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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.
Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas R Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen, Frank Friedrich, Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Carola Greve, Peter Grobe, Shengchang Gu, Ying Huang, Lars S Jermiin, Akito Y Kawahara, Lars Krogmann, Martin Kubiak, Robert Lanfear, Harald Letsch, Yiyuan Li, Zhenyu Li, Jiguang Li, Haorong Lu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Pashalia Kapli, Duane D McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Yasutaka Nakagaki, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia, Michael Ott, Yanxiang Ou, Günther Pass, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Björn M von Reumont, Kai Schütte, Kaoru Sekiya, Shota Shimizu, Adam Slipinski, Alexandros Stamatakis, Wenhui Song, Xu Su, Nikolaus U Szucsich, Meihua Tan, Xuemei Tan, Min Tang, Jingbo Tang, Gerald Timelthaler, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Michelle Trautwein, Xiaoli Tong, Toshiki Uchifune, Manfred G Walzl, Brian M Wiegmann, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Benjamin Wipfler, Thomas K F Wong, Qiong Wu, Gengxiong Wu, Yinlong Xie, Shenzhou Yang, Qing Yang, David K Yeates, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Qing Zhang, Rui Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Yunhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Chengran Zhou, Lili Zhou, Tanja Ziesmann, Shijie Zou, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Karl M Kjer, Xin Zhou.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects.
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Associations between Klinefelter's syndrome and autoimmune diseases: English national record linkage studies.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Abstract There are reports suggesting that people with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) may be at increased risk of some autoimmune diseases, but the evidence is not substantial. We wanted to add to the evidence by systematically assessing the risk of autoimmune diseases in a national cohort of people with KS. We selected records of all people with KS in a record-linked dataset of all hospital day cases and inpatient admissions in England, 1999-2011; and we followed them up by electronic record linkage to identify the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. We compared their occurrence in the KS cohort with a control cohort, studied in the same way, and expressed the results as rate ratios (RR). Of 30 autoimmune diseases studied in people with KS, there were significantly increased risks of seven-Addison's disease (RR 11.7, 95% confidence interval 2.4-34.4), diabetes mellitus type 1 (6.1, 4.4-8.3), multiple sclerosis (4.3, 1.2-11.0), acquired hypothyroidism (2.7, 1.8-4.0), rheumatoid arthritis (3.3, 2.0-5.2), Sjogren's syndrome (19.3, 4.0-57.0) and systemic lupus erythematosus (18.1, 2.2-65.6). We concluded that people with KS have increased risk of some autoimmune diseases, particularly those that are female-predominant. The increased risk of autoimmune diseases associated with the XXY karyotype may hold clues to the pathogenesis of some aspects of autoimmunity.
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Notoatherix antiqua gen. et sp. nov., first fossil water snipe fly from the Late Jurassic of Australia (Diptera: Athericidae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The first water snipe fly (Diptera: Tabanomorpha) fossil discovered in the Late Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Notoatherix antiqua gen. et sp. nov., described from a single wing specimen, is assigned to the family Athericidae based on the diagnostic feature of this family: the vein R2+3 ending very near to R1 (marginal cell closed). It is the first record of Athericidae from Australia and the oldest adult record of this family worldwide. 
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A new sericomyiine flower fly from China (Diptera: Syrphidae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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A new species of flower flies is described from China (Sichuan & Yunnan: Hengduan Mountains), Sericomyia khamensis Thompson & Xie). A key is provided to the species of the subtribe Sericomyiina found in China along with nomenclatural and taxonomical notes on them. 
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Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VI. Fergusobia from galls on Angophora in Australia, with description of F. colbrani n. sp. and key.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Collection data and biological information is presented on the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/ Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism inducing galls on Angophora in Australia. Three species and two morphospecies have been recognised. Fergusobia colbrani Davies n. sp. is described from soft spheroid leaf galls on Angophora floribunda. It is characterised by a combination of morphological characters including a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with an angular spicule having a notched tip and mid-length leptoderan bursa. A key to the species and morphospecies of nematodes collected from Angophora is presented. Possible relationships of these organisms are discussed based on evidence from the nematode morphology, gall forms, and the morphology of the dorsal shield of the associated Fergusonina fly larvae. 
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HIV and lower risk of multiple sclerosis: beginning to unravel a mystery using a record-linked database study.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Even though multiple sclerosis (MS) and HIV infection are well-documented conditions in clinical medicine, there is only a single case report of a patient with MS and HIV treated with HIV antiretroviral therapies. In this report, the patient's MS symptoms resolved completely after starting combination antiretroviral therapy and remain subsided for more than 12?years. Authors hypothesised that because the pathogenesis of MS has been linked to human endogenous retroviruses, antiretroviral therapy for HIV may be coincidentally treating or preventing progression of MS. This led researchers from Denmark to conduct an epidemiological study on the incidence of MS in a newly diagnosed HIV population (5018 HIV cases compared with 50?149 controls followed for 31?875 and 393?871 person-years, respectively). The incidence rate ratio for an HIV patient acquiring MS was low at 0.3 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.20) but did not reach statistical significance possibly due to the relatively small numbers in both groups. Our study was designed to further investigate the possible association between HIV and MS.
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Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112.
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A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.
Biodivers Data J
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.
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Breast cancer mortality trends in England and the assessment of the effectiveness of mammography screening: population-based study.
J R Soc Med
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To investigate whether mortality statistics show an effect of mammographic screening on population-based breast cancer mortality in England.
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Oral contraceptive use and cancer: final report from the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study.
Contraception
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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This analysis provides the final results on cancer incidence in relation to oral contraceptive (OC) use from the Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study, which closed at the end of 2010. An additional 6 years of observation have been added since our last report and there has been an increase in the numbers of cancers of over 50% at seven of the sites considered.
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Epidemiology of hospitalised osteochondritis dissecans in young people: Incidence, geographical variation and trends over time in England from 2002 to 2010.
Knee
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is an important cause of knee pain in physically active adolescents, but its aetiology remains controversial. Modern data on its epidemiology are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyse the hospitalised incidence, age and sex distribution, trends over time and geographical variation in OCD in the whole of England.
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Time trends over five decades, and recent geographical variation, in rates of childhood squint surgery in England.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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To study trends in rates of childhood squint surgery in England over five decades, and to study recent geographical variation in England.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the gall-forming fly, Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates (Diptera: Fergusoninidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The monogeneric family Fergusoninidae consists of gall-forming flies that, together with Fergusobia (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae) nematodes, form the only known mutualistic association between insects and nematodes. In this study, the entire 16,000 bp mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina taylori Nelson and Yeates was sequenced. The circular genome contains one encoding region including 27 genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. The arrangement of the protein-coding, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) genes was the same as that found in the ancestral insect. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased. All of the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for nad1 which begins with TTT. All 22 tRNA anticodons of F. taylori match those observed in Drosophila yakuba, and all form the typical cloverleaf structure except for tRNA-Ser((AGN)) which lacks a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. Secondary structural features of the rRNA genes of Fergusonina are similar to those proposed for other insects, with minor modifications. The mitochondrial genome of Fergusonina presented here may prove valuable for resolving the sister group to the Fergusoninidae, and expands the available mtDNA data sources for acalyptrates overall.
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Overcoming the effects of rogue taxa: Evolutionary relationships of the bee flies.
PLoS Curr
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Bombyliidae (5000 sp.), or bee flies, are a lower brachyceran family of flower-visiting flies that, as larvae, act as parasitoids of other insects. The evolutionary relationships are known from a morphological analysis that yielded minimal support for higher-level groupings. We use the protein-coding gene CAD and 28S rDNA to determine phylogeny and to test the monophyly of existing subfamilies, the divisions Tomophtalmae, and the sand chamber subfamilies. Additionally, we demonstrate that consensus networks can be used to identify rogue taxa in a Bayesian framework. Pruning rogue taxa post-analysis from the final tree distribution results in increased posterior probabilities. We find 8 subfamilies to be monophyletic and the subfamilies Heterotropinae and Mythicomyiinae to be the earliest diverging lineages. The large subfamily Bombyliinae is found to be polyphyletic and our data does not provide evidence for the monophyly of Tomophthalmae or the sand chamber subfamilies.
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Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms, yet recent research has suggested that fly relationships have been obscured by multiple episodes of rapid diversification. We provide a phylogenomic estimate of fly relationships based on molecules and morphology from 149 of 157 families, including 30 kb from 14 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes combined with 371 morphological characters. Multiple analyses show support for traditional groups (Brachycera, Cyclorrhapha, and Schizophora) and corroborate contentious findings, such as the anomalous Deuterophlebiidae as the sister group to all remaining Diptera. Our findings reveal that the closest relatives of the Drosophilidae are highly modified parasites (including the wingless Braulidae) of bees and other insects. Furthermore, we use micro-RNAs to resolve a node with implications for the evolution of embryonic development in Diptera. We demonstrate that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation--lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma), and Schizophora (65 Ma)--and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy, and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y.
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Risk of venous thromboembolism in people admitted to hospital with selected immune-mediated diseases: record-linkage study.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after a hospital admission. Although it is mainly considered a complication of surgery, it often occurs in people who have not undergone surgery, with recent evidence suggesting that immune-mediated diseases may play a role in VTE risk. We, therefore, decided to study the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in people admitted to hospital with a range of immune-mediated diseases.
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Trends in corneal graft surgery in the UK.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2010
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The aims of this study were to examine trends over time and regional variation in rates of corneal graft surgery in the UK.
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A multigene phylogeny of the fly superfamily Asiloidea (Insecta): Taxon sampling and additional genes reveal the sister-group to all higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Asiloidea are a group of 9 lower brachyceran fly families, considered to be the closest relative to the large Metazoan radiation Eremoneura (Cyclorrhapha+Empidoidea). The evidence for asiloid monophyly is limited, and few characters define the relationships between the families of Asiloidea and Eremoneura. Additionally, enigmatic genera, Hilarimorpha and Apystomyia, retain morphological characters of both asiloids and higher flies. We use the nuclear protein-coding gene CAD and 28S rDNA to test the monophyly of Asiloidea and to resolve its relationship to Eremoneura. We explore the effects of taxon sampling on support values and topological stability, the resolving power of additional genes, and hypothesis testing using four-cluster likelihood mapping. We find that: (1) the asiloid genus Apystomyia is sister to Cyclorrhapha, (2) the remaining asiloids are monophyletic at the exclusion of the family Bombyliidae, and (3) our best estimate of relationships places the asiloid flies excluding Bombyliidae as the sister-group to Eremoneura, though high support is lacking.
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Factors affecting mortality in a large cohort study with special reference to oral contraceptive use.
Contraception
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2010
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This analysis updates mortality in the Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study, with emphasis on oral contraceptive (OC) use.
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Head and other physical trauma requiring hospitalisation is not a significant risk factor in the development of ALS.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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The pathogenesis of ALS is not fully understood but, as an overwhelmingly sporadic disorder, it is likely to result from a complex mixture of polygenic and environmental risk factors operating in the context of an ageing nervous system. Physical trauma, in particular head injury, has been variably associated with both Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease, and largely discounted in relation to multiple sclerosis. Several case-control studies in ALS have reported an association with physical trauma or head injury, but such studies are greatly limited by recall bias. The Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS) includes brief statistical abstracts of records of all hospital admissions, including day cases, and all deaths for a defined region of UK National Health Service hospitals. We used ORLS spanning a 36year period to study the relationship between recorded head, upper and lower limb trauma both before and after a diagnosis of ALS. Overall the adjusted rate ratio for ALS after head injury, compared with a control group, was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.1); but this elevation of risk was only found within the first year after injury, and we speculate that this is most likely to be a consequence of incipient ALS causing a tendency to fall. We conclude that there is no association between antecedent injury requiring hospitalisation, and the later development of ALS. The high risk of head injury observed in the immediate post-diagnosis period may be amenable to primary prevention.
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Cancer in patients with motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons disease: record linkage studies.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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To determine the risk of cancer before and after the diagnosis of motor neuron disease (MND), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Parkinsons disease (PD).
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Single-copy nuclear genes resolve the phylogeny of the holometabolous insects.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Evolutionary relationships among the 11 extant orders of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, called Holometabola, remain either unresolved or contentious, but are extremely important as a context for accurate comparative biology of insect model organisms. The most phylogenetically enigmatic holometabolan insects are Strepsiptera or twisted wing parasites, whose evolutionary relationship to any other insect order is unconfirmed. They have been controversially proposed as the closest relatives of the flies, based on rDNA, and a possible homeotic transformation in the common ancestor of both groups that would make the reduced forewings of Strepsiptera homologous to the reduced hindwings of Diptera. Here we present evidence from nucleotide sequences of six single-copy nuclear protein coding genes used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate evolutionary divergence times for all holometabolan orders.
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Some minor female reproductive system disorders: findings in the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study.
J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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The Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study has provided information on many serious diseases of the female reproductive tract. No information has been published about a number of common minor conditions. This report fills the gap with regard to uterine polyp, cervicitis, cervical erosion, and vaginitis and vulvitis.
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Trends in rates of primary angle closure glaucoma and cataract surgery in England from 1968 to 2004.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Eyes that are predisposed to primary angle closure usually have a shallow anterior chamber secondary to a relatively forward position of the lens and progressive lens thickening with ageing. The aim of this study was to examine trends over time in rates of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in England, and to compare these rates with rates of cataract surgery.
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Kawasaki disease in England: ethnicity, deprivation, and respiratory pathogens.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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Kawasaki disease is now the commonest cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United Kingdom. Its incidence has increased in recent years. Epidemiologic analyses have provided insights into the possible etiology, but European data are scarce.
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Seven new Australian species of the southern hemisphere horse fly subgenus Scaptia (Pseudoscione) (Diptera: Tabanidae), including descriptions and a revised key.
J. Med. Entomol.
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Horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are ecologically important pollinators and vectors of many disease-causing organisms, as adult females are known to mechanically transfer multiple disease agents during feeding affecting humans, livestock, and many native mammals. Scaptia (Pseudoscione) Lutz in Lutz, Araujo, & Fonseca 1918 has the widest distribution of all genera in the tribe Scionini, occurring in Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and South America. Seven new species of Australian S. (Pseudoscione) are described and included in an updated key to the subgenus. The new species are: S. (Pseudoscione) baylessi sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) casseli sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) mackerrasi sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) moritae sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) turcatelae sp. nov. Lessard, S. (Pseudoscione) turneri sp. nov. Lessard, and S. (Pseudoscione) wiegmanni sp. nov. Lessard. In addition, S. (Pseudoscione) occidentalis Mackerras, 1960, previously described as a subspecies, has been raised to species level. One new species significantly extends the known distribution of Scaptia into central Australia, >1,200 km NW from the nearest recorded species within the subgenus.
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Association between cholecystectomy and intestinal cancer: a national record linkage study.
Ann. Surg.
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To investigate the risk of intestinal cancer in a cohort of people who had undergone cholecystectomy for gallstones, and in a cohort of people who had been hospitalized for gallbladder disease but had not undergone cholecystectomy.
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Beyond barcoding: a mitochondrial genomics approach to molecular phylogenetics and diagnostics of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).
Gene
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Members of the Calliphoridae (blowflies) are significant for medical and veterinary management, due to the ability of some species to consume living flesh as larvae, and for forensic investigations due to the ability of others to develop in corpses. Due to the difficulty of accurately identifying larval blowflies to species there is a need for DNA-based diagnostics for this family, however the widely used DNA-barcoding marker, cox1, has been shown to fail for several groups within this family. Additionally, many phylogenetic relationships within the Calliphoridae are still unresolved, particularly deeper level relationships. Sequencing whole mt genomes has been demonstrated both as an effective method for identifying the most informative diagnostic markers and for resolving phylogenetic relationships. Twenty-seven complete, or nearly so, mt genomes were sequenced representing 13 species, seven genera and four calliphorid subfamilies and a member of the related family Tachinidae. PCR and sequencing primers developed for sequencing one calliphorid species could be reused to sequence related species within the same superfamily with success rates ranging from 61% to 100%, demonstrating the speed and efficiency with which an mt genome dataset can be assembled. Comparison of molecular divergences for each of the 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, at a range of taxonomic scales identified novel targets for developing as diagnostic markers which were 117-200% more variable than the markers which have been used previously in calliphorids. Phylogenetic analysis of whole mt genome sequences resulted in much stronger support for family and subfamily-level relationships. The Calliphoridae are polyphyletic, with the Polleninae more closely related to the Tachinidae, and the Sarcophagidae are the sister group of the remaining calliphorids. Within the Calliphoridae, there was strong support for the monophyly of the Chrysomyinae and Luciliinae and for the sister-grouping of Luciliinae with Calliphorinae. Relationships within Chrysomya were not well resolved. Whole mt genome data, supported the previously demonstrated paraphyly of Lucilia cuprina with respect to L. sericata and allowed us to conclude that it is due to hybrid introgression prior to the last common ancestor of modern sericata populations, rather than due to recent hybridisation, nuclear pseudogenes or incomplete lineage sorting.
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Uveal melanoma in England: trends over time and geographical variation.
Br J Ophthalmol
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Uveal melanoma is the commonest primary intraocular malignancy in adults, and leads to death in approximately half of patients. The aim was to report on trends over time and geographical variation in rates of uveal melanoma in England.
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Sex ratio of infectious mononucleosis and possible relevance to multiple sclerosis.
Mult. Scler.
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Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is associated with the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Using databases of hospital admissions for England (1999-2005), we investigated the female-to-male ratios (FMRs) for admission to hospital for IM and MS stratified by age. Males were more frequently admitted for IM for all age groups apart from ages 10-14 (FMR 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.64) and, borderline significantly, at ages 15-19 (FMR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08). This intriguing aspect of IM epidemiology in adolescence, the atypical female excess, may be linked to the sex ratio of MS, where females predominate from adolescence.
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A molecular phylogeny for the Tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae): systematic and biogeographic implications.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
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With well over 700 species, the Tribe Dacini is one of the most species-rich clades within the dipteran family Tephritidae, the true fruit flies. Nearly all Dacini belong to one of two very large genera, Dacus Fabricius and Bactrocera Macquart. The distribution of the genera overlap in or around the Indian subcontinent, but the greatest diversity of Dacus is in Africa and the greatest diversity of Bactrocera is in south-east Asia and the Pacific. The monophyly of these two genera has not been rigorously established, with previous phylogenies only including a small number of species and always heavily biased to one genus over the other. Moreover, the subgeneric taxonomy within both genera is complex and the monophyly of many subgenera has not been explicitly tested. Previous hypotheses about the biogeography of the Dacini based on morphological reviews and current distributions of taxa have invoked an out-of-India hypothesis; however this has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We attempted to resolve these issues with a dated, molecular phylogeny of 125 Dacini species generated using 16S, COI, COII and white eye genes. The phylogeny shows that Bactrocera is not monophyletic, but rather consists of two major clades: Bactrocera s.s. and the Zeugodacus group of subgenera (a recognised, but informal taxonomic grouping of 15 Bactrocera subgenera). This Zeugodacus clade is the sister group to Dacus, not Bactrocera and, based on current distributions, split from Dacus before that genus moved into Africa. We recommend that taxonomic consideration be given to raising Zeugodacus to genus level. Supportive of predictions following from the out-of-India hypothesis, the first common ancestor of the Dacini arose in the mid-Cretaceous approximately 80mya. Major divergence events occurred during the Indian rafting period and diversification of Bactrocera apparently did not begin until after India docked with Eurasia (50-35mya). In contrast, diversification in Dacus, at approximately 65mya, apparently began much earlier than predicted by the out-of-India hypothesis, suggesting that, if the Dacini arose on the Indian plate, then ancestral Dacus may have left the plate in the mid to late Cretaceous via the well documented India-Madagascar-Africa migration route. We conclude that the phylogeny does not disprove the predictions of an out-of-India hypothesis for the Dacini, although modification of the original hypothesis is required.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga impatiens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
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Approximately 2500 fly species comprise the Sarcophagidae family worldwide. The complete mitochondrial genome of the carrion-breeding, forensically important Sarcophaga impatiens Walker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from Australia was sequenced. The 15,169 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. It also contains one non-coding A þ T-rich region. The arrangement of the genes was the same as that found in the ancestral insect. All the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for cox1 that begins with TCG (encoding S). The 22 tRNA anticodons of S. impatiens are consistent with those observed in Drosophila yakuba, and all form the typical cloverleaf structure, except for tRNA-Ser((AGN)) that lacks the DHU arm. The mitochondrial genome of Sarcophaga presented will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and the order Diptera, and could be used to identify favourable genetic markers for species identifications for forensic purposes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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