LOX, excellent selectivity over related lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, and possess favorable ADME properties. In addition, both compounds inhibit PAR-4 induced aggregation and calcium mobilization in human platelets and reduce 12-HETE in ?-cells.
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A fluorescence-based high throughput assay for the determination of small molecule-human serum albumin protein binding.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Herein, we describe the development of a fluorescence-based high throughput assay to determine the small molecule binding towards human serum albumin (HSA). This innovative competition assay is based on the use of a novel fluorescent small molecule Red Mega 500 with unique spectroscopic and binding properties. The commercially available probe displays a large fluorescence intensity difference between the protein-bound and protein-unbound state. The competition of small molecules for HSA binding in the presence of probe resulted in low fluorescence intensities. The assay was evaluated with the library of pharmacological active compounds (LOPAC) small molecule library of 1,280 compounds identifying known high protein binders. The small molecule competition of HSA-Red Mega 500 binding was saturable at higher compound concentrations and exhibited IC50 values between 3 and 24 ?M. The compound affinity toward HSA was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry indicating that the new protein binding assay is a valid high throughput assay to determine plasma protein binding.
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Autologous or Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Chemotherapy-Sensitive Mantle-Cell Lymphoma: Analysis of Transplantation Timing and Modality.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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To examine the outcomes of patients with chemotherapy-sensitive mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) following a first hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT), comparing outcomes with autologous (auto) versus reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic (RIC allo) HCT and with transplantation applied at different times in the disease course.
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Structure-activity relationship studies and biological characterization of human NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of two chemotypes identified as inhibitors of the human NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD, 15-PGDH) was conducted. Top compounds from both series displayed potent inhibition (IC50 <50nM), demonstrate excellent selectivity towards HPGD and potently induce PGE2 production in A549 lung cancer and LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
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A Comparative Analysis of Prognostic Factor Models for Follicular Lymphoma Based on a Phase III Trial of CHOP-Rituximab versus CHOP + 131Iodine--Tositumomab.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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There is currently no consensus on optimal frontline therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma. We analyzed a phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing six cycles of CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (Oncovin)-rituximab) with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefited more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models.
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Disrupting malaria parasite AMA1-RON2 interaction with a small molecule prevents erythrocyte invasion.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives, the first-line antimalarial drug, drives the search for new classes of chemotherapeutic agents. Current discovery is primarily directed against the intracellular forms of the parasite. However, late schizont-infected red blood cells (RBCs) may still rupture and cause disease by sequestration; consequently targeting invasion may reduce disease severity. Merozoite invasion of RBCs requires interaction between two parasite proteins AMA1 and RON2. Here we identify the first inhibitor of this interaction that also blocks merozoite invasion in genetically distinct parasites by screening a library of over 21,000 compounds. We demonstrate that this inhibition is mediated by the small molecule binding to AMA1 and blocking the formation of AMA1-RON complex. Electron microscopy confirms that the inhibitor prevents junction formation, a critical step in invasion that results from AMA1-RON2 binding. This study uncovers a strategy that will allow for highly effective combination therapies alongside existing antimalarial drugs.
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Synthesis and SAR studies of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine derivatives as potent inhibitors of Bloom helicase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Human cells utilize a variety of complex DNA repair mechanisms in order to combat constant mutagenic and cytotoxic threats from both exogenous and endogenous sources. The RecQ family of DNA helicases, which includes Bloom helicase (BLM), plays an important function in DNA repair by unwinding complementary strands of duplex DNA as well as atypical DNA structures such as Holliday junctions. Mutations of the BLM gene can result in Bloom syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with cancer predisposition. BLM-deficient cells exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents indicating that a selective BLM inhibitor could be useful in potentiating the anticancer activity of these agents. In this work, we describe the medicinal chemistry optimization of the hit molecule following a quantitative high-throughput screen of >355,000 compounds. These efforts lead to the identification of ML216 and related analogs, which possess potent BLM inhibition and exhibit selectivity over related helicases. Moreover, these compounds demonstrated cellular activity by inducing sister chromatid exchanges, a hallmark of Bloom syndrome.
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Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor ? agonist GW0742 interacts weakly with multiple nuclear receptors, including the vitamin D receptor.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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A high-throughput screening campaign was conducted to identify small molecules with the ability to inhibit the interaction between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and steroid receptor coactivator 2. These inhibitors represent novel molecular probes for modulating gene regulation mediated by VDR. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist GW0742 was among the identified VDR-coactivator inhibitors and has been characterized herein as a pan nuclear receptor antagonist at concentrations of > 12.1 ?M. The highest antagonist activity for GW0742 was found for VDR and the androgen receptor. Surprisingly, GW0742 behaved as a PPAR agonist and antagonist, activating transcription at lower concentrations and inhibiting this effect at higher concentrations. A unique spectroscopic property of GW0742 was identified as well. In the presence of rhodamine-derived molecules, GW0742 increased the fluorescence intensity and level of fluorescence polarization at an excitation wavelength of 595 nm and an emission wavelength of 615 nm in a dose-dependent manner. The GW0742-inhibited NR-coactivator binding resulted in a reduced level of expression of five different NR target genes in LNCaP cells in the presence of agonist. Especially VDR target genes CYP24A1, IGFBP-3, and TRPV6 were negatively regulated by GW0742. GW0742 is the first VDR ligand inhibitor lacking the secosteroid structure of VDR ligand antagonists. Nevertheless, the VDR-meditated downstream process of cell differentiation was antagonized by GW0742 in HL-60 cells that were pretreated with the endogenous VDR agonist 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
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Specific features identify patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma benefitting from autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Outcomes with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto HCT) for relapsed and/or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are typically poor. We hypothesized that certain factors could predict which patients experience a favorable outcome with this approach. We thus developed a predictive score from a cohort of 67 such patients using 3 factors independently associated with progression-free survival (PFS): (1) simplified Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score before auto HCT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.9; P = .002); (2) B symptoms at diagnosis (HR, 2.7; P = .005); and (3) remission quotient, calculated by dividing the time, in months, from diagnosis to auto HCT by the number of prior treatments (HR, 1.4; P = .02). The estimated 5-year PFS for favorable-risk patients (n = 23) and unfavorable-risk patients (n = 44) were 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34% to 75%) and 15% (95% CI, 6% to 28%), respectively. These factors also independently predicted overall survival. In summary, we have defined 3 simple factors that can identify patients with relapsed/refractory MCL who derive a durable benefit from salvage auto HCT.
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Fludarabine and 2-Gy TBI is superior to 2 Gy TBI as conditioning for HLA-matched related hematopoietic cell transplantation: a phase III randomized trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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The risks and benefits of adding fludarabine to a 2-Gy total body irradiation (TBI) nonmyeloablative regimen are unknown. For this reason, we conducted a prospective randomized trial comparing 2-Gy TBI alone, or in combination with 90 mg/m(2) fludarabine (FLU/TBI), before transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-matched related donors. Eighty-five patients with hematological malignancies were randomized to be conditioned with TBI alone (n = 44) or FLU/TBI (n = 41). All patients had initial engraftment. Two graft rejections were observed, both in the TBI group. Infection rates, nonrelapse mortality, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were similar between groups. Three-year overall survival was lower in the TBI group (54% versus 65%; hazard ratio [HR], .57; P = .09), with higher incidences of relapse/progression (55% versus 40%; HR, .55; P = .06), relapse-related mortality (37% versus 28%; HR, .53; P = .09), and a lower progression-free survival (36% versus 53%; HR, .56; P = .05). Median donor T cell chimerism levels were significantly lower in the TBI group at days 28 (61% versus 90%; P < .0001) and 84 (68% versus 92%; P < .0001), as was NK cell chimerism on day 28 (75% versus 96%; P = .0005). In conclusion, this randomized trial demonstrates the importance of fludarabine in augmenting the graft-versus-tumor effect by ensuring prompt and durable high-level donor engraftment early after transplantation.
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Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities.
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Donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: prognostic relevance of the initial CD3+ T cell dose.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The impact of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) initial cell dose on its outcome is known in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia but limited in patients with other hematological malignancies. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effect of initial DLI CD3(+) cell dose on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and overall survival after DLI given for relapse of any hematological malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with high- or reduced-intensity conditioning. The cohort included 225 patients. Initial DLI CD3(+) cell dose per kilogram of recipient body weight was ? 1 × 10(7) (n = 84; group A), >1.0 to <10 × 10(7) (n = 58; group B), and ? 10 × 10(7) (n = 66; group C). The initial cell dose was unknown for the remaining 17 patients. Cumulative incidence rates of GVHD at 12 months after DLI were 21%, 45%, and 55% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that initial DLI CD3(+) cell ? 10 × 10(7) dose per kilogram is associated with an increased risk of GVHD after DLI (P = .03). Moreover, an initial DLI CD3(+) cell dose of 10 × 10(7) or higher did not decrease the risk of relapse and did not improve overall survival. Thus, these results support the use of less than 10 × 10(7) CD3(+) cell per kilogram as the initial cell dose of DLI for treatment of persistent or recurrent hematological malignancy after HCT.
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Autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with secondary CNS involvement.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS(+) ) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS(-) ). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS(+) patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS(+) group with a subset of CNS(-) patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n = 55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n = 96) at the time of AHCT. CNS(+) patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis.
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High-throughput identification of promiscuous inhibitors from screening libraries with the use of a thiol-containing fluorescent probe.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Testing small molecules for their ability to modify cysteine residues of proteins in the early stages of drug discovery is expected to accelerate our ability to develop more selective drugs with lesser side effects. In addition, this approach also enables the rapid evaluation of the mode of binding of new drug candidates with respect to thiol reactivity and metabolism by glutathione. Herein, we describe the development of a fluorescence-based high-throughput assay that allows the identification of thiol-reactive compounds. A thiol-containing fluorescent probe, MSTI, was synthesized and used to evaluate small molecules from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) collection of bioactive molecules. LOPAC compounds that are known to react with sulfur nucleophiles were identified with this assay, for example, irreversible protease inhibitors, nitric oxide-releasing compounds, and proton-pump inhibitors. The results confirm that both electrophilic and redox reactive compounds can be quickly identified in a high-throughput manner, enabling the assessment of screening libraries with respect to thiol-reactive compounds.
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A small molecule inhibitor of the BLM helicase modulates chromosome stability in human cells.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The Blooms syndrome protein, BLM, is a member of the conserved RecQ helicase family. Although cell lines lacking BLM exist, these exhibit progressive genomic instability that makes distinguishing primary from secondary effects of BLM loss problematic. In order to be able to acutely disable BLM function in cells, we undertook a high throughput screen of a chemical compound library for small molecule inhibitors of BLM. We present ML216, a potent inhibitor of the DNA unwinding activity of BLM. ML216 shows cell-based activity and can induce sister chromatid exchanges, enhance the toxicity of aphidicolin, and exert antiproliferative activity in cells expressing BLM, but not those lacking BLM. These data indicate that ML216 shows strong selectivity for BLM in cultured cells. We discuss the potential utility of such a BLM-targeting compound as an anticancer agent.
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Impact of pretransplantation conditioning regimens on outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for chemotherapy-unresponsive diffuse large B cell lymphoma and grade III follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Patients with chemorefractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas generally have a poor prognosis. We used the observational database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to study the outcome of 533 patients with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or grade III follicular lymphoma (FL-III) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA; n = 307) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST; n = 226) between 1998 and 2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Only 45% of the patients at transplantation had a Karnofsky performance score of ?90%. Median follow-up of surviving patients after MA and RIC/NST allo-HCT is 35 months and 30 months, respectively. At 3 years, MA allo-HCT was associated with a higher NRM compared with RIC/NST (53% versus 42%; P = .03), similar PFS (19% versus 23%; P = .40), and lower OS (19% versus 28%; P = .02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, FL-III histology was associated with lower NRM (relative risk [RR], .52), reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .42), and superior PFS (RR, .51) and OS (RR, .53), whereas MA conditioning was associated with reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .66). Despite a refractory state, a small subset of DLBCL and FL-III patients can attain durable remissions after allo-HCT. Conditioning regimen intensity was not associated with PFS and OS despite a higher risk of relapse/progression with RIC/NST allo-HCT.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following minimal intensity conditioning: predicting acute graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Most patients with hematologic malignancies have received extensive chemotherapy before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), resulting in neutropenia, lymphocytopenia, and use of antibiotics. Accordingly, patients have a wide range of neutrophil counts, lymphocyte counts, and previous antibiotic use. The minimal toxicity of the current conditioning regimen allowed us to ask whether peritransplantation neutrophil or lymphocyte levels influences the risks of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or relapse. We analyzed outcomes in 459 patients age 7-75 years (median, 57 years) who received conditioning with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for HLA-matched HCT. We report 2 key findings. First, low neutrophil nadirs within the first 3 weeks post-HCT had significant associations with increased risks of acute GVHD and 5-year nonrelapse mortality, but showed no association with the risk of relapse. Second, high lymphocyte counts immediately before HCT had significant associations with reduced risks of relapse and overall mortality, but no association with the risks of GVHD or nonrelapse mortality. These findings suggest that the immunologic mechanisms involved in acute GVHD might differ from those that initiate graft-versus-tumor effects.
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Targeting the JMJD2 histone demethylases to epigenetically control herpesvirus infection and reactivation from latency.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Chromatin and the chromatin modulation machinery not only provide a regulatory matrix for enabling cellular functions such as DNA replication and transcription but also regulate the infectious cycles of many DNA viruses. Elucidation of the components and mechanisms involved in this regulation is providing targets for the development of new antiviral therapies. Initiation of infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) requires the activity of several cellular chromatin modification enzymes including the histone demethylases LSD1 and the family of JMJD2 proteins that promote transcriptional activation of the initial set of viral genes. Depletion of the JMJD2 members or inhibition of their activity with a new drug results in repression of expression of viral immediate early genes and abrogation of infection. This inhibitor also represses the reactivation of HSV from the latent state in sensory neurons. Like HSV, the ?-herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus also requires the activity of LSD1 and the JMJD2s to initiate infection, thus demonstrating the potential of this chromatin-based inhibitor to be useful against a variety of different viruses.
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Inhibition of DNA Glycosylases via Small Molecule Purine Analogs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Following the formation of oxidatively-induced DNA damage, several DNA glycosylases are required to initiate repair of the base lesions that are formed. Recently, NEIL1 and other DNA glycosylases, including OGG1 and NTH1 were identified as potential targets in combination chemotherapeutic strategies. The potential therapeutic benefit for the inhibition of DNA glycosylases was validated by demonstrating synthetic lethality with drugs that are commonly used to limit DNA replication through dNTP pool depletion via inhibition of thymidylate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase. Additionally, NEIL1-associated synthetic lethality has been achieved in combination with Fanconi anemia, group G. As a prelude to the development of strategies to exploit the potential benefits of DNA glycosylase inhibition, it was necessary to develop a reliable high-throughput screening protocol for this class of enzymes. Using NEIL1 as the proof-of-principle glycosylase, a fluorescence-based assay was developed that utilizes incision of site-specifically modified oligodeoxynucleotides to detect enzymatic activity. This assay was miniaturized to a 1536-well format and used to screen small molecule libraries for inhibitors of the combined glycosylase/AP lyase activities. Among the top hits of these screens were several purine analogs, whose postulated presence in the active site of NEIL1 was consistent with the paradigm of NEIL1 recognition and excision of damaged purines. Although a subset of these small molecules could inhibit other DNA glycosylases that excise oxidatively-induced DNA adducts, they could not inhibit a pyrimidine dimer-specific glycosylase.
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Discovery of a novel dual fungal CYP51/human 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor: implications for anti-fungal therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We report the discovery of a novel dual inhibitor targeting fungal sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51 or Erg11) and human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with improved potency against 5-LOX due to its reduction of the iron center by its phenylenediamine core. A series of potent 5-LOX inhibitors containing a phenylenediamine core, were synthesized that exhibit nanomolar potency and >30-fold selectivity against the LOX paralogs, platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity against ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygnease-2. The phenylenediamine core was then translated into the structure of ketoconazole, a highly effective anti-fungal medication for seborrheic dermatitis, to generate a novel compound, ketaminazole. Ketaminazole was found to be a potent dual inhibitor against human 5-LOX (IC50?=?700 nM) and CYP51 (IC50?=?43 nM) in vitro. It was tested in whole blood and found to down-regulate LTB4 synthesis, displaying 45% inhibition at 10 µM. In addition, ketaminazole selectively inhibited yeast CYP51 relative to human CYP51 by 17-fold, which is greater selectivity than that of ketoconazole and could confer a therapeutic advantage. This novel dual anti-fungal/anti-inflammatory inhibitor could potentially have therapeutic uses against fungal infections that have an anti-inflammatory component.
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Protein kinase C regulation of 12-lipoxygenase-mediated human platelet activation.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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Platelet activation is important in the regulation of hemostasis and thrombosis. Uncontrolled activation of platelets may lead to arterial thrombosis, which is a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. After activation, metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) may play a significant role in regulating the degree and stability of platelet activation because inhibition of 12-LOX significantly attenuates platelet aggregation in response to various agonists. Protein kinase C (PKC) activation is also known to be an important regulator of platelet activity. Using a newly developed selective inhibitor for 12-LOX and a pan-PKC inhibitor, we investigated the role of PKC in 12-LOX-mediated regulation of agonist signaling in the platelet. To determine the role of PKC within the 12-LOX pathway, a number of biochemical endpoints were measured, including platelet aggregation, calcium mobilization, and integrin activation. Inhibition of 12-LOX or PKC resulted in inhibition of dense granule secretion and attenuation of both aggregation and ?IIb?(3) activation. However, activation of PKC downstream of 12-LOX inhibition rescued agonist-induced aggregation and integrin activation. Furthermore, inhibition of 12-LOX had no effect on PKC-mediated aggregation, indicating that 12-LOX is upstream of PKC. These studies support an essential role for PKC downstream of 12-LOX activation in human platelets and suggest 12-LOX as a possible target for antiplatelet therapy.
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Separation of Betti Reaction Product Enantiomers: Absolute Configuration and Inhibition of Botulinum Neurotoxin A.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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The racemic product of the Betti reaction of 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, benzaldehyde and 2-aminopyridine was separated by chiral HPLC to determine which enantiomer inhibited botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. When the enantiomers unexpectedly proved to have comparable activity, the absolute structures of (+)-(R)-1 and (-)-(S)-1 were determined by comparison of calculated and observed circular dichroism spectra. Molecular modeling studies were undertaken in an effort to understand the observed bioactivity and revealed different ensembles of binding modes, with roughly equal binding energies, for the two enantiomers.
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation followed by allogeneic or autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma (BMT CTN 0102): a phase 3 biological assignment trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma, but disease progression remains an issue. Allogeneic HSCT might reduce disease progression, but can be associated with high treatment-related mortality. Thus, we aimed to assess effectiveness of allogeneic HSCT with non-myeloablative conditioning after autologous HSCT compared with tandem autologous HSCT.
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The role of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin lymphoma.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma are usually cured by primary therapy using chemotherapy alone or combined modality therapy with external beam radiation. Patients who do not experience a complete remission or those who experience relapse may by salvaged by high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Success of this approach is largely dependent on the tumor being sensitive to salvage chemotherapy before transplant. More studies are showing the predictive value of functional imaging in this setting. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has greater risk of nonrelapse mortality and is generally reserved for patients who experience relapse post-ASCT, but may provide long-term survival for some patients through graft-versus-tumor immune effects.
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Cytopenias after day 28 in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of recipient/donor factors, transplant conditions and myelotoxic drugs.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Secondary cytopenias are serious complications following hematopoietic cell transplantation. Etiologies include myelotoxic agents, viral infections, and possibly transplant-related factors such as the intensity of the conditioning regimen and the source of stem cells.
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Discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of human platelet-type 12- lipoxygenase.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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We report the discovery of novel small molecule inhibitors of platelet-type 12-human lipoxygenase, which display nanomolar activity against the purified enzyme, using a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) on a library of 153607 compounds. These compounds also exhibit excellent specificity, >50-fold selectivity vs the paralogues, 5-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity vs ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygenase-2. Kinetic experiments indicate this chemotype is a noncompetitive inhibitor that does not reduce the active site iron. Moreover, chiral HPLC separation of two of the racemic lead molecules revealed a strong preference for the (-)-enantiomers (IC(50) of 0.43 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.05 ?M) compared to the (+)-enantiomers (IC(50) of >25 ?M for both), indicating a fine degree of selectivity in the active site due to chiral geometry. In addition, these compounds demonstrate efficacy in cellular models, which underscores their relevance to disease modification.
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Mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index but not pretransplantation induction regimen predicts survival for patients with mantle-cell lymphoma receiving high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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High-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) are frequently used in an attempt to improve outcome in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL); however, the importance of intensive induction regimens before transplantation is unknown.
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Association between calcineurin inhibitor blood concentrations and outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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To determine whether calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) blood concentrations within the first month after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) correlated with the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other outcomes, we retrospectively analyzed data from 1181 patients with hematologic malignancies who had HCT from HLA-matched related (n = 634) or unrelated (n = 547) donors at a single institution between 2001 and 2009. After myeloablative HCT (n = 774), higher CNI concentrations were not associated with lower risks of acute or chronic GVHD (aGVHD, cGVHD). After nonmyeloablative HCT (n = 407), higher cyclosporine concentrations were associated with decreased risks of grade 2-4 and 3-4 aGVHD (hazard ratio [HR] per 100 ng/mL change in cyclosporine concentrations, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-0.82; and HR, 0.66, 95% CI, 0.49-0.9, respectively), nonrelapse mortality (HR, 0.6, 95% CI, 0.41-0.88), and overall mortality (HR, 0.83, 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). Cyclosporine concentrations were not associated with risks of cGVHD and recurrent malignancy after nonmyeloablative HCT. Among patients given tacrolimus after nonmyeloablative HCT, a similar trend of CNI-associated GVHD-protection was observed. Higher CNI concentrations were not associated with apparent renal toxicity. We conclude that higher cyclosporine concentrations relatively early after nonmyeloablative HCT confer protection against aGVHD that translates into reduced risks of nonrelapse and overall mortality.
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Selective and cell-active inhibitors of the USP1/ UAF1 deubiquitinase complex reverse cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) have in recent years emerged as a promising therapeutic target class. We identified selective small-molecule inhibitors against a deubiquitinase complex, the human USP1/UAF1, through quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) of a collection of bioactive molecules. The top inhibitors, pimozide and GW7647, inhibited USP1/UAF1 noncompetitively with a K(i) of 0.5 and 0.7 ?M, respectively, and displayed selectivity against a number of deubiquitinases, deSUMOylase, and cysteine proteases. The USP1/UAF1 inhibitors act synergistically with cisplatin in inhibiting cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation. USP1/UAF1 represents a promising target for drug intervention because of its involvement in translesion synthesis and Fanconi anemia pathway important for normal DNA damage response. Our results support USP1/UAF1 as a potential therapeutic target and provide an example of targeting the USP/WD40 repeat protein complex for inhibitor discovery.
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??Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan, fludarabine, and TBI-based nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation conditioning for patients with persistent high-risk B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation (NMAT) infrequently cures active chemoresistant, bulky, or aggressive B-cell lymphoma (B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma [B-NHL]). We hypothesized that ??Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan-based NMAT would facilitate early cytoreduction in such patients promoting improved long-term disease control by the allogeneic graft. Forty high-risk B-NHL patients with persistent disease received 0.4 mCi/kg (maximum, 32 mCi/kg) ??Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, fludarabine, and 2 Gy total body irradiation and matched-related (15) or unrelated (25) transplantation. Baseline features included: median age, 58 years (range, 29-69 years); median prior regimens, 6 (range, 3-12); chemosensitive disease, 6 (15%); bulk > 5 cm, 17 (range, 5.2-18.6 cm, 43%); diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 14 (35%); and comorbidity score > zero, 34 (85%). Early responses were observed in 24 (60%, 14 complete remission/complete remission unconfirmed, 10 partial response) patients, including 17 of 29 (59%) with chemotherapy-resistant disease and 10 (59%) with bulk > 5 cm. The estimated 30-month survival, progression-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality were 54.1%, 31.1%, and 15.9%, respectively. Early response, baseline platelet counts over 25 000/?L, indolent histology, and related donors were associated with improved survival. The addition of ??Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan to NMAT is safe and yields early responses and prolonged disease control in some of the highest-risk B-NHL patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00119392.
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Non-myeloablative conditioning with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the majority of older adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not candidates for myeloablative conditioning regimens. A non-myeloablative preparative regimen is a reasonable treatment option for this group. We sought to determine the outcome of non-myeloablative conditioning and allogeneic transplantation in patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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Rituximab resistance.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Rituximab has become a ubiquitous component of treatment regimens for follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite widespread clinical use, the mechanisms by which tumor cells resist rituximab-mediated destruction remain unclear. Rituximab relies in part on immune effector mechanisms for its antitumor effect, and thus resistance may be mediated not only by intrinsic tumor-cell alterations but also by the host immunological environment. In this article, we explore the mechanisms of action of rituximab, the incidence of rituximab resistance, and potential mechanisms of resistance. Finally, we discuss novel approaches to modulate the antibody, the tumor cell, and the host immunologic environment to overcome rituximab resistance. Further research into the mechanisms of rituximab resistance will be essential to improving the efficacy of anti-CD20 therapy in NHL, and may also pay dividends in the optimization of monoclonal antibody therapy across a wide range of diseases.
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Decreased serum albumin as a biomarker for severe acute graft-versus-host disease after reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Biomarkers capable of predicting the onset and severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) would enable preemptive and risk-stratified therapy. Severe aGVHD leads to gastrointestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. We hypothesized that decreases in serum albumin at onset of aGVHD would predict the risk of progression to severe aGVHD. We identified 401 patients who developed aGVHD grades II-IV after reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT and reviewed all available serum albumin values from 30 days before HCT to 45 days after initiation of treatment for aGVHD. A ?0.5 g/dL decrease in serum albumin concentration from pretransplantation baseline to the onset of treatment for aGVHD predicted the subsequent development of grade III/IV aGVHD (versus grade II aGVHD) with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 73%. Overall mortality at 6 months after initiation of aGVHD treatment was 36% versus 17% for patients with and without ?0.5 g/dL decreases in serum albumin, respectively (P = .0009). We conclude that change in serum albumin concentration from baseline to initiation of aGVHD treatment is an inexpensive, readily available, and predictive biomarker of GVHD severity and mortality after reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT.
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Histology and time to progression predict survival for lymphoma recurring after reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is increasingly used as a potentially curative option for patients with advanced lymphoma; however, relapse remains a major challenge. Unfortunately, little data are available on outcomes, predictors of survival, and results of specific management strategies in these patients. In the present study, a total of 101 consecutive relapses occurred and were evaluated in 280 patients with lymphoma who underwent RIC HCT. Diseases included aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (n = 42), indolent NHL (n = 33), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (n = 26). Median time to relapse was 90 days (range, 3-1275 days), and graft-versus-host disease at relapse was present in 56 patients (55%). Interventions after relapse included no therapy (n = 14), withdrawal of immunosuppression alone (n = 11), chemoradiotherapy (n = 60), and donor lymphocyte infusion/second HCT (n = 16). Overall survival (OS) was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-44%) at 3 years after relapse and 23% (95% CI, 13%-34%) at 5 years after relapse. Both aggressive NHL (vs indolent disease; hazard ratio, 2.29; P = .008) and relapse within 1 month post-HCT (vs >6 months; hazard ratio, 3.17; P = .004) were associated with increased mortality. Estimated 3-year OS was 16% (95% CI, 5%-32%) after relapse for aggressive NHL, 40% (95% CI, 19%-61%) after relapse for indolent NHL, and 47% (95% CI, 29%-64%) after relapse for HL. The 1-year survival was 24% for patients relapsing within 1 month post-HCT, compared with 52% for those relapsing at 1-3 months, 74% for those relapsing at 3-6 months, and 77% for those relapsing at more than 6 months. We conclude that despite relapse of lymphoma after RIC HCT, some patients may experience prolonged survival, with better postrelapse outcomes occurring in patients with indolent NHL, HL, or late relapse.
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Identification of MAGE-C1 (CT-7) epitopes for T-cell therapy of multiple myeloma.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Multiple myeloma is incurable with standard therapies but is susceptible to a T-cell-mediated graft versus myeloma effect after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We sought to identify myeloma-specific antigens that might be used for T-cell immunotherapy of myeloma. MAGE-C1 (CT-7) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed by tumor cells in >70% of myeloma patients and elicits a humoral response in up to 93% of patients with CT-7(+) myeloma. No CD8(+) T-cell epitopes have been described for CT-7, so we used a combination of reverse immunology and immunization of HLA-A2 transgenic mice with a novel cell-based vaccine to identify three immunogenic epitopes of CT-7 that are recognized by human CD8(+) T-cells. CT-7-specific T-cells recognizing two of these peptides are able to recognize myeloma cells as well as CT-7 gene-transduced tumor cells, demonstrating that these epitopes are naturally processed and presented by tumor cells. This is the first report of the identification of immunogenic CD8(+) T-cell epitopes of MAGE-C1 (CT-7), which is the most commonly expressed cancer-testis antigen found in myeloma, and these epitopes may be promising candidate targets for vaccination or T-cell therapy of myeloma or other CT-7(+) malignancies.
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Potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of specific isoforms of Cdc2-like kinases (Clk) and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (Dyrk).
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Continued examination of substituted 6-arylquinazolin-4-amines as Clk4 inhibitors resulted in selective inhibitors of Clk1, Clk4, Dyrk1A and Dyrk1B. Several of the most potent inhibitors were validated as being highly selective within a comprehensive kinome scan.
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Stem cell transplantation for indolent lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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The indolent lymphomas, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) remain incurable with standard therapy. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is feasible and has low treatment-related mortality in follicular lymphoma, but there are questions relating to optimal timing of the procedure, conditioning regimen, and late effects. Myeloablative allogeneic HSCT is associated with high treatment-related morbidity and mortality, few late relapses, but is applicable to only a small number of patients. The major focus of HSCT in these lymphomas has been with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic HSCT, which is applicable to the age distribution of these diseases and which exploits the graft-versus-lymphoma effect in these diseases. Steps to further decrease the morbidity and mortality of the RIC HSCT and in particular to reduce the incidence of chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while maintaining tumor control remain the major focus. Many potential treatments are available for indolent lymphomas and CLL, and appropriate patient selection and the timing of HSCT remain controversial. The use of HSCT must always be weighed against the risk of the underlying disease, particularly in a setting where improvements in treatment are leading to improved outcome.
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Total synthesis of LL-Z1640-2 utilizing a late-stage intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi reaction.
Tetrahedron Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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A total synthesis of LL-Z1640-2 (2), a potent and selective kinase inhibitor, has been completed. The key step of the convergent synthesis utilized a late-stage intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi (NHK) reaction to close the macrocycle at the C6-C7 bond.
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Complementary non-radioactive assays for investigation of human flap endonuclease 1 activity.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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FEN1, a key participant in DNA replication and repair, is the major human flap endonuclease that recognizes and cleaves flap DNA structures. Deficiencies in FEN1 function or deletion of the fen1 gene have profound biological effects, including the suppression of repair of DNA damage incurred from the action of various genotoxic agents. Given the importance of FEN1 in resolving abnormal DNA structures, inhibitors of the enzyme carry a potential as enhancers of DNA-interactive anticancer drugs. To facilitate the studies of FEN1 activity and the search for novel inhibitors, we developed a pair of complementary-readout homogeneous assays utilizing fluorogenic donor/quencher and AlphaScreen chemiluminescence strategies. A previously reported FEN1 inhibitor 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-1-phenylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione displayed equal potency in the new assays, in agreement with its published IC(50). The assays were optimized to a low 4?µl volume and used to investigate a set of small molecules, leading to the identification of previously-unreported FEN1 inhibitors, among which aurintricarboxylic acid and NSC-13755 (an arylstibonic derivative) displayed submicromolar potency (average IC(50) of 0.59 and 0.93?µM, respectively). The availability of these simple complementary assays obviates the need for undesirable radiotracer-based assays and should facilitate efforts to develop novel inhibitors for this key biological target.
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Discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase-1.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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There are a variety of lipoxygenases in the human body (hLO), each having a distinct role in cellular biology. Human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-hLO-1), which catalyzes the dioxygenation of 1,4-cis,cis-pentadiene-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, is implicated in a number of diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative conditions. Despite the potential therapeutic relevance of this target, few inhibitors have been reported that are both potent and selective. To this end, we have employed a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen against ?74000 small molecules in search of reticulocyte 15-hLO-1 selective inhibitors. This screen led to the discovery of a novel chemotype for 15-hLO-1 inhibition, which displays nM potency and is >7500-fold selective against the related isozymes, 5-hLO, platelet 12-hLO, epithelial 15-hLO-2, ovine cyclooxygenase-1, and human cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, kinetic experiments were performed which indicate that this class of inhibitor is tight binding, reversible, and appears not to reduce the active-site ferric ion.
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Diversity in antibody-based approaches to non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains one of the most common cancers in the US, with survival dependent on the type and stage of disease. B-cell lymphomas account for approximately 85% of all cases of NHL, and are commonly treated with chemotherapy, or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target CD20 antigens on the surface of malignant tumors. The use of mAbs, either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy, has made a huge impact on NHL survival rates. Rituximab remains the most commonly used and established mAb, and is used in a wide range of NHLs, but does not produce an effective therapeutic response in all patients. Novel therapeutics with enhanced binding affinity or alternative antigen targets are currently in development and in some cases have demonstrated improved efficacy over currently available treatments. Radioimmunotherapy has been included in transplant conditioning regimens to improve long-term disease control while limiting toxicity. These regimens have been safe, effective, and feasible, and are therefore promising for patients who cannot tolerate high-dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.