Clathrodin is a marine alkaloid and believed to be a modulator of voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels. Since there is an urgent need for small molecule Na(V) channel ligands as novel therapeutics, clathrodin could represent an interesting lead compound. Therefore, clathrodin was reinvestigated for its potency and Na(V) channel subtype selectivity. Clathrodin and its synthetic analogues were subjected to screening on a broad range of Na(V) channel isoforms, both in voltage clamp and patch clamp conditions. Even though clathrodin was not found to exert any activity, some analogues were capable of modulating the Na(V) channels, hereby validating the pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole alkaloid structure as a core structure for future small molecule-based Na(V) channel modulators.
Voltage-gated sodium channels play an integral part in neurotransmission and their dysfunction is frequently a cause of various neurological disorders. On the basis of the structure of marine alkaloid clathrodin, twenty eight new analogs were designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to block human NaV1.3, NaV1.4 and NaV1.7 channels, as well as for their selectivity against human cardiac isoform NaV1.5, using automated patch clamp electrophysiological assay. Several compounds exhibited promising activities on different NaV channel isoforms in the medium micromolar range and some of the compounds showed also moderate isoform selectivities. The most promising results were obtained for the NaV1.3 channel, for which four compounds were found to possess IC?? values lower than 15 ?M. All of the active compounds bind to the open-inactivated states of the channels and therefore act as state-dependent modulators. The obtained results validate the approach of using natural products driven chemistry for drug discovery starting points and represent a good foundation for future design of selective NaV modulators.
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are attractive targets for drug discovery because of the broad therapeutic potential of their modulators. On the basis of the structure of marine alkaloid clathrodin, we have recently discovered novel subtype-selective VGSC modulators I and II that were used as starting points for two different ligand-based virtual screening approaches for discovery of novel VGSC modulators. Similarity searching in the ZINC database of drug-like compounds based on compound I resulted in five state-dependent Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 modulators with improved activity compared to I (IC50 < 20 ?M). Compounds 2 and 16 that blocked sodium permeation in Nav1.7 with IC50 values of 7 and 9 ?M, respectively, are among the most potent clathrodin analogs discovered so far. In the case of compound II, 3D similarity searching in the same database was followed by docking of an enriched compound library into our human Nav1.4 open-pore homology model. Although some of the selected compounds, e.g., 31 and 32 displayed 21% and 22% inactivated state Ipeak block of Nav1.4 at 10 ?M, respectively, none showed better Nav1.4 modulatory activity than compound II. Taken together, virtual screening yielded compounds 2 and 16, which represent novel scaffolds for the discovery of human Nav1.7 modulators.
Clathrodin, alkaloid isolated from Agelas sponges, was reported in 1995 as a voltage-gated sodium channel modulator. Here we describe the design and synthesis of conformationally restricted clathrodin analogues incorporating the 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine moiety and evaluation of their modulatory activities on human voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms Nav1.3, Nav1.4 and Nav1.7, as well as their selectivity against cardiac isoform Nav1.5. Compounds were shown to act as state-dependent modulators of Nav1.3, Nav1.4 and Nav1.7 with IC50 values in the lower micromolar range for the open-inactivated state of the channels. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies have revealed the importance of hydrophobic interactions for binding to all three tested isoforms. Compound 4e with IC50 value of 8 ?M against Nav1.4 represents a novel selective state-dependent Nav1.4 channel modulator.
The human electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of XEN-D0101 were evaluated to assess its usefulness for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). XEN-D0101 inhibited Kv1.5 with an IC50 of 241 nM and is selective over non-target cardiac ion channels (IC50 Kv4.3, 4.2 ?M; hERG, 13 ?M; activated Nav1.5, >100 ?M; inactivated Nav1.5, 34 ?M; Kir3.1/3.4, 17 ?M; Kir2.1, >100 ?M). In atrial myocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and chronic AF, XEN-D0101 inhibited non-inactivating outward currents (Ilate) with IC50 of 410 and 280 nM, respectively, and peak outward currents (Ipeak) with IC50 of 806 and 240 nM, respectively. Whereas Ilate is mainly composed of IKur, Ipeak consists of IKur and Ito. Therefore, the effects on Ito alone were estimated from a double-pulse protocol where IKur was inactivated (3.5 µM IC50 in SR and 1 µM in AF). Thus, inhibition of Ipeak is because of IKur reduction and not Ito. XEN-D0101 significantly prolonged the atrial action potential duration at 20%, 50%, and 90% of repolarization (AF tissue only) and significantly elevated the atrial action potential plateau phase and increased contractility (SR and AF tissues) while having no effect on human ventricular action potentials. In healthy volunteers, XEN-D0101 did not significantly increase baseline- and placebo-adjusted QTc up to a maximum oral dose of 300 mg. XEN-D0101 is a Kv1.5/IKur inhibitor with an attractive atrial-selective profile.
We have identified naphthol derivatives as inhibitors of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 by high throughput screening. The initial lead showed high clearance in rats and has been optimized by enhancing the acidity of the phenol group. Compound 6b has reduced clearance, improved potency and is active in rat cystometry models of urinary incontinence after intravenous administration.
Starting from a naphthol-based lead series with low oral bioavailability, we have identified potent TRPV1 antagonists with oral bioavailability in rats. These compounds emerged from SAR studies aimed at replacing the leads phenol structure whilst maintaining potency. Compound rac-6a is an orally available TRPV1 antagonist with single-digit nanomolar activity. The enantiomers show a low eudismic ratio at the receptor level.
Two voltage-dependent potassium channels, Kv1.1 (KCNA1) and Kv1.2 (KCNA2), are found to co-localize at the juxtaparanodal region of axons throughout the nervous system and are known to co-assemble in heteromultimeric channels, most likely in the form of the concatemer Kv1.1-1.2((3)) . Loss of the myelin sheath, as is observed in multiple sclerosis, uncovers the juxtaparanodal region of nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons leading to potassium conductance, resulting in loss of nerve conduction. The selective blocking of these Kv channels is therefore a promising approach to restore nerve conduction and function. In the present study, we searched for novel inhibitors of Kv1.1-1.2((3)) by combining a virtual screening protocol and electrophysiological measurements on a concatemer Kv1.1-1.2((3)) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells. The combined use of four popular virtual screening approaches (eHiTS, FlexX, Glide, and Autodock-Vina) led to the identification of several compounds as potential inhibitors of the Kv1.1-1.2((3)) channel. From 89 electrophysiologically evaluated compounds, 14 novel compounds were found to inhibit the current carried by Kv1.1-1.2((3)) channels by more than 80 % at 10 ?M. Accordingly, the IC(50) values calculated from concentration-response curve titrations ranged from 0.6 to 6 ?M. Two of these compounds exhibited at least 30-fold higher potency in inhibition of Kv1.1-1.2((3)) than they showed in inhibition of a set of cardiac ion channels (hERG, Nav1.5, and Cav1.2), resulting in a profile of selectivity and cardiac safety. The results presented herein provide a promising basis for the development of novel selective ion channel inhibitors, with a dramatically lower demand in terms of experimental time, effort, and cost than a sole high-throughput screening approach of large compound libraries.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia facing physicians, afflicting 13% of men and 11% of women over 85 years of age. Epidemiological studies estimate that there are ? 11 million AF sufferers in the seven major economies and that its prevalence will increase two- to threefold over the next 50 years. Current strategies for treating AF involve either sinus rhythm (SR) maintenance or heart rate control, combined with anticoagulation therapy. Although SR control is the preferred and most effective treatment of AF, none of the SR control drugs currently available are able to maintain rhythm without significant side effects. In this article we discuss some of the recent advancements in developing new antiarrhythmic drugs for AF.
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