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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical and laboratory findings of the first imported case of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus to the United States.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was discovered September 2012 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The first US case of MERS-CoV was confirmed on 2 May 2014.
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First confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States, updated information on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities - May 2014.
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Since mid-March 2014, the frequency with which cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection have been reported has increased, with the majority of recent cases reported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the frequency with which travel-associated MERS cases have been reported and the number of countries that have reported them to the World Health Organization (WHO) have also increased. The first case of MERS in the United States, identified in a traveler recently returned from Saudi Arabia, was reported to CDC by the Indiana State Department of Health on May 1, 2014, and confirmed by CDC on May 2. A second imported case of MERS in the United States, identified in a traveler from Saudi Arabia having no connection with the first case, was reported to CDC by the Florida Department of Health on May 11, 2014. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians, health officials, and others to increase awareness of the need to consider MERS-CoV infection in persons who have recently traveled from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula. This report summarizes recent epidemiologic information, provides preliminary descriptions of the cases reported from Indiana and Florida, and updates CDC guidance about patient evaluation, home care and isolation, specimen collection, and travel as of May 13, 2014.
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Hospital-associated outbreak of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a serologic, epidemiologic, and clinical description.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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In April 2012, the Jordan Ministry of Health investigated an outbreak of lower respiratory illnesses at a hospital in Jordan; 2 fatal cases were retrospectively confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to be the first detected cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV).
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Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. J. Med. Virol. 86:2177????2180, 2014. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
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A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus infections.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Serologic diagnosis of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections has been shown to complement virus detection methods in epidemiologic studies. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ?4-fold rises in antibody titer between acute and convalescent serum pairs. In this study, hRSV and hMPV nucleocapsid (recN) proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system and their performance compared with virus culture lysate antigen in EIAs using paired serum specimens collected from symptomatic children. The recN proteins were also used to develop a duplex assay based on the Luminex microbead-based suspension array technology, where diagnostic rises in antibody levels could be determined simultaneously at a single serum dilution. Antibody levels measured by the recN and viral lysate EIAs correlated moderately (hRSV, r(2)=0.72; hMPV, r(2)=0.76); the recN EIAs identified correctly 35 of 37 (94.6%) and 48 of 50 (96%) serum pairs showing diagnostic antibody rises by viral lysate EIAs. Purified recN proteins were then coupled to microbeads and serum pairs were tested at a single dilution on a Luminex MAGPIX(®) analyzer. The duplex recN assay identified correctly 33 of 39 (85%) and 41 of 47 (86.7%) serum pairs showing diagnostic rises to hRSV and hMPV, respectively. The recN assay permits simultaneous testing for acute hRSV and hMPV infections and offers a platform for expanded multiplexing of other respiratory virus assays.
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Viruses associated with acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness among outpatients from the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010-2011.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Background.?The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) monitored outpatient acute respiratory infection (ARI) and influenza like illness (ILI) to determine the incidence and contribution of associated viral etiologies.Methods.?From August 2010 through July 2011, 57 outpatient healthcare providers with enumerated patient populations in 12 US sites reported weekly the number of ILI and ARI (> 2 respiratory symptoms not meeting ILI criteria) visits and collected respiratory specimens on a subset for viral testing. Incidence was estimated using number of patients in the practice as the denominator, and virus-specific incidence was extrapolated from the proportion of patients testing positive.Results.?The age-adjusted annual incidence of outpatient visits for ARI and ILI combined was 95/1,000 population, with a viral etiology identified in 58% of specimens. Most frequently detected were rhinoviruses/enteroviruses (RV/EV) and influenza (21% each), resulting in an extrapolated incidence of 20 and 19/1,000 population, respectively. The influenza incidence was highest among patients aged 2 to 17 years, while other viruses had varied patterns among age groups.Conclusions.?The IISP provides a unique opportunity to estimate outpatient respiratory illness burden by etiology. Influenza and RV/EV infections represent a substantial burden of respiratory disease in the US outpatient setting, particularly among children.
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Hospitalizations for acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in Thailand, 2008-2011.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Background.?Few population-based estimates of the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in low- or middle-income countries are available. We describe the incidence and epidemiology of hospitalizations for RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) detected by active population-based surveillance in 2 rural Thailand provinces during 2008-2011. Methods.?Patients hospitalized with ALRI were systematically sampled. Consenting patients provided nasopharyngeal swab specimens for RSV testing by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results.?Of 13 982 enrolled patients hospitalized with ALRI, 1137 (8.1%) were RSV positive. After adjustment for sampling and nonenrollment, the incidence of RSV-associated ALRI hospitalization was 85 cases per 100 000 persons/year. The highest rates occurred among children aged <5 years (981 cases per 100 000 persons/year) and <1 year (1543 cases per 100 000 persons/year). Rates were low among older children and young adults but high among persons aged >65 years (130 cases per 100 000 persons/year). Eight (0.7%) RSV-infected study patients died during hospitalization. Annual RSV hospitalizations peaked during July-October with almost no documented RSV hospitalizations during January-June. Conclusions.?Our findings demonstrate the substantial contribution of RSV to global ALRI burden, especially in children aged <5 years and the elderly, and underscore the urgent need for effective prevention measures.
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Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay Panel for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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A new human coronavirus (CoV), subsequently named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. In response, we developed two real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the MERS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) gene and evaluated these assays as a panel with a previously published assay targeting the region upstream of the MERS-CoV envelope gene (upE) for the detection and confirmation of MERS-CoV infection. All assays detected ?10 copies/reaction of quantified RNA transcripts, with a linear dynamic range of 8 log units and 1.3 × 10(-3) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml of cultured MERS-CoV per reaction. All assays performed comparably with respiratory, serum, and stool specimens spiked with cultured virus. No false-positive amplifications were obtained with other human coronaviruses or common respiratory viral pathogens or with 336 diverse clinical specimens from non-MERS-CoV cases; specimens from two confirmed MERS-CoV cases were positive with all assay signatures. In June 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized emergency use of the rRT-PCR assay panel as an in vitro diagnostic test for MERS-CoV. A kit consisting of the three assay signatures and a positive control was assembled and distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally to support MERS-CoV surveillance and public health responses.
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Rates of respiratory virus-associated hospitalization in children aged <5 years in rural northern India.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Though respiratory viruses are thought to cause substantial morbidity globally in children aged <5 years, the incidence of severe respiratory virus infections in children is unknown in India where 20% of the worlds children live.
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Viruses detected among sporadic cases of parotitis, United States, 2009-2011.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Background.?Sporadic cases of parotitis are generally assumed to be mumps, which often requires a resource-intensive public health response. This project surveyed the frequency of viruses detected among such cases. Methods.?During 2009-2011, 8 jurisdictions throughout the United States investigated sporadic cases of parotitis. Epidemiologic information, serum, and buccal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected. Polymerase chain reaction methods were used to detect a panel of viruses. Anti-mumps virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were detected using a variety of methods. Results.?Of 101 specimens, 38 were positive for a single virus: Epstein-Barr virus (23), human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B (10), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)-2 (3), HPIV-3 (1), and human bocavirus (1). Mumps virus, enteroviruses (including human parechovirus), HHV-6A, HPIV-1, and adenoviruses were not detected. Early specimen collection did not improve viral detection rate. Mumps IgM was detected in 17% of available specimens. Patients in whom a virus was detected were younger, but no difference was seen by sex or vaccination profile. No seasonal patterns were identified. Conclusions.?Considering the timing of specimen collection, serology results, patient vaccination status, and time of year may be helpful in assessing the likelihood that a sporadic case of parotitis without laboratory confirmation is mumps.
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Cell culture and electron microscopy for identifying viruses in diseases of unknown cause.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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During outbreaks of infectious diseases or in cases of severely ill patients, it is imperative to identify the causative agent. This report describes several events in which virus isolation and identification by electron microscopy were critical to initial recognition of the etiologic agent, which was further analyzed by additional laboratory diagnostic assays. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Nipah, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, West Nile, Cache Valley, and Heartland viruses. These cases illustrate the importance of the techniques of cell culture and electron microscopy in pathogen identification and recognition of emerging diseases.
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Transcriptional adaptation of pneumococci and human pharyngeal cells in the presence of a virus infection.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Viral upper respiratory tract infections are associated with increased colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study is to describe a comprehensive picture of the cellular interaction between the adhering bacteria and host cells in the presence or absence of a viral co-infection.
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A novel adenovirus species associated with an acute respiratory outbreak in a baboon colony and evidence of coincident human infection.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Adenoviruses (AdVs) are DNA viruses that infect many vertebrate hosts, including humans and nonhuman primates. Here we identify a novel AdV species, provisionally named "simian adenovirus C (SAdV-C)," associated with a 1997 outbreak of acute respiratory illness in captive baboons (4 of 9) at a primate research facility in Texas. None of the six AdVs recovered from baboons (BaAdVs) during the outbreak, including the two baboons who died from pneumonia, were typeable. Since clinical samples from the two fatal cases were not available, whole-genome sequencing of nasal isolates from one sick baboon and three asymptomatic baboons during the outbreak was performed. Three AdVs were members of species SAdV-C (BaAdV-2 and BaAdV-4 were genetically identical, and BaAdV-3), while one (BaAdV-1) was a member of the recently described SAdV-B species. BaAdV-3 was the only AdV among the 4 isolated from a sick baboon, and thus was deemed to be the cause of the outbreak. Significant divergence (<58% amino acid identity) was found in one of the fiber proteins of BaAdV-3 relative to BaAdV-2 and -4, suggesting that BaAdV-3 may be a rare SAdV-C recombinant. Neutralizing antibodies to the other 3 AdVs, but not BaAdV-3, were detected in healthy baboons from 1996 to 2003 and staff personnel from 1997. These results implicate a novel adenovirus species (SAdV-C) in an acute respiratory outbreak in a baboon colony and underscore the potential for cross-species transmission of AdVs between humans and nonhuman primates. IMPORTANCE Adenoviruses (AdVs) are DNA viruses that infect many animals, including humans and monkeys. In 1997, an outbreak of acute respiratory illness from AdVs occurred in a baboon colony in Texas. Here we use whole-genome sequencing and antibody testing to investigate new AdVs in baboons (BaAdVs) during the outbreak, one of which, BaAdV-3, came from a sick animal. By sequence analysis, BaAdV-3 may be a recombinant strain that arose from a related BaAdV found in baboons nearby in the colony (who were not sick) and yet another unknown AdV. We also found antibodies to these new BaAdVs in baboons and staff personnel at the facility. Taken together, our findings of a new AdV species as the cause of an acute respiratory outbreak in a baboon colony underscore the ongoing threat from emerging viruses that may carry the potential for cross-species transmission between monkeys and humans.
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Association of the CT values of real-time PCR of viral upper respiratory tract infection with clinical severity, Kenya.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay of the upper respiratory tract is used increasingly to diagnose lower respiratory tract infections. The cycle threshold (CT ) values of qRT-PCR are continuous, semi-quantitative measurements of viral load, although interpretation of diagnostic qRT-PCR results are often categorized as positive, indeterminate, or negative, obscuring potentially useful clinical interpretation of CT values. From 2008 to 2010, naso/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness, inpatients with severe respiratory illness, and asymptomatic controls in rural Kenya. CT values of positive specimens (i.e., CT values?
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Case report: severe disseminated adenovirus infection in a neonate following water birth delivery.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Adenovirus infections are a common cause of respiratory and enteric illnesses of late infancy and childhood. In neonates, adenovirus infections are rare, carrying a high morbidity and mortality rate. We present a case of infant who developed severe pneumonia and disseminated adenoviral infection following water birth delivery to a mother with gastroenteritis. The infants infection was due to an adenovirus strain that has not been previously reported in neonates.
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Field evaluation of TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for the simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory infection.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Multipathogen reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) platforms have proven useful in surveillance for acute respiratory illness (ARI) and study of respiratory outbreaks of unknown etiology. The TaqMan(®) Array Card (TAC, Life Technologies™), can simultaneously test 7 clinical specimens for up to 21 individual pathogens (depending on arrangement of controls and use of duplicate wells) by arrayed singleplex RT-qPCR on a single assay card, using minimal amounts of clinical specimens. A previous study described the development of TAC for the detection of respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens; the assay was evaluated against well-characterized analytical materials and a limited collection of human clinical specimens.
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Quantitative real-time PCR assay panel for detection and type-specific identification of epidemic respiratory human adenoviruses.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Outbreaks of human adenovirus (HAdV) acute respiratory illness (ARI) have been well documented among civilians and unvaccinated military recruits. Among the 7 recognized HAdV species (A to G), species B (particularly serotypes 3, 7, 11, 14, and 21) and E (serotype 4) have more often been associated with epidemic ARI. Rapid detection and type-specific identification of these viruses would enhance outbreak response and help guide prevention and control measures. To this end, we developed type-specific real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for HAdV types 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 16, and 21 targeting the HAdV hexon gene. All type-specific qPCR assays reproducibly detected as few as 10 copies/reaction of quantified hexon recombinant plasmids with a linear dynamic range of 8 log units (10(1) to 10(8) copies); in contrast, a generic qPCR assay that detects all HAdV types run concurrently detected between 10 and 100 copies/reaction, depending on the virus type. No nonspecific amplifications were observed with concentrated nucleic acid from 51 HAdV prototype strains or other common respiratory pathogens. All members of a panel of 137 previously typed HAdV field isolates and positive clinical specimens were correctly characterized by the type-specific qPCR assays; two different HAdV types were detected in three of the clinical specimens and confirmed by amplicon sequencing. The qPCR assays permit sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection and identification of seven clinically important respiratory HAdVs and should provide a convenient adjunct to classical typing methods for a rapid response to HAdV outbreaks.
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Response to rhinovirus infection by human airway epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in an in vitro two-chamber tissue culture system.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are associated with the common cold, occasionally with more serious lower respiratory tract illnesses, and frequently with asthma exacerbations. The clinical features of HRV infection and its association with asthma exacerbation suggest that some HRV disease results from virus-induced host immune responses to infection. To study the HRV-infection-induced host responses and the contribution of these responses to disease, we have developed an in vitro model of HRV infection of human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) and subsequent exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to these infected cells in a two-chamber trans-well tissue culture system. Using this model, we studied HRV 14 (species B) and HRV 16 (species A) induced cytokine and chemokine responses with PBMCs from four healthy adults. Infection of Calu-3 cells with either virus induced HRV-associated increases in FGF-Basic, IL-15, IL-6, IL-28A, ENA-78 and IP-10. The addition of PBMCs to HRV 14-infected cells gave significant increases in MIP-1?, IL-28A, MCP-2, and IFN-? as compared with mock-infected cells. Interestingly, ENA-78 levels were reduced in HRV 14 infected cells that were exposed to PBMCs. Addition of PBMCs to HRV 16-infected cells did not induce MIP-1?, IL-28A and IFN-? efficiently nor did it decrease ENA-78 levels. Our results demonstrate a clear difference between HRV 14 and HRV 16 and the source of PBMCs, in up or down regulation of several cytokines including those that are linked to airway inflammation. Such differences might be one of the reasons for variation in disease associated with different HRV species including variation in their link to asthma exacerbations as suggested by other studies. Further study of immune responses associated with different HRVs and PBMCs from different patient groups, and the mechanisms leading to these differences, should help characterize pathogenesis of HRV disease and generate novel approaches to its treatment.
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Deaths associated with human adenovirus-14p1 infections, Europe, 2009-2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Human adenovirus (HAdV) serotype 14 is rarely identified. However, an emerging variant, termed HAdV-14p1, recently has been described in the United States in association with outbreaks of acute respiratory disease with high rates of illness and death. We retrospectively analyzed specimens confirmed positive for HAdV by immunofluorescence, virus culture, or real-time PCR during July 1, 2009-July 31, 2010, and describe 9 cases of HAdV-14p1 infection with characteristic mutations in the fiber and E1A genes that are phylogenetically indistinguishable from the viruses previously detected in the United States. Three patients died; 2 were immunocompromised, and 1 was an immunocompetent adult. We propose that surveillance should be increased for HAdV-14p1 and recommend that this virus be considered in the differential diagnosis of sudden-onset acute respiratory disease, particularly fatal infections, for which an etiology is not clear.
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A naturally occurring human adenovirus type 7 variant with a 1743 bp deletion in the E3 cassette.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV-7) is an important cause of acute respiratory disease (ARD). Different genomic variants of HAdV-7 have been described, designated 7a-7l. In a previous study to investigate risk factors for ARD and wheezing, nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 90 ill children seeking medical attention in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. HAdVs were identified in 31 samples and were characterized by serum neutralization and genome restriction analysis. Eleven HAdVs were identified as being HAdV-7, five of which were classified as being of genome type 7p (Gomen). Six other HAdV-7 isolates gave new restriction profiles with all enzymes used and were classified as being a new genomic variant, 7m. These isolates were further characterized by sequencing. The hexon and fiber genes of the 7m variant were nearly identical to the prototype, 7p. However, nucleotide sequences from the E3 cassette revealed a 1743 bp deletion affecting the 16.1K, 19K, 20.1K and 20.5K ORFs.
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Application of TaqMan low-density arrays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory pathogens.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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The large and growing number of viral and bacterial pathogens responsible for respiratory infections poses a challenge for laboratories seeking to provide rapid and comprehensive pathogen identification. We evaluated a novel application of the TaqMan low-density array (TLDA) cards for real-time PCR detection of 21 respiratory-pathogen targets. The performance of the TLDA was compared to that of individual real-time PCR (IRTP) assays with the same primers and probes using (i) nucleic acids extracted from the 21 pathogen strains and 66 closely related viruses and bacteria and (ii) 292 clinical respiratory specimens. With spiked samples, TLDA cards were about 10-fold less sensitive than IRTP assays. By using 292 clinical specimens to generate 2,238 paired individual assays, the TLDA card exhibited 89% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 92%; range per target, 47 to 100%) and 98% specificity (95% CI, 97 to 99%; range per target, 85 to 100%) overall compared to IRTP assays as the gold standard with a threshold cycle (C(T)) cutoff of 43. The TLDA card approach offers promise for rapid and simultaneous identification of multiple respiratory pathogens for outbreak investigations and disease surveillance.
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Comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for the diagnosis of eight respiratory viruses by real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Many acute respiratory illness surveillance systems collect and test nasopharyngeal (NP) and/or oropharyngeal (OP) swab specimens, yet there are few studies assessing the relative measures of performance for NP versus OP specimens.
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Virus detection and duration of illness among patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Texas.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Knowledge from early outbreaks is limited regarding the virus detection and illness duration of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infections. During the period from April to May 2009 in Texas, we collected serial nasopharyngeal (NP) and stool specimens from 35 participants, testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and culture. The participants were aged 2 months to 71 years; 25 (71%) were under 18. The median duration of measured fever was 3.0 days and of virus detection in NP specimens was 4.2 days; however, few specimens were collected between days 5-9. The duration of virus detection (4.2 days) was similar to the duration of fever (3.5 days) (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, .66-1.95; P =?.8), but was shorter than the duration of cough (11.0 days) (RR, .41; 95% CI, .24-.68; P
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The burden of hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in rural Thailand.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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We describe the epidemiology of hospitalized RSV infections for all age groups from population-based surveillance in two rural provinces in Thailand.
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Comparison of commercial systems for extraction of nucleic acids from DNA/RNA respiratory pathogens.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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This study compared six automated nucleic acid extraction systems and one manual kit for their ability to recover nucleic acids from human nasal wash specimens spiked with five respiratory pathogens, representing Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Legionella pneumophila), DNA viruses (adenovirus), segmented RNA viruses (human influenza virus A), and non-segmented RNA viruses (respiratory syncytial virus). The robots and kit evaluated represent major commercially available methods that are capable of simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from respiratory specimens, and included platforms based on magnetic-bead technology (KingFisher mL, Biorobot EZ1, easyMAG, KingFisher Flex, and MagNA Pure Compact) or glass fiber filter technology (Biorobot MDX and the manual kit Allprep). All methods yielded extracts free of cross-contamination and RT-PCR inhibition. All automated systems recovered L. pneumophila and adenovirus DNA equivalently. However, the MagNA Pure protocol demonstrated more than 4-fold higher DNA recovery from the S. pyogenes than other methods. The KingFisher mL and easyMAG protocols provided 1- to 3-log wider linearity and extracted 3- to 4-fold more RNA from the human influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. These findings suggest that systems differed in nucleic acid recovery, reproducibility, and linearity in a pathogen specific manner.
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Outbreak of pneumonia associated with emergent human adenovirus serotype 14--Southeast Alaska, 2008.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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In September 2008, an outbreak of pneumonia associated with an emerging human adenovirus (human adenovirus serotype 14 [HAdV-14]) occurred on a rural Southeast Alaska island. Nine patients required hospitalization, and 1 patient died.
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Outbreak of adenovirus type 4 infection in a long-term care facility for the elderly.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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An outbreak of acute respiratory disease due to human adenovirus and a resulting increase in mortality occurred in a long-term care facility for the elderly. By use of viral culture and polymerase chain reaction, not a rapid antigen test, the virus was detected. Human adenovirus infection can occur in elderly individuals, but detection by rapid antigen testing may be limited.
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Molecular epidemiology and brief history of emerging adenovirus 14-associated respiratory disease in the United States.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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First isolated in the Netherlands in 1955 during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among military recruits, human adenovirus 14 (HAdV-14) has historically been considered rare. With no precedent of circulation in North America, HAdV-14 has been isolated from military and civilian cases of ARD of variable severity since 2003 in the United States.
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Human bocavirus species 2 and 3 in Brazil.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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The newly described human bocavirus (HBoV) species 2 and 3 have been repeatedly detected in stool strengthening the possibility that these viruses might present a tropism for the gastrointestinal tract and may be etiological agents of diarrhea.
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Frequent detection of human adenovirus from the lower gastrointestinal tract in men who have sex with men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The association between baseline seropositivity to human adenovirus (HAdV) type 5 and increased HIV acquisition in the Step HIV Vaccine Study has raised questions concerning frequency of acquired and/or persistent Adenovirus infections among adults at high risk of HIV-1 infection.
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Health care transmission of a newly emergent adenovirus serotype in health care personnel at a military hospital in Texas, 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Adenoviruses can cause outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness in military trainees, but until 2007, adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) was never associated with such outbreaks. From April through June 2007, 15 trainees at one base were hospitalized for pneumonia due to Ad14. Subsequent reports of febrile respiratory illness among health care personnel suggested nosocomial transmission.
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Control of an outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3) infection can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are no standard guidelines for the prevention and control of HPIV3 in the outpatient setting. After 2 HSCT inpatients diagnosed with HPIV3 were noted to have had multiple recent HSCT outpatient clinic (OPC) visits, an investigation of policy and procedures in the HSCT OPC was undertaken, and active surveillance for respiratory viral illness was instituted in the at-risk HSCT population. Between July 19 and August 30, 2005, 13 patients were diagnosed with HPIV3 infection. Morbidity in affected patients was significant, and mortality was high (38.5%) and not affected by antiviral therapy. Molecular typing identified several genetically distinct groups of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of the 11 available isolates. Based on sequence relatedness among the isolates and the demographic and exposure history of the patients, in many of these cases HPIV3 infection likely was acquired in the HSCT OPC. The major infection control interventions were introduced between August 20 and August 24. An epidemic curve revealed that HPIV3 infection frequency peaked between August 17 and August 26, with no cases identified after August 30. Prompt attention and focus on infection control interventions were associated with a rapid decrease in the number of incident cases. Policies and procedures regarding patients with respiratory viral illnesses in HSCT OPC populations should be formulated and universally reinforced with HSCT clinic staff to prevent the spread of these infections.
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Evaluation of tetramethylrhodamine and black hole quencher 1 labeled probes and five commercial amplification mixes in TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays for respiratory pathogens.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) and black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1) quenched probes and five one-step RT-PCR kits were evaluated in TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of respiratory pathogens. The intra-assay variability of the BHQ1 probes were 1.2-2.8-fold lower than those of the TAMRA probes. All kits amplified the specific targets, but differed in their sensitivity by up to 3 orders of magnitude. The AgPath-ID kit provided the best overall performance for all assay targets.
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Novel respiratory virus infections in children, Brazil.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Recently discovered respiratory viruses were detected in 19 (9.2%) of 205 nasal swab specimens from children in Brazil with respiratory illnesses. Five each were positive for human metapneumovirus (HMPV) alone and human bocavirus (HBoV) alone, 3 for human coronaviruses (HCoV-HKU1 or -NL63) alone, and 6 for more than 1 recently discovered virus.
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Outbreak of severe respiratory disease associated with emergent human adenovirus serotype 14 at a US air force training facility in 2007.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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In 2007, a US Air Force training facility reported a cluster of severe respiratory illnesses associated with a rare human adenovirus (Ad) serotype, Ad14. We investigated this outbreak to better understand its epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and associated risk factors.
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A community-based outbreak of severe respiratory illness caused by human adenovirus serotype 14.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Human adenoviruses (Ads) typically cause mild illnesses in otherwise healthy hosts. We investigated a community-based outbreak that had substantial morbidity caused primarily by Ad14, an uncommon serotype.
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The burden of respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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The primary role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in causing infant hospitalizations is well recognized, but the total burden of RSV infection among young children remains poorly defined.
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Receptor usage of a newly emergent adenovirus type 14.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Recently, cases of severe respiratory illness in military and civilian populations have been associated with a new genomic variant of adenovirus (Ad) serotype 14, designated Ad14a. Compared to the Ad14 reference strain (de Wit), this new virus had a deletion of two amino acid residues in the fiber protein knob. Here we tested whether this mutation changed receptor usage of Ad14a compared to Ad14-de Wit. Competition studies with radio-labeled viruses revealed that both Ad14-de Wit and Ad14a used the same receptor which is hitherto unknown. We also found that recombinant fiber knobs only partially blocked attachment of Ad14a, indicating that virus capsid proteins other than the fiber are involved in infection.
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Parainfluenza virus infection of young children: estimates of the population-based burden of hospitalization.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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To determine the population-based inpatient disease burden of parainfluenza virus in children <5 years of age.
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Additional diagnostic yield of adding serology to PCR in diagnosing viral acute respiratory infections in Kenyan patients 5 years of age and older.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
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The role of serology in the setting of PCR-based diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) is unclear. We found that acute- and convalescent-phase paired-sample serologic testing increased the diagnostic yield of naso/oropharyngeal swabs for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses beyond PCR by 0.4% to 10.7%. Although still limited for clinical use, serology, along with PCR, can maximize etiologic diagnosis in epidemiologic studies.
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Comparison of fast-track diagnostics respiratory pathogens multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay with in-house singleplex assays for comprehensive detection of human respiratory viruses.
J. Virol. Methods
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Fast-track Diagnostics respiratory pathogens (FTDRP) multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay was compared with in-house singleplex real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of 16 common respiratory viruses. The FTDRP assay correctly identified 26 diverse respiratory virus strains, 35 of 41 (85%) external quality assessment samples spiked with cultured virus and 232 of 263 (88%) archived respiratory specimens that tested positive for respiratory viruses by in-house assays. Of 308 prospectively tested respiratory specimens selected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, 270 (87.7%) and 265 (86%) were positive by FTDRP and in-house assays for one or more viruses, respectively, with combined test results showing good concordance (K=0.812, 95% CI=0.786-0.838). Individual FTDRP assays for adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus showed the lowest comparative sensitivities with in-house assays, with most discrepancies occurring with specimens containing low virus loads and failed to detect some rhinovirus strains, even when abundant. The FTDRP enterovirus and human bocavirus assays appeared to be more sensitive than the in-house assays with some specimens. With the exceptions noted above, most FTDRP assays performed comparably with in-house assays for most viruses while offering enhanced throughput and easy integration by laboratories using conventional real-time PCR instrumentation.
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Hospitalization due to human parainfluenza virus-associated lower respiratory tract illness in rural Thailand.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are an important cause of acute respiratory illness in young children but little is known about their epidemiology in the tropics.
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Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011.
PLoS ONE
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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Outbreak of lower respiratory tract illness associated with human enterovirus 68 among American Indian children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Human enterovirus 68 (EV68) infections are rarely reported. We describe a respiratory outbreak associated with EV68 among 18 children admitted to a remote Indian Health Service facility during August 11, 2010 through September 14, 2010. Clinical illness was characterized by pneumonia and wheezing. EV68 should be considered as an etiology in outbreaks of lower respiratory tract illness.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.