JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This is the first study of Korean Americans smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited.
Related JoVE Video
Arsenic methylation and lung and bladder cancer in a case-control study in northern Chile.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In humans, ingested inorganic arsenic is metabolized to monomethylarsenic (MMA) then to dimethylarsenic (DMA), although this process is not complete in most people. The trivalent form of MMA is highly toxic in vitro and previous studies have identified associations between the proportion of urinary arsenic as MMA (%MMA) and several arsenic-related diseases. To date, however, relatively little is known about its role in lung cancer, the most common cause of arsenic-related death, or about its impacts on people drinking water with lower arsenic concentrations (e.g., <200?g/L). In this study, urinary arsenic metabolites were measured in 94 lung and 117 bladder cancer cases and 347 population-based controls from areas in northern Chile with a wide range of drinking water arsenic concentrations. Lung cancer odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, and smoking by increasing tertiles of %MMA were 1.00, 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-3.67), and 3.26 (1.76-6.04) (p-trend <0.001). Corresponding odds ratios for bladder cancer were 1.00, 1.81 (1.06-3.11), and 2.02 (1.15-3.54) (p-trend <0.001). In analyses confined to subjects only with arsenic water concentrations <200?g/L (median=60?g/L), lung and bladder cancer odds ratios for subjects in the upper tertile of %MMA compared to subjects in the lower two tertiles were 2.48 (1.08-5.68) and 2.37 (1.01-5.57), respectively. Overall, these findings provide evidence that inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism may be an important risk factor for arsenic-related lung cancer, and may play a role in cancer risks among people exposed to relatively low arsenic water concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking among individuals with schizophrenia in Korea: gender differences.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status.
Related JoVE Video
Telephone care coordination for smokers in VA mental health clinics: protocol for a hybrid type-2 effectiveness-implementation trial.
Addict Sci Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper describes an innovative protocol for a type-II hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial that is evaluating a smoking cessation telephone care coordination program for Veterans Health Administration (VA) mental-health clinic patients. As a hybrid trial, the protocol combines implementation science and clinical trial methods and outcomes that can inform future cessation studies and the implementation of tobacco cessation programs into routine care. The primary objectives of the trial are (1) to evaluate the process of adapting, implementing, and sustaining a smoking cessation telephone care coordination program in VA mental health clinics, (2) to determine the effectiveness of the program in promoting long-term abstinence from smoking among mental health patients, and (3) to compare the effectiveness of telephone counseling delivered by VA staff with that delivered by state quitlines.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of trivalent monomethyl arsenic and other urinary arsenic species in a highly exposed juvenile population in Bangladesh.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Following reports of high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of monomethyl arsonous acid (MMA(III)) and early reports of urinary MMA(III) in arsenic-exposed individuals, MMA(III) has often been included in population studies. Use of urinary MMA(III) as an indicator of exposure and/or health risk is challenged by inconsistent results from field studies and stability studies, which indicate potential artifacts. We measured urinary arsenic species in children chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water, using collection, storage, and analysis methods shown to conserve MMA(III). MMA(III) was easily oxidized in sample storage and processing, but recoveries of 80% or better in spiked urine samples were achieved. Attempts to preserve the distribution of MMA between trivalent and pentavalent forms using complexing agents were unsuccessful and MMA(III) spiked into treated urine samples actually showed lower stability than in untreated samples. In 643 urine samples from a highly exposed population from the Matlab district in Bangladesh stored for 3-6 months at ?-70?°C, MMA(III) was detected in 41 samples, with an estimated median value of 0.3??g/l, and levels of MMA(III) above 1??g/l in only two samples. The low urinary concentrations in highly exposed individuals and known difficulties in preserving sample oxidation state indicate that urinary MMA(III) is not suitable for use as an epidemiological biomarker.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 3 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.14.
Related JoVE Video
Front-loaded versus weekly counseling for treatment of tobacco addiction.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Approximately 60%-70% of cigarette smokers who try to quit relapse by 2 weeks postcessation. We tested the efficacy of a front-loaded (FL) counseling intervention whose goal was to increase the likelihood of successful early abstinence and subsequent long-term abstinence.
Related JoVE Video
Creatinine, diet, micronutrients, and arsenic methylation in West Bengal, India.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) is methylated to monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated metabolites (DMA). Methylation may have an important role in arsenic toxicity, because the monomethylated trivalent metabolite [MMA(III)] is highly toxic.
Related JoVE Video
Incremental efficacy of adding bupropion to the nicotine patch for smoking cessation in smokers with a recent history of alcohol dependence: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of smoking cessation treatment using a combination of nicotine patch and bupropion vs. nicotine patch and placebo bupropion. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the efficacy of bupropion is moderated by belief about whether one is receiving active or placebo medication.
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) in arsenic biomethylation and its role in arsenic-induced toxicity.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In humans, inorganic arsenic (iAs) is metabolized to methylated arsenical species in a multistep process mainly mediated by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). Among these metabolites is monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), the most toxic arsenic species. A recent study in As3mt-knockout mice suggests that unidentified methyltransferases could be involved in alternative iAs methylation pathways. We found that yeast deletion mutants lacking MTQ2 were highly resistant to iAs exposure. The human ortholog of the yeast MTQ2 is N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1), encoding a putative methyltransferase.
Related JoVE Video
A brief treatment engagement intervention for individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders: results of a randomized clinical trial.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Study objectives were to evaluate a brief intervention designed to facilitate outpatient engagement following an inpatient psychiatric stay for individuals with mental illness and substance use. A total of 102 veterans were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) Time Limited Care-Coordination (TLC), an eight-week co-occurring disorders intervention or (2) a matched attention (MA) control condition in the form of health education sessions. Both groups also received treatment as usual in inpatient and outpatient settings. Sixty-nine percent of TLC participants attended an outpatient appointment within 14 days of discharge, compared to only 33% of MA participants (P < 0.01). TLC participants were also more likely to be engaged in outpatient services at the end of the intervention period (44 vs. 22%, P < 0.01). This study provided evidence that an eight-week intervention could improve treatment engagement. Research is currently underway to examine impact of TLC intervention beyond the 8 week study period.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of bupropion on simulated demand for cigarettes and the subjective effects of smoking.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The biobehavioral mechanism(s) mediating bupropions efficacy are not well understood. Behavioral economic measures such as demand curves have proven useful in investigations of the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Behavioral economic measures may also be used to measure the effect of pharmacotherapies on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse.
Related JoVE Video
Association of genetic variation in cystathionine-beta-synthase and arsenic metabolism.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Variation in individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced disease may be partially explained by genetic differences in arsenic metabolism. Mounting epidemiological evidence and in vitro studies suggest that methylated arsenic metabolites, particularly monomethylarsonic (MMA3), are more acutely toxic than inorganic arsenic; thus, MMA3 may be the primary toxic arsenic species. To test the role of genetic variation in arsenic metabolism, polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism [methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1)] and glutathione biosynthesis [glutathione-S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1)] were examined in an arsenic-exposed population to determine their influence in urinary arsenic metabolite patterns. In 142 subjects in Cordoba Province, Argentina, variant genotypes for CBS rs234709 and rs4920037 SNPs compared with wild-type homozygotes were associated with 24% and 26% increases, respectively, in the mean proportion of arsenic excreted as monomethylarsonic acid (%MMA). This difference is within the range of differences in %MMA seen between people with arsenic-related disease and those without such disease in other studies. Small inverse associations with CBS rs234709 and rs4920037 variants were also found for the mean levels of the proportion of arsenic excreted as dimethylarsinous acid (%DMA). No other genetic associations were found. These findings are the first to suggest that CBS polymorphisms may influence arsenic metabolism in humans and susceptibility to arsenic-related disease.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective study of persistence in the prediction of smoking cessation outcome: results from a randomized clinical trial.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research has had mixed success in identifying pretreatment variables which can be used to guide treatment and enhance outcome. A critical first step in the process is to identify variables that reliably predict outcome. Some recent studies, largely retrospective, have found mixed evidence on the relationship between task persistence and smoking outcome measures. In the present study, we use data from a randomized clinical trial (N=241) to prospectively investigate the ability of persistence to predict outcome. Findings from multivariate analyses did not support our hypotheses: persistence did not predict outcome. We discuss these findings in relation to previous studies by focusing on theoretical and measurement issues related to the study of persistence in smoking cessation research. We conclude by recommending directions for future research, including conceptual clarification of the relationship between persistence and theoretically related constructs and investigations of variables that may moderate relationships between these constructs and cessation outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Arsenic exposure within the Korean community (United States) based on dietary behavior and arsenic levels in hair, urine, air, and water.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Determining arsenic exposure in groups based on geographic location, dietary behaviors, or lifestyles is important, as even moderate exposures may lead to health concerns.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of relapse in a bupropion trial for smoking cessation in recently-abstinent alcoholics: preliminary results using an aggregate genetic risk score.
Subst Abuse
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rates of smoking in the US population have decreased overall, but rates in some groups, including alcoholic smokers, remain high. Many newly sober alcoholics are concerned about their smoking and some attempt to quit. However, quit rates in this population are low. Prior studies suggest risk for relapse in this population may be genetically influenced and that genetic factors may moderate response to treatment.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.