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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
AMPK Activation through Mitochondrial Regulation Results in Increased Substrate Oxidation and Improved Metabolic Parameters in Models of Diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively). R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both (13)C-palmitate and (13)C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models.
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Metabolism of fostamatinib, the oral methylene phosphate prodrug of the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor R406 in humans: contribution of hepatic and gut bacterial processes to the overall biotransformation.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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The metabolism of the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor N4-(2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-4-pyrid[1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-5-fluoro-N2-(3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine (R406) and its oral prodrug N4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-[(dihydrogenphosphonoxy)methyl]-3-oxo-5-pyrid[1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-5-fluoro-N2-(3,4,5-trimethyoxyphenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine disodium hexahydrate (R788, fostamatinib) was determined in vitro and in humans. R788 was rapidly converted to R406 by human intestinal microsomes, and only low levels of R788 were observed in plasma of human subjects after oral administration of (14)C-R788. R406 was the major drug-related compound in plasma from human subjects, and only low levels of metabolites were observed in plasma. The plasma metabolites of R406 were identified as a sulfate conjugate and glucuronide conjugate of the para-O-demethylated metabolite of R406 (R529) and a direct N-glucuronide conjugate of R406. Elimination of drug-related material into the urine accounted for 19% of the administered dose, and the major metabolite in urine from all the human subjects was the lactam N-glucuronide of R406. On average, 80% of the total drug was recovered in feces. Two drug-related peaks were observed; one peak was identified as R406, and the other peak was identified as a unique 3,5-benzene diol metabolite of R406. The 3,5-benzene diol metabolite appeared to result from the subsequent O-demethylations and dehydroxylation of R529 by anaerobic gut bacteria because only R529 was converted to this metabolite after the in vitro incubation with human fecal samples. These data indicate that the major fecal metabolite of R406 observed in humans is a product of a hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated O-demethylation and subsequent O-demethylations and dehydroxylation by gut bacteria.
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Single- and multiple-dose disposition kinetics of sunitinib malate, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: comparative plasma kinetics in non-clinical species.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2009
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The purpose of these extensive non-clinical studies was to assess pharmacokinetics and dispositional properties of sunitinib and its primary active metabolite (SU12662).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.