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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
T Cell-Mediated Hypersensitivity Reactions to Drugs.
Annu. Rev. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The immunological mechanisms driving delayed hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to drugs mediated by drug-reactive T lymphocytes are exemplified by several key examples and their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations: abacavir and HLA-B*57:01, carbamazepine and HLA-B*15:02, allopurinol and HLA-B*58:01, and both amoxicillin-clavulanate and nevirapine with multiple class I and II alleles. For HLA-restricted drug HSRs, specific class I and/or II HLA alleles are necessary but not sufficient for tissue specificity and the clinical syndrome. Several models have been proposed to explain the immunopathogenesis of severe T cell-mediated drug HSRs, and our increased understanding of the risk factors and mechanisms involved in the development of these reactions will further the development of sensitive and specific strategies for preclinical screening that will lead to safer and more cost-effective drug design. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine Volume 66 is January 14, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Small molecule inhibitor YM155-mediated activation of death receptor 5 is crucial for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Despite much effort, pancreatic cancer survival rates are still dismally low. Novel therapeutics may hold the key to improving survival. YM155 is a small molecule inhibitor which has shown anti-tumor activity in a number of cancers by reducing the expression of survivin. The aim of our study is to understand the mechanisms by which YM155 functions in pancreatic cancer cells. We established the anti-tumor effect of YM155 with in vitro studies in the cultured cells, and in vivo studies using a mouse xenograft model. Our data demonstrated that YM155 reduced the expression of survivin; however down-regulation of survivin itself is insufficient to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We showed for the first time that treatment with YM155 increased death receptor 5 (DR5) expression in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that YM155 induced apoptosis by broad-spectrum inhibition of IAP family member proteins (e.g. CIAP1/2 and FLIP) and induced pro-apoptotic Bak protein up-regulation and activation; the anti-tumor effect of YM155 treatment with either the DR5 agonist lexatumumab or gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cells was synergistic. Our data also revealed that YM155 inhibit tumor growth in vivo, whilst had no apparent toxicity to the non-cancerous human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE). Together, these findings suggest that YM155 could be a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.
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A novel ATG4B antagonist inhibits autophagy and has a negative impact on osteosarcoma tumors.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Autophagy has been implicated in the progression and chemoresistance of various cancers. In this study, we have shown that osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells lacking ATG4B, a cysteine proteinase that activates LC3B, are defective in autophagy and fail to form tumors in mouse models. By combining in silico docking with in vitro and cell-based assays, we identified small compounds that suppressed starvation-induced protein degradation, LC3B lipidation, and formation of autophagic vacuoles. NSC185058 effectively inhibited ATG4B activity in vitro and in cells while having no effect on MTOR and PtdIns3K activities. In addition, this ATG4B antagonist had a negative impact on the development of Saos-2 osteosarcoma tumors in vivo. We concluded that tumor suppression was due to a reduction in ATG4B activity, since we found autophagy suppressed within treated tumors and the compound had no effects on oncogenic protein kinases. Our findings demonstrate that ATG4B is a suitable anti-autophagy target and a promising therapeutic target to treat osteosarcoma.
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HLA-DRA variants predict penicillin allergy in genome-wide fine-mapping genotyping.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Immediate reactions to ?-lactams are the most common causes of anaphylactic reactions and can be life-threatening. The few known genetic factors influencing these reactions suggest a link with atopy and inflammation.
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The effect of malnutrition on norovirus infection.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Human noroviruses are the primary cause of severe childhood diarrhea in the United States, and they are of particular clinical importance in pediatric populations in the developing world. A major contributing factor to the general increased severity of infectious diseases in these regions is malnutrition-nutritional status shapes host immune responses and the composition of the host intestinal microbiota, both of which can influence the outcome of pathogenic infections. In terms of enteric norovirus infections, mucosal immunity and intestinal microbes are likely to contribute to the infection outcome in substantial ways. We probed these interactions using a murine model of malnutrition and murine norovirus infection. Our results reveal that malnutrition is associated with more severe norovirus infections as defined by weight loss, impaired control of norovirus infections, reduced antiviral antibody responses, loss of protective immunity, and enhanced viral evolution. Moreover, the microbiota is dramatically altered by malnutrition. Interestingly, murine norovirus infection also causes changes in the host microbial composition within the intestine but only in healthy mice. In fact, the infection-associated microbiota resembles the malnutrition-associated microbiota. Collectively, these findings represent an extensive characterization of a new malnutrition model of norovirus infection that will ultimately facilitate elucidation of the nutritionally regulated host parameters that predispose to more severe infections and impaired memory immune responses. In a broad sense, this model may provide insight into the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished hosts and the potential for malnourished individuals to act as reservoirs of emergent virus strains. IMPORTANCE Malnourished children in developing countries are susceptible to more severe infections than their healthy counterparts, in particular enteric infections that cause diarrhea. In order to probe the effects of malnutrition on an enteric infection in a well-controlled system devoid of other environmental and genetic variability, we studied norovirus infection in a mouse model. We have revealed that malnourished mice develop more severe norovirus infections and they fail to mount effective memory immunity to a secondary challenge. This is of particular importance because malnourished children generally mount less effective immune responses to oral vaccines, and we can now use our new model system to probe the immunological basis of this impairment. We have also determined that noroviruses evolve more readily in the face of malnutrition. Finally, both norovirus infection and malnutrition independently alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota in substantial and overlapping ways.
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Fever, rash, and systemic symptoms: understanding the role of virus and HLA in severe cutaneous drug allergy.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Drug hypersensitivity syndromes such as abacavir hypersensitivity and the severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions have been associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. More recently, these immunologically mediated and previously unpredictable diseases have been shown to be associated with primarily class I but also class II HLA alleles. The case of the association of HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity has created a translational roadmap for how this knowledge can be used in the clinic to prevent severe reactions. Although many hurdles exist to the widespread translation of such HLA screening approaches, our understanding of how drugs interact with the major histocompatibility complex has contributed to the discovery of new models that have provided considerable insights into the immunopathogenesis of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions and other T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity syndromes. Future translation of this knowledge will facilitate the development of preclinical toxicity screening to significantly improve efficacy and safety of drug development and design.
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Gabapentin hybrid peptides and bioconjugates.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Synthetic approaches to gabapentin bioconjugates that overcome the tendency of gabapentin to cyclize into its ?-lactam are studied. Gabapentin was converted by N-acylation at its N-terminus into di-, tri-, and tetrapeptides (L-Ala-Gbp, L-Val-Gbp, L-Ala-L-Phe-Gbp, Gly-L-Ala-?-Ala-Gbp). Carboxyl-activated Boc-protected gabapentin was used to N-, O-, and S-acylate small peptides and hormones to give conjugates that could also provide prodrugs containing conformationally constrained gabapentin units.
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Discovery of structure-based small molecular inhibitor of ?B-crystallin against basal-like/triple-negative breast cancer development in vitro and in vivo.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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?B-crystallin (CRYAB) is present at a high frequency in poor prognosis basal-like breast tumours, which are largely absent of oestrogen, progesterone receptors and HER2 known as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CRYAB functions as a molecular chaperone to bind to and correct intracellular misfolded/unfolded proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), preventing non-specific protein aggregations under the influence of the tumour microenvironment stress and/or anti-cancer treatments including bevacizumab therapy. Directly targeting CRYAB can sensitize tumour cells to chemotherapeutic agents and decrease tumour aggressiveness. However, growing evidence shows that CRYAB is a critical adaptive response element after ischemic heart disease and stroke, implying that directly targeting CRYAB might cause serious unwanted side effects. Here, we used structure-based molecular docking of CRYAB and identified a potent small molecular inhibitor, NCI-41356, which can strongly block the interaction between CRYAB and VEGF165 without affecting CRYAB levels. The disruption of the interaction between CRYAB and VEGF165 elicits in vitro anti-tumour cell proliferation and invasive effects through the down-regulation of VEGF signalling in the breast cancer cells. The observed in vitro anti-tumour angiogenesis of endothelial cells might be attributed to the down-regulation of paracrine VEGF signalling in the breast cancer cells after treatment with NCI-41356. Intraperitoneal injection of NCI-41356 greatly inhibits the tumour growth and vasculature development in in vivo human breast cancer xenograft models. Our findings provide 'proof-of-concept' for the development of highly specific structure-based alternative targeted therapy for the prevention and/or treatment of TNBC.
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Mitoxantrone targets the ATP-binding site of FAK, binds the FAK kinase domain and decreases FAK, Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R in vitro kinase activities.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a key role in cell adhesion, spreading, motility, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Recently, FAK has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy, and we performed computer modeling and screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) small molecule compounds database to target the ATP-binding site of FAK, K454. More than 140,000 small molecule compounds were docked into the crystal structure of the kinase domain of FAK in 100 different orientations using DOCK5.1 that identified small molecule compounds, targeting the K454 site, called A-compounds. To find the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds, we examined the effect of twenty small molecule compounds on cell viability by MTT assays in different cancer cell lines. One compound, A18 (1,4-bis(diethylamino)-5,8- dihydroxy anthraquinon) was a mitoxantrone derivative and significantly decreased viability in most of the cells comparable to the to the level of FAK kinase inhibitors TAE-226 (Novartis, Inc) and PF-573,228 (Pfizer). The A18 compound specifically blocked autophosphorylation of FAK like TAE-226 and PF-228. ForteBio Octet Binding assay demonstrated that mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy- 5,8-bis[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) ethylamino] anthracene-9,10-dione directly binds the FAK-kinase domain. In addition, mitoxantrone significantly decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the kinase activity of FAK and Y56/577 FAK phosphorylation at 10-20 ?M. Mitoxantrone did not affect phosphorylation of EGFR, but decreased Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R kinase activities. The data demonstrate that mitoxantrone decreases cancer viability, binds FAK-Kinase domain, inhibits its kinase activity, and also inhibits in vitro kinase activities of Pyk-2 and IGF-1R. Thus, this novel function of the mitoxantrone drug can be critical for future development of anti-cancer agents and FAK-targeted therapy research.
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A small-molecule inhibitor, 5-O-tritylthymidine, targets FAK and Mdm-2 interaction, and blocks breast and colon tumorigenesis in vivo.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays an important role in survival. We developed a novel approach, targeting FAK-protein interactions by computer modeling and screening of NCI small molecule drug database. In this report we targeted FAK and Mdm-2 protein interaction to decrease tumor growth. By macromolecular modeling we found a model of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction and performed screening of > 200,000 small molecule compounds from NCI database with drug-like characteristics, targeting the FAK-Mdm-2 interaction. We identified 5;-O-Tritylthymidine, called M13 compound that significantly decreased viability in different cancer cells. M13 was docked into the pocket of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction and was directly bound to the FAK-N terminal domain by ForteBio Octet assay. In addition, M13 compound affected FAK and Mdm-2 levels and decreased complex of FAK and Mdm-2 proteins in breast and colon cancer cells. M13 re-activated p53 activity inhibited by FAK with Mdm-2 promoter. M13 decreased viability, clonogenicity, increased detachment and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in BT474 breast and in HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. M13 decreased FAK, activated p53 and caspase-8 in both cell lines. In addition, M13 decreased breast and colon tumor growth in vivo. M13 activated p53 and decreased FAK in tumor samples consistent with decreased tumor growth. The data demonstrate a novel approach for targeting FAK and Mdm-2 protein interaction, provide a model of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction, identify M13 compound targeting this interaction and decreasing tumor growth that is critical for future targeted therapeutics.
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Identification of adenine nucleotide translocase 4 inhibitors by molecular docking.
J. Mol. Graph. Model.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The protein adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane and plays an essential role in transporting ADP into the mitochondrial matrix and ATP out from the matrix for cell utilization. In mammals there are four paralogous ANT genes, of which ANT4 is exclusively expressed in meiotic germ cells. Since ANT4 has been shown essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility in mice, inhibition of ANT4 appears to be a reasonable target for male contraceptive development. Further, in contrast to ANT1, ANT2 and ANT3 that are highly homologous to each other, ANT4 has a distinguishable amino acid sequence, which serves as a basis to develop a selective ANT4 inhibitor. In this study, we aimed to identify candidate compounds that can selectively inhibit ANT4 activity over the other ANTs. We used a structure-based method in which ANT4 was modeled then utilized as the basis for selection of compounds that interact with sites unique to ANT4. A large chemical library (>100,000 small molecules) was screened by molecular docking and effects of these compounds on ADP/ATP exchange through ANT4 were examined using yeast mitochondria expressing human ANT4. Through this, we identified one particular candidate compound, [2,2-methanediylbis(4-nitrophenol)], which inhibits ANT4 activity with a lower IC50 than the other ANTs (5.8 ?M, 4.1 ?M, 5.1 ?M and 1.4 ?M for ANT1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). This newly identified active lead compound and its chemical structure are expected to provide new opportunities to optimize selective ANT4 inhibitors for contraceptive purposes.
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Disruption of focal adhesion kinase and p53 interaction with small molecule compound R2 reactivated p53 and blocked tumor growth.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a 125 kDa non-receptor kinase that plays a major role in cancer cell survival and metastasis.
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Potent elastase inhibitors from cyanobacteria: structural basis and mechanisms mediating cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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We discovered new structural diversity to a prevalent, yet medicinally underappreciated, cyanobacterial protease inhibitor scaffold and undertook comprehensive protease profiling to reveal potent and selective elastase inhibition. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and X-ray cocrystal structure analysis allowed a detailed assessment of critical and tunable structural elements. To realize the therapeutic potential of these cyclodepsipeptides, we probed the cellular effects of a novel and representative family member, symplostatin 5 (1), which attenuated the downstream cellular effects of elastase in an epithelial lung airway model system, alleviating clinical hallmarks of chronic pulmonary diseases such as cell death, cell detachment, and inflammation. This compound attenuated the effects of elastase on receptor activation, proteolytic processing of the adhesion protein ICAM-1, NF-?B activation, and transcriptomic changes, including the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1A, IL1B, and IL8. Compound 1 exhibited activity comparable to the clinically approved elastase inhibitor sivelestat in short-term assays and demonstrated superior sustained activity in longer-term assays.
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Engineered AAV vector minimizes in vivo targeting of transduced hepatocytes by capsid-specific CD8+ T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Recent clinical trials have shown that evasion of CD8(+) T-cell responses against viral capsid is critical for successful liver-directed gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for hemophilia. Preclinical models to test whether use of alternate serotypes or capsid variants could avoid this deleterious response have been lacking. Here, the ability of CD8(+) T cells ("cap-CD8," specific for a capsid epitope presented by human B*0702 or murine H2-L(d) molecules) to target AAV-infected hepatocytes was investigated. In a murine model based on adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded cap-CD8, AAV2-transduced livers showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltrates, transaminitis, significant reduction in factor IX transgene expression, and loss of transduced hepatocytes. AAV8 gene transfer resulted in prolonged susceptibility to cap-CD8, consistent with recent clinical findings. In contrast, using an AAV2(Y-F) mutant capsid, which is known to be less degraded by proteasomes, preserved transgene expression and largely avoided hepatotoxicity. In vitro assays confirmed reduced major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of this capsid and killing of human or murine hepatocytes compared with AAV2. In conclusion, AAV capsids can be engineered to substantially reduce the risk of destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas use of alternative serotypes per se does not circumvent this obstacle.
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Structure-based selection of small molecules to alter allele-specific MHC class II antigen presentation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Class II major histocompatibility molecules are the primary susceptibility locus for many autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes. Human DQ8 and I-A(g7), in the NOD mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, confers diabetes risk by modulating presentation of specific islet peptides in the thymus and periphery. We used an in silico molecular docking program to screen a large "druglike" chemical library to define small molecules capable of occupying specific structural pockets along the I-A(g7) binding groove, with the objective of influencing presentation to T cells of the autoantigen insulin B chain peptide consisting of amino acids 9-23. In this study we show, using both murine and human cells, that small molecules can enhance or inhibit specific TCR signaling in the presence of cognate target peptides, based upon the structural pocket targeted. The influence of compounds on the TCR response was pocket dependent, with pocket 1 and 6 compounds inhibiting responses and molecules directed at pocket 9 enhancing responses to peptide. At nanomolar concentrations, the inhibitory molecules block the insulin B chain peptide consisting of amino acids 9-23, endogenous insulin, and islet-stimulated T cell responses. Glyphosine, a pocket 9 compound, enhances insulin peptide presentation to T cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM, upregulates IL-10 secretion, and prevents diabetes in NOD mice. These studies present a novel method for identifying small molecules capable of both stimulating and inhibiting T cell responses, with potentially therapeutic applications.
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Molecular imaging of inflammation and carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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Development of imaging agents that can be used broadly for early detection of neoplasia at various tissue sites and at various stages of disease and that also can assess states of minimal residual disease would have tremendous utility in the diagnosis and management of cancer. In a series of articles culminating with a report in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 1536), Uddin and colleagues show their ability to systemically target the enzyme COX-2 with imaging probes that will serve as agents for early detection, risk assessment, prognosis, and intervention outcome measures. These probes will enable the detection and localization of regions of inflammation and a wide variety of premalignant lesions and cancers, with utility in monitoring the effects of cancer prevention and therapy.
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Prediction of off-target effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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The authors describe a structure-based strategy to identify therapeutically beneficial off-target effects by screening a chemical library of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small-molecule drugs matching pharmacophores defined for specific target proteins. They applied this strategy to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an enzyme that generates vasodilatory peptides and promotes protection from hypertension-associated cardiovascular disease. The conformation-based structural selection method by molecular docking using DOCK allowed them to identify a series of FDA-approved drugs that enhance catalytic efficiency of ACE2 in vitro. These data demonstrate that libraries of approved drugs can be rapidly screened to identify potential side effects due to interactions with specific proteins other than the intended targets.
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Human polymorphisms in the glutathione transferase zeta 1/maleylacetoacetate isomerase gene influence the toxicokinetics of dichloroacetate.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Dichloroacetate (DCA), a chemical relevant to environmental science and allopathic medicine, is dehalogenated by the bifunctional enzyme glutathione transferase zeta (GSTz1)/maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI), the penultimate enzyme in the phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolic pathway. The authors postulated that polymorphisms in GSTz1/MAAI modify the toxicokinetics of DCA. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype significantly affected the kinetics and biotransformation of 1,2-¹³C-DCA when it was administered at either environmentally (µg/kg/d) or clinically (mg/kg/d) relevant doses. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype also influenced the urinary accumulation of potentially toxic tyrosine metabolites. Atomic modeling revealed that GSTz1/MAAI variants associated with the slowest rates of DCA metabolism induced structural changes in the enzyme homodimer, predicting protein instability or abnormal protein-protein interactions. Knowledge of the GSTz1/MAAI haplotype can be used prospectively to identify individuals at potential risk of DCAs adverse side effects from environmental or clinical exposure or who may exhibit aberrant amino acid metabolism in response to dietary protein.
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A novel small molecule inhibitor of FAK and IGF-1R protein interactions decreases growth of human esophageal carcinoma.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Esophageal cancer remains an aggressive disease with poor survival rates. FAK and IGF-1R are two important tyrosine kinases important for cell survival signaling and found to be upregulated in esophageal cancer. Our hypothesis is that a novel small molecule compound that disrupts FAK and IGF-1R protein-protein interactions (PPIs) would decrease the growth of human esophageal cancer.
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A New Zealand Black-derived locus suppresses chronic graft-versus-host disease and autoantibody production through nonlymphoid bone marrow-derived cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The development of lupus pathogenesis results from the integration of susceptibility and resistance genes. We have used a chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) model to characterize a suppressive locus at the telomeric end of the NZM2410-derived Sle2 susceptibility locus, which we named Sle2c2. cGVHD is induced normally in Sle2c2-expressing mice, but it is not sustained. The analysis of mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that cGVHD resistance was eliminated by non-B non-T hematopoietic cells expressing the B6 allele, suggesting that resistance is mediated by this same cell type. Furthermore, Sle2c2 expression was associated with an increased number and activation of the CD11b(+) GR-1(+) subset of granulocytes before and in the early stage of cGVHD induction. We have mapped the Sle2c2 critical interval to a 6-Mb region that contains the Cfs3r gene, which encodes for the G-CSFR, and its NZM2410 allele carries a nonsynonymous mutation. The G-CSFR-G-CSF pathway has been previously implicated in the regulation of GVHD, and our functional data on Sle2c2 suppression suggest a novel regulation of T cell-induced systemic autoimmunity through myeloid-derived suppressor cells. The validation of Csf3r as the causative gene for Sle2c2 and the further characterization of the Sle2c2 MDSCs promise to unveil new mechanisms by which lupus pathogenesis is regulated.
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Functional expression of human adenine nucleotide translocase 4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mediates the exchange of ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The human genome encodes multiple ANT isoforms that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Recently a novel germ cell-specific member of the ANT family, ANT4 (SLC25A31) was identified. Although it is known that targeted depletion of ANT4 in mice resulted in male infertility, the functional biochemical differences between ANT4 and other somatic ANT isoforms remain undetermined. To gain insight into ANT4, we expressed human ANT4 (hANT4) in yeast mitochondria. Unlike the somatic ANT proteins, expression of hANT4 failed to complement an AAC-deficient yeast strain for growth on media requiring mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, overexpression of hANT4 from a multi-copy plasmid interfered with optimal yeast growth. However, mutation of specific amino acids of hANT4 improved yeast mitochondrial expression and supported growth of the AAC-deficient yeast on non-fermentable carbon sources. The mutations affected amino acids predicted to interact with phospholipids, suggesting the importance of lipid interactions for function of this protein. Each mutant hANT4 and the somatic hANTs exhibited similar ADP/ATP exchange kinetics. These data define common and distinct biochemical characteristics of ANT4 in comparison to ANT1, 2 and 3 providing a basis for study of its unique adaptation to germ cells.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human long myosin light-chain kinase 1-specific domain IgCAM3.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Myosin light-chain kinase-dependent tight junction regulation is a critical event in inflammatory cytokine-induced increases in epithelial paracellular permeability. MLCK is expressed in human intestinal epithelium as two isoforms, long MLCK1 and long MLCK2, and MLCK1 is specifically localized to the tight junction, where it regulates paracellular permeability. The sole difference between these long MLCK splice variants is the presence of an immunoglobulin-like cell-adhesion molecule domain, IgCAM3, in MLCK1. To gain insight into the structure of the IgCAM3 domain, the IgCAM3 domain of MLCK1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0?Å resolution and were consistent with the primitive trigonal space group P2(1)2(1)2(1).
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A novel PKC-? inhibitor abrogates cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Protein Kinase C-iota (PKC-?), an atypical protein kinase C isoform manifests its potential as an oncogene by targeting various aspects of cancer cells such as growth, invasion and survival. PKC-? confers resistance to drug-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. The acquisition of drug resistance is a major obstacle to good prognosis in neuroblastoma. The focus of this research was to identify the efficacy of [4-(5-amino-4-carbamoylimidazol-1-yl)-2,3-dihydroxycyclopentyl] methyl dihydrogen phosphate (ICA-1) as a novel PKC-? inhibitor in neuroblastoma cell proliferation and apoptosis. ICA-1 specifically inhibits the activity of PKC-? but not that of PKC-zeta (PKC-?), the closely related atypical PKC family member. The IC(50) for the kinase activity assay was approximately 0.1?M which is 1000 times less than that of aurothiomalate, a known PKC-? inhibitor. Cyclin dependent kinase 7 (Cdk7) phosphorylates cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and promotes cell proliferation. Our data shows that PKC-? is an in vitro Cdk7 kinase and the phosphorylation of Cdk7 by PKC-? was potently inhibited by ICA-1. Furthermore, our data shows that neuroblastoma cells proliferate via a PKC-?/Cdk7/cdk2 cell signaling pathway and ICA-1 mediates its antiproliferative effects by inhibiting this pathway. ICA-1 (0.1?M) inhibited the in vitro proliferation of BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells by 58% (P=0.01). Additionally, ICA-1 also induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. Interestingly, ICA-1 did not affect the proliferation of normal neuronal cells suggesting its potential as chemotherapeutic with low toxicity. Hence, our results emphasize the potential of ICA-1 as a novel PKC-? inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agent for neuroblastoma.
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DNA polymerase ? as a novel target for chemotherapeutic intervention of colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Chemoprevention presents a major strategy for the medical management of colorectal cancer. Most drugs used for colorectal cancer therapy induce DNA-alkylation damage, which is primarily repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Thus, blockade of BER pathway is an attractive option to inhibit the spread of colorectal cancer. Using an in silico approach, we performed a structure-based screen by docking small-molecules onto DNA polymerase ? (Pol-?) and identified a potent anti-Pol-? compound, NSC-124854. Our goal was to examine whether NSC-124854 could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DNA-alkylating agent, Temozolomide (TMZ), by blocking BER. First, we determined the specificity of NSC-124854 for Pol-? by examining in vitro activities of APE1, Fen1, DNA ligase I, and Pol-?-directed single nucleotide (SN)- and long-patch (LP)-BER. Second, we investigated the effect of NSC-124854 on the efficacy of TMZ to inhibit the growth of mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient and MMR-proficient colon cancer cell lines using in vitro clonogenic assays. Third, we explored the effect of NSC-124854 on TMZ-induced in vivo tumor growth inhibition of MMR-deficient and MMR-proficient colonic xenografts implanted in female homozygous SCID mice. Our data showed that NSC-124854 has high specificity to Pol-? and blocked Pol-?-directed SN- and LP-BER activities in in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, NSC-124854 effectively induced the sensitivity of TMZ to MMR-deficient and MMR-proficient colon cancer cells both in vitro cell culture and in vivo xenograft models. Our findings suggest a potential novel strategy for the development of highly specific structure-based inhibitor for the prevention of colonic tumor progression.
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A novel inhibitor of DNA polymerase beta enhances the ability of temozolomide to impair the growth of colon cancer cells.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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The recent emerging concept to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-alkylating drugs is by inhibiting various proteins in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In the present study, we used structure-based molecular docking of DNA polymerase beta (Pol-beta) and identified a potent small molecular weight inhibitor, NSC-666715. We determined the specificity of this small molecular weight inhibitor for Pol-beta by using in vitro activities of APE1, Fen1, DNA ligase I, and Pol-beta-directed single-nucleotide and long-patch BER. The binding specificity of NSC-666715 with Pol-beta was also determined by using fluorescence anisotropy. The effect of NSC-666715 on the cytotoxicity of the DNA-alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ) to colon cancer cells was determined by in vitro clonogenic and in vivo xenograft assays. The reduction in tumor growth was higher in the combination treatment relative to untreated or monotherapy treatment. NSC-666715 showed a high specificity for blocking Pol-beta activity. It blocked Pol-beta-directed single-nucleotide and long-patch BER without affecting the activity of APE1, Fen1, and DNA ligase I. Fluorescence anisotropy data suggested that NSC-666715 directly and specifically interacts with Pol-beta and interferes with binding to damaged DNA. NSC-666715 drastically induces the sensitivity of TMZ to colon cancer cells both in in vitro and in vivo assays. The results further suggest that the disruption of BER by NSC-666715 negates its contribution to drug resistance and bypasses other resistance factors, such as mismatch repair defects. Our findings provide the "proof-of-concept" for the development of highly specific and thus safer structure-based inhibitors for the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of colorectal cancer.
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A novel class of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors identified by molecular docking act through a unique mechanism.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) family is emerging as an important therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer. Cdks 1, 2, 4, and 6 are the key members that regulate the cell cycle, as opposed to Cdks that control processes such as transcription (Cdk7 and Cdk9). For this reason, Cdks 1, 2, 4, and 6 have been the subject of extensive cell cycle-related research, and consequently many inhibitors have been developed to target these proteins. However, the compounds that comprise the current list of Cdk inhibitors are largely ATP-competitive. Here we report the identification of a novel structural site on Cdk2, which is well conserved between the cell cycle Cdks. Small molecules identified by a high throughput in silico screen of this pocket exhibit cytostatic effects and act by reducing the apparent protein levels of cell cycle Cdks. Drug-induced cell cycle arrest is associated with decreased Rb phosphorylation and decreased expression of E2F-dependent genes. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the primary mechanism of action of these compounds is the direct induction of Cdk1, Cdk2, and Cdk4 protein aggregation.
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Recognition of additional roles for immunoglobulin domains in immune function.
Semin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Characterization of immune receptors found in phylogenetically disparate species at the genetic, structural and functional levels has provided unique insight into the evolutionary acquisition of immune function. The roles of variable- and intermediate-type immunoglobulin (Ig) domains in direct recognition of ligands and other functions are far wider than previously anticipated. Common mechanisms of multigene family diversification and expansion as well as unique adaptations that relate to function continue to provide unique insight into the numerous patterns, processes and complex interactions that regulate the host response to infectious challenge.
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A novel small molecule inhibitor of FAK decreases growth of human pancreatic cancer.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumors, including pancreatic cancer, and plays an important role in cell adhesion and survival signaling. Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease and is very resistant to chemotherapy, and FAK has been shown recently to assist in tumor cell survival. Therefore, FAK is an excellent potential target for anti-cancer therapy. We identified a novel small molecule inhibitor (1,2,4,5-Benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride, that we called Y15) targeting the main autophosphorylation site of FAK and hypothesized that it would be an effective treatment strategy against human pancreatic cancer. Y15 specifically blocked phosphorylation of Y397-FAK and total phosphorylation of FAK. It directly inhibited FAK autophosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, Y15 increased pancreatic cancer cell detachment and inhibited cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Y15 effectively caused human pancreatic tumor regression in vivo, when administered alone and its effects were synergistic with gemcitabine chemotherapy. This was accompanied by a decrease in Y397-phosphorylation of FAK in the tumors treated with Y15. Thus, targeting the Y397 site of FAK in pancreatic cancer with the small molecule inhibitor, 1,2,4,5-Benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride, is a potentially effective treatment strategy in this deadly disease.
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Targeting of the protein interaction site between FAK and IGF-1R.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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The interaction of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Targeting this interaction with small molecule drugs could be a novel strategy in cancer therapy. By a series of pull-down assays using GST-tagged FAK fragments and His-tagged IGF-1R intracellular fragments, we showed that the FAK-NT2 (a.a. 127-243) domain directly interacts with the N-terminal part of the IGF-1R intracellular domain. Overexpressed FAK-NT2 domain was also shown to co-localize with IGF-1R in pancreatic cells. Computational modeling was used to predict the binding configuration of these two domains and to screen for small molecules binding to the interaction site. This strategy successfully identified a lead compound that disrupts FAK/IGF-1R interaction.
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Identification of enoxacin as an inhibitor of osteoclast formation and bone resorption by structure-based virtual screening.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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An interaction between the B2 subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments is required for osteoclast bone resorption. An atomic homology model of the actin binding site on B2 was generated and molecular docking simulations were performed. Enoxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was identified and in vitro testing demonstrated that enoxacin blocked binding between purified B2 and microfilaments. Enoxacin dose dependently reduced the number of osteoclasts differentiating in mouse marrow cultures stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), as well as markers of osteoclast activity, and the number of resorption lacunae formed on bone slices. Enoxacin inhibited osteoclast formation at concentrations where osteoblast formation was not altered. In summary, enoxacin is a novel small molecule inhibitor of osteoclast bone resorption that acts by an unique mechanism and is therefore an attractive lead molecule for the development of a new class of antiosteoclastic agents.
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Small molecule chloropyramine hydrochloride (C4) targets the binding site of focal adhesion kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 and suppresses breast cancer growth in vivo.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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FAK is a tyrosine kinase that functions as a key orchestrator of signals leading to invasion and metastasis. Since FAK interacts directly with a number of critical proteins involved in survival signaling in tumor cells, we hypothesized that targeting a key protein-protein interface with druglike small molecules was a feasible strategy for inhibiting tumor growth. In this study, we targeted the protein-protein interface between FAK and VEGFR-3 and identified compound C4 (chloropyramine hydrochloride) as a drug capable of (1) inhibiting the biochemical function of VEGFR-3 and FAK, (2) inhibiting proliferation of a diverse set of cancer cell types in vitro, and (3) reducing tumor growth in vivo. Chloropyramine hydrochloride reduced tumor growth as a single agent, while concomitant administration with doxorubicin had a pronounced synergistic effect. Our data demonstrate that the FAK-VEGFR-3 interaction can be targeted by small druglike molecules and this interaction can provide the basis for highly specific novel cancer therapeutics.
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Evidence for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a therapeutic target for the prevention of pulmonary hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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It has been proposed that an activated renin angiotensin system (RAS) causes an imbalance between the vasoconstrictive and vasodilator mechanisms involving the pulmonary circulation leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recent studies have indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a member of the vasoprotective axis of the RAS, plays a regulatory role in lung pathophysiology, including pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung disease. Based on these observations, we propose the hypothesis that activation of endogenous ACE2 can shift the balance from the vasoconstrictive, proliferative axis (ACE-Ang II-AT1R) to the vasoprotective axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] of the RAS, resulting in the prevention of PH.
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The structural basis of HLA-associated drug hypersensitivity syndromes.
Immunol. Rev.
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Recent data suggest alternative mechanisms that promote human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated drug syndromes. Hypersensitive responses have been attributed to drug interactions with HLA molecules, peptides presented by HLA molecules and T-cell antigen receptors. Definition of an increasing number of HLA-associated drug syndromes suggests that polymorphism in the antigen-binding cleft residues influence recognition of specific drugs. Recent data demonstrate that small molecule drugs bind within the antigen-binding cleft of HLA in a manner that alters the repertoire of HLA-bound peptide ligands. This drug recognition mechanism permits presentation of self-peptides to which the host has not been tolerized. This altered repertoire mechanism is analogous to massive polyclonal T-cell responses occurring in mismatched HLA organ transplantation in which the drug in effect creates a novel HLA allele. Alteration of the self-peptide repertoire by HLA-binding small molecules may be the mechanistic basis for a diverse set of deleterious T-cell responses since the antigen-binding cleft has structural features that are compatible with binding drug-like small molecules. Small molecule drugs that bind elements of the trimolecular complex (T-cell receptor, peptide, and HLA) may cause short- and long-term adverse effects by a diverse set of mechanisms.
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Islet autoantigens: structure, function, localization, and regulation.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med
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Islet autoantigens associated with autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) are expressed in pancreatic ? cells, although many show wider patterns of expression in the neuroendocrine system. Within pancreatic ? cells, every T1D autoantigen is in one way or another linked to the secretory pathway. Together, these autoantigens play diverse roles in glucose regulation, metabolism of biogenic amines, as well as the regulation, formation, and packaging of secretory granules. The mechanism(s) by which immune tolerance to islet-cell antigens is lost during the development of T1D, remains unclear. Antigenic peptide creation for immune presentation may potentially link to the secretory biology of ? cells in a number of ways, including proteasomal digestion of misfolded products, exocytosis and endocytosis of cell-surface products, or antigen release from dying ? cells during normal or pathological turnover. In this context, we evaluate the biochemical nature and immunogenicity of the major autoantigens in T1D including (pro)insulin, GAD65, ZnT8, IA2, and ICA69.
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Disruption of the protein interaction between FAK and IGF-1R inhibits melanoma tumor growth.
Cell Cycle
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FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor receptor-1) directly interact with each other and thereby activate crucial signaling pathways that benefit cancer cells. Inhibition of FAK and IGF-1R function has been shown to significantly decrease cancer cell proliferation and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. As a novel approach in human melanoma, we evaluated the effect of a small-molecule compound that disrupts the protein interaction of FAK and IGF-1R. Previously, using virtual screening and functional testing, we identified a lead compound (INT2-31) that targets the known FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction site. We studied the ability of this compound to disrupt FAK-IGF-1R protein interactions, inhibit downstream signaling, decrease human melanoma cell proliferation, alter cell cycle progression, induce apoptosis and decrease tumor growth in vivo. INT2-31 blocked the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R in vitro and in vivo in melanoma cells and tumor xenografts through precluding the activation of IRS-1, leading to reduced phosphorylation of AKT upon IGF-1 stimulation. As a result, INT2-31 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and viability (range 0.05-10 ?M). More importantly, 15 mg/kg of INT2-31 given for 21 d via intraperitoneal injection disrupted the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R and effectively decreased phosphorylation of tumor AKT, resulting in significant melanoma tumor regression in vivo. Our data suggest that the FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction is an important target, and disruption of this interaction with a novel small molecule (INT2-31) has potential anti-neoplastic therapeutic effects in human melanoma.
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Drug hypersensitivity caused by alteration of the MHC-presented self-peptide repertoire.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable, dose-independent and potentially life threatening; this makes them a major factor contributing to the cost and uncertainty of drug development. Clinical data suggest that many such reactions involve immune mechanisms, and genetic association studies have identified strong linkages between drug hypersensitivity reactions to several drugs and specific HLA alleles. One of the strongest such genetic associations found has been for the antiviral drug abacavir, which causes severe adverse reactions exclusively in patients expressing the HLA molecular variant B*57:01. Abacavir adverse reactions were recently shown to be driven by drug-specific activation of cytokine-producing, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that required HLA-B*57:01 molecules for their function; however, the mechanism by which abacavir induces this pathologic T-cell response remains unclear. Here we show that abacavir can bind within the F pocket of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-B*57:01, thereby altering its specificity. This provides an explanation for HLA-linked idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions, namely that drugs can alter the repertoire of self-peptides presented to T cells, thus causing the equivalent of an alloreactive T-cell response. Indeed, we identified specific self-peptides that are presented only in the presence of abacavir and that were recognized by T cells of hypersensitive patients. The assays that we have established can be applied to test additional compounds with suspected HLA-linked hypersensitivities in vitro. Where successful, these assays could speed up the discovery and mechanistic understanding of HLA-linked hypersensitivities, and guide the development of safer drugs.
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Enoxacin directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis without inducing apoptosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Enoxacin has been identified as a small molecule inhibitor of binding between the B2-subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments. It inhibits bone resorption by calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures. We hypothesized that enoxacin acts directly and specifically on osteoclasts by disrupting the interaction between plasma membrane-directed V-ATPases, which contain the osteoclast-selective a3-subunit of V-ATPase, and microfilaments. Consistent with this hypothesis, enoxacin dose-dependently reduced the number of multinuclear cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity produced by RANK-L-stimulated osteoclast precursors. Enoxacin (50 ?M) did not induce apoptosis as measured by TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. V-ATPases containing the a3-subunit, but not the "housekeeping" a1-subunit, were isolated bound to actin. Treatment with enoxacin reduced the association of V-ATPase subunits with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Quantitative PCR revealed that enoxacin triggered significant reductions in several osteoclast-selective mRNAs, but levels of various osteoclast proteins were not reduced, as determined by quantitative immunoblots, even when their mRNA levels were reduced. Immunoblots demonstrated that proteolytic processing of TRAP5b and the cytoskeletal protein L-plastin was altered in cells treated with 50 ?M enoxacin. Flow cytometry revealed that enoxacin treatment favored the expression of high levels of DC-STAMP on the surface of osteoclasts. Our data show that enoxacin directly inhibits osteoclast formation without affecting cell viability by a novel mechanism that involves changes in posttranslational processing and trafficking of several proteins with known roles in osteoclast function. We propose that these effects are downstream to blocking the binding interaction between a3-containing V-ATPases and microfilaments.
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Kinetic characterization of newly discovered inhibitors of various constructs of human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) protease and their effect on HTLV-1-infected cells.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
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Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) was the first identified human retrovirus and was shown to be associated with diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy. Retroviral proteases (PRs) are essential for viral replication by processing viral Gag and Gag-(Pro)-Pol polyproteins during maturation. Full-length HTLV-1 PR is 125 residues long; whether the C-terminal region is required for catalytic activity is still controversial. In this study, we characterized the effect of C-terminal amino acids of HTLV-1 PR for PR activity and examined the binding of compounds identified by in silico screening. One compound showed inhibition against the virus in infected cells.
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A small molecule focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor, targeting Y397 site: 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3, 5, 7-triaza-1-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane; bromide effectively inhibits FAK autophosphorylation activity and decreases cancer cell viability, clonog
Carcinogenesis
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in most solid types of tumors and plays an important role in the survival signaling. Recently, we have developed a novel computer modeling combined with a functional assay approach to target the main autophosphorylation site of FAK (Y397). Using these approaches, we identified 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3, 5, 7-triaza-1-azoniatricyclo [3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane; bromide, called Y11, a small molecule inhibitor targeting Y397 site of FAK. Y11 significantly and specifically decreased FAK autophosphorylation, directly bound to the N-terminal domain of FAK. In addition, Y11 decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation, inhibited viability and clonogenicity of colon SW620 and breast BT474 cancer cells and increased detachment and apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, Y11 significantly decreased tumor growth in the colon cancer cell mouse xenograft model. Finally, tumors from the Y11-treated mice demonstrated decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation and activation of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase-3. Thus, targeting the major autophosphorylation site of FAK with Y11 inhibitor is critical for development of cancer therapeutics and carcinogenesis field.
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Genomic and functional characterization of the diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing protein (DICP) family.
Genomics
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A heretofore-unrecognized multigene family encoding diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing proteins (DICPs) was identified in the zebrafish genome. Twenty-nine distinct loci mapping to three chromosomal regions encode receptor-type structures possessing two classes of Ig ectodomains (D1 and D2). The sequence and number of Ig domains, transmembrane regions and signaling motifs vary between DICPs. Interindividual polymorphism and alternative RNA processing contribute to DICP diversity. Molecular models indicate that most D1 domains are of the variable (V) type; D2 domains are Ig-like. Sequence differences between D1 domains are concentrated in hypervariable regions on the front sheet strands of the Ig fold. Recombinant DICP Ig domains bind lipids, a property shared by mammalian CD300 and TREM family members. These findings suggest that novel multigene families encoding diversified immune receptors have arisen in different vertebrate lineages and affect parallel patterns of ligand recognition that potentially impact species-specific advantages.
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Characterization of the 8-hydroxyquinoline scaffold for inhibitors of West Nile virus serine protease.
Antiviral Res.
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West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne member of flaviviruses that causes significant morbidity and mortality especially among children. There is currently no approved vaccine or antiviral therapeutic for human use. In a previous study, we described compounds containing the 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) scaffold as inhibitors of WNV serine protease (NS2B/NS3pro) in a high throughput screen (HTS) using the purified WNV NS2B/NS3pro as the target. In this study, we analyzed potencies of some commercially available as well as chemically synthesized derivatives of 8-HQ by biochemical assays. An insight into the contribution of various substitutions of 8-HQ moiety for inhibition of the protease activity was revealed. Most importantly, the substitution of the N1 of the 8-HQ ring by -CH- in compound 26 significantly reduced the inhibition of the viral protease by this naphthalen-1-ol derivative. The kinetic constant (K(i)) for the most potent 8-HQ inhibitor (compound 14) with an IC(50) value of 2.01 ± 0.08 ?M using the tetra-peptide substrate was determined to be 5.8 ?M. This compound inhibits the WNV NS2B/NS3pro by a competitive mode of inhibition which is supported by molecular modeling.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.