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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of Vitamin E From Supplements and Diet on Colonic ?- and ?-tocopherol Concentrations in Persons at Increased Colon Cancer Risk.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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The available evidence indicates that ?-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than ?-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 mo. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was twofold higher than that from foods. Serum ?-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural ?-tocopherol from foods. For serum ?-tocopherol, dietary ?-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary ?-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both ?- and ?-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural ?-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of ?-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited.
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KRAS-G12C Mutation Is Associated with Poor Outcome in Surgically Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of KRAS mutant subtypes on the outcome of patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma (AC).
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Biomarkers for personalizing omega-3 fatty acid dosing.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been linked to a higher risk of colorectal cancer. PGE2 in colon tissue can be reduced by increasing dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The dose-dependent relationships between dietary EPA, serum EPA:arachidonate (AA) ratio, urinary PGE2 metabolites, and colonic eicosanoids were evaluated to develop biomarkers for prediction of colonic PGE2. Male rats were fed diets containing EPA:?6 fatty acid ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 for 5 weeks. Increasing the dietary EPA:?6 fatty acid ratio increased EPA:AA ratios in serum and in the proximal, transverse, and distal colon (P < 0.001). The urinary PGE2 metabolite was reduced (P = 0.006). EPA-rich diets reduced colonic tissue PGE2 concentrations by 58% to 66% and increased PGE3 by 19- to 28-fold. Other AA-derived eicosanoids were reduced by 35% to 83%. The changes were not linear, with the largest changes in eicosanoids observed with the lower doses. A mathematical model predicts colonic tissue eicosanoids from the EPA:AA ratio in serum and the EPA dose. Every 10% increase in serum EPA:AA was associated with a 2% decrease in the (geometric) mean of PGE2 in the distal colon. These mathematical relationships can now be applied to individualized EPA dosing in clinical trials.
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Pilot clinical study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a significant cause of mortality. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) and thus prostaglandin E2, are promising CRC preventives, but have significant toxicities. Ginger has been shown to inhibit COX, to decrease the incidence and multiplicity of adenomas, and decrease PGE2 concentrations in subjects at normal risk for CRC. This study was conducted to determine the effects of 2.0?g/d of ginger given orally on the levels of PGE2, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, & 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, in the colonic mucosa of subjects at increased risk for CRC. We randomized 20 subjects to 2.0?g/d ginger or placebo for 28 d. At baseline and Day 28, a flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per amount of protein or free arachidonic acid (AA). There was a significant decrease in AA between baseline and Day 28 (P?=?0.05) and significant increase in LTB4 (P?=?0.04) when normalized to protein, in subjects treated with ginger versus placebo. No other changes in eicosanoids were observed. There was no difference between the groups in total adverse events (AE; P?=?0.06). Ginger lacks the ability to decrease eicosanoid levels in people at increased risk for CRC. Ginger did appear to be both tolerable and safe; and could have chemopreventive effects through other mechanisms. Further investigation should focus on other markers of CRC risk in those at increased CRC risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Sulfate metabolites provide an intracellular pool for resveratrol generation and induce autophagy with senescence.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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The phytochemical resveratrol has been shown to exert numerous health benefits in preclinical studies, but its rapid metabolism and resulting poor bioavailability may limit translation of these effects to humans. Resveratrol metabolites might contribute to in vivo activity through regeneration of the parent compound. We present quantitation of sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of resveratrol in human plasma and tissue after repeated ingestion of resveratrol by volunteers and cancer patients, respectively. Subsequent pharmacokinetic characterization of a mixture of resveratrol-3-O-sulfate and resveratrol-4-O-sulfate in mice showed that these metabolites are absorbed orally but have low bioavailabilities of ~14 and 3%, respectively. Sulfate hydrolysis in vivo liberated free resveratrol, which accounted for ~2% of the total resveratrol species present in mouse plasma. Monosulfate metabolites were also converted to the parent in human colorectal cells. The extent of cellular uptake was dependent on specific membrane transporters and dictated antiproliferative activity. Sulfate metabolites induced autophagy and senescence in human cancer cells; these effects were abrogated by inclusion of a sulfatase inhibitor, which reduced intracellular resveratrol. Together, our findings suggest that resveratrol is delivered to target tissues in a stable sulfate-conjugated form and that the parent compound is gradually regenerated in selected cells and may give rise to the beneficial effects in vivo. At doses considered to be safe in humans, resveratrol generated via this route may be of greater importance than the unmetabolized form.
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Human colonic crypts in culture: segregation of immunochemical markers in normal versus adenoma-derived.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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In order to advance a culture model of human colonic neoplasia, we developed methods for the isolation and in vitro maintenance of intact colonic crypts from normal human colon tissue and adenomas. Crypts were maintained in three-dimensional Matrigel culture with a simple, serum-free, low Ca(2+) (0.15?mM) medium. Intact colonic crypts from normal human mucosa were viably maintained for 3-5 days with preservation of the in situ crypt-like architecture, presenting a distinct base and apex. Abnormal structures from adenoma tissue could be maintained through multiple passages (up to months), with expanding buds/tubules. Immunohistochemical markers for intestinal stem cells (Lgr5), growth (Ki67), differentiation (E-cadherin, cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and mucin 2 (MUC2)) and epithelial turnover (Bax, cleaved Caspase-3), paralleled the changes in function. The epithelial cells in normal crypts followed the physiological sequence of progression from proliferation to differentiation to dissolution in a spatially and temporally appropriate manner. Lgr5 expression was seen in a few basal cells of freshly isolated crypts, but was not detected after 1-3 days in culture. After 24?h in culture, crypts from normal colonic tissue continued to show strong Ki67 and MUC2 expression at the crypt base, with a gradual decrease over time such that by days 3-4 Ki67 was not expressed. The differentiation marker CK20 increased over the same period, eventually becoming intense throughout the whole crypt. In adenoma-derived structures, expression of markers for all stages of progression persisted for the entire time in culture. Lgr5 showed expression in a few select cells after months in culture. Ki67 and MUC2 were largely associated with the proliferative budding regions while CK20 was localized to the parent structure. This ex vivo culture model of normal and adenomatous crypts provides a readily accessible tool to help understand the growth and differentiation process in human colonic epithelium.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 23 December 2013; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.145.
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Discovery of sialyl Lewis A and Lewis X modified protein cancer biomarkers using high density antibody arrays.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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We report on a high-dimensional method to globally profile glycoproteins that are modified with sialyl Lewis A or Lewis X glycans. Specifically, glycoproteins in serum or plasma are fractionated on a high-density antibody microarray (i.e., each are localized to their specific antibody spot) and are specifically detected via fluorescently labeled anti-sialyl Lewis A or anti-Lewis X antibodies with quantification in a microarray scanner. Non-glycosylated proteins or glycoproteins with other glycan motifs do not interfere with this assay. The whole process is very rapid and applicable for high-throughput screening without the need for purification of glycoproteins from the samples. Using these methods, sialyl Lewis A or Lewis X moieties were found to be expressed on many previously unreported secreted or membrane associated proteins. Furthermore, the combination of sialyl Lewis A or Lewis X content with protein level increased the ability of certain glycoproteins to distinguish 30 patients with stage III and IV colon cancer from 60 control samples. Thus, this highly sensitive method is capable of discovering novel specific glycan modifications on proteins, many of which will likely be useful for disease detection and monitoring.
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Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk for colorectal cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cancer preventives, in the inhibition of COX activity; however, side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pose unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated whether consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes that control prostaglandin E2 production, COX-1 and NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Thirty participants at normal and 20 participants at increased risk for CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and the end of the study. Tissue levels of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using western blotting. After ginger consumption, participants at increased risk for CRC had a significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8±41%) compared with the placebo group (18.9±52%; P=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged. In participants who were at normal risk for CRC, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in participants at increased risk for CRC but not in those at normal risk for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased or normal-risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention, is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue levels of prostaglandin.
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Relationships between serum and colon concentrations of carotenoids and fatty acids in randomized dietary intervention trial.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Little is known about the effect of preventive diets on colonic nutrient concentrations. This study randomized 120 persons at increased risk of colon cancer to a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet for six months. The former targeted increases in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated, and n3 fats. The Healthy Eating diet was based on Healthy People 2010 recommendations. At baseline, dietary fat and carotenoid intakes were poorly associated (Spearman ? < 0.4) with serum and colon concentrations. Strong associations were observed between serum and colon measurements of ?-cryptoxanthin (? = 0.58; P < 0.001), ?-carotene (? = 0.48; P < 0.001), and ?-carotene (? = 0.45; P < 0.001). After six months, the Healthy Eating intervention increased serum lutein, ?-, and ?-carotene significantly (P < 0.05). In the Mediterranean arm, the significant increases were in serum lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, ?-carotene, monounsaturated, and n3 fats. A significant group-by-time interaction (P = 0.03) was obtained for monounsaturated fats. Colonic increases in carotenoids and n3 fats were significant only in Healthy Eating arm, whereas the group-by-time interaction was significant for ?-carotene (P = 0.02) and ?-carotene (P = 0.03). Changes in colon concentrations were not significantly associated with reported dietary changes. Changes in colon and serum concentrations were strongly associated for ?-cryptoxanthin (? = 0.56; P < 0.001) and ?-carotene (? = 0.40; P < 0.001). The associations between colonic and serum concentrations suggest the potential use of using serum concentration as a target in dietary interventions aimed at reducing colon cancer risk.
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Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Enterolactone and enterodiol, mammalian lignans derived from dietary sources such as flaxseed, sesame seeds, kale, broccoli, and apricots, may impede tumor proliferation by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We examined the associations between urinary enterolactone and enterodiol with prostatic tumor expression of NF?B, VEGF, and Ki67 among 147 patients with prostate cancer who participated in a presurgical trial of flaxseed supplementation (30 g/day) for ~30 days. Urinary enterolignans and tissue biomarkers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry, respectively. After supplementation, we observed significant correlations between intakes of plant lignan and urinary concentrations of total enterolignans (?=0.677, P<.0001), enterolactone (?=0.676, P<.0001), and enterodiol (?=0.628, P<.0001). Importantly, we observed that total urinary enterolignans and enterolactone were significantly and inversely correlated with Ki67 in the tumor tissue (?=-0.217, P=.011, and ?=-0.230, P=.007, respectively), and a near-significant inverse association was observed for enterodiol (?=-0.159, P=.064). An inverse association was observed between enterolactone and VEGF (?=-0.143, P=.141), although this did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe an association between enterolignans and NF?B. In conclusion, flaxseed-derived enterolignans may hinder cancer cell proliferation via VEGF-associated pathways.
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Fusobacterium nucleatum potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis and modulates the tumor-immune microenvironment.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Increasing evidence links the gut microbiota with colorectal cancer. Metagenomic analyses indicate that symbiotic Fusobacterium spp. are associated with human colorectal carcinoma, but whether this is an indirect or causal link remains unclear. We find that Fusobacterium spp. are enriched in human colonic adenomas relative to surrounding tissues and in stool samples from colorectal adenoma and carcinoma patients compared to healthy subjects. Additionally, in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis, Fusobacterium nucleatum increases tumor multiplicity and selectively recruits tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, which can promote tumor progression. Tumors from Apc(Min/+) mice exposed to F. nucleatum exhibit a proinflammatory expression signature that is shared with human fusobacteria-positive colorectal carcinomas. However, unlike other bacteria linked to colorectal carcinoma, F. nucleatum does not exacerbate colitis, enteritis, or inflammation-associated intestinal carcinogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that, through recruitment of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, fusobacteria generate a proinflammatory microenvironment that is conducive for colorectal neoplasia progression.
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Trials and tribulations of interrogating biomarkers to define efficacy of cancer risk reductive interventions.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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The challenges of clinical screening of cancer risk reductive interventions ("chemopreventive") have slowed progress in deployment of therapeutics to reverse or delay the carcinogenesis process. The preoperative or window-of-opportunity design clinical trial design enrolls subjects rapidly, has short study periods, and quantifies tissue biomarkers that reflect both anti-carcinogenesis mechanism of the risk reductive intervention and key molecular events of the carcinogenesis process for a specific epithelial target. High subject screened to on study ratios reduce the efficiency and increase cost of this research strategy. Small-sized tissue samples obtained by minimally invasive endoscopic technologies limit the number of biomarkers that can be detected and quantified, forcing investigators into choosing either a broad-based but superficial multi-mechanism exploration of signaling intermediates or a more focused analysis of multiple molecular events in a linear signaling-specific pathway. More efficient strategies of the future might involve isolation and expansion of pluripotent cells from at-risk epithelium or intraepithelial neoplastic lesions. Such a strategy would allow interrogation of key carcinogenesis-associated pathways and mechanisms in representative primary single-cell cultures amenable to genomic, proteomics, or transfection-based technologies.
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Effects of ginger supplementation on cell-cycle biomarkers in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa of patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer: results from a pilot, randomized, and controlled trial.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT, and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (P = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (P = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (P = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (P = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (P = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (-47.9%; P = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (P = 0.39), 46.8% (P = 0.39), and 15.3% (P = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation--especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts and support a larger study to further investigate these results.
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Effect of fish oil on levels of R- and S-enantiomers of 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in mouse colonic mucosa.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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The balance of putative pro- and antiinflammatory lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (S-HETEs) in colon mucosa is a potential target for modulating colon cancer risk and progression. The biological effects of S-HETEs and R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (produced by distinct pathways) may differ, but levels of these compounds in the colon are unknown. The objective of this study was to develop chiral methods to characterize hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE) enantiomers in colonic mucosa and evaluate the effects of fish oil on HETE formation. C57BL/6 mice (COX-1 null, COX-2 null, wild-type) were fed a diet supplemented with either olive oil or menhaden oil for 11 wk, and R-/S-HETEs in colonic mucosa were quantified by chiral LC-MS/MS. The R-enantiomer comprised 60-72% of 5-HETE, 18-58% of 15-HETE, and 1-16% of 12-HETE in colonic mucosa, suggesting that non-LOX sources contribute to HETE profiles. Fish oil reduced levels of both R- and S-HETEs, and increased the preponderance of the R-enantiomers (particularly 12- and 15-HETEs). There was apparent shunting of arachidonic acid to 12-/15-LOX in the COX-1 null animals. This is the first report of the enantiomeric composition of HETEs in the colon in vivo and shows large effects of fish oil in the normal colon.
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Enhanced discrimination of malignant from benign pancreatic disease by measuring the CA 19-9 antigen on specific protein carriers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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The CA 19-9 assay detects a carbohydrate antigen on multiple protein carriers, some of which may be preferential carriers of the antigen in cancer. We tested the hypothesis that the measurement of the CA 19-9 antigen on individual proteins could improve performance over the standard CA 19-9 assay. We used antibody arrays to measure the levels of the CA 19-9 antigen on multiple proteins in serum or plasma samples from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatitis. Sample sets from three different institutions were examined, comprising 531 individual samples. The measurement of the CA 19-9 antigen on any individual protein did not improve upon the performance of the standard CA 19-9 assay (82% sensitivity at 75% specificity for early-stage cancer), owing to diversity among patients in their CA 19-9 protein carriers. However, a subset of cancer patients with no elevation in the standard CA 19-9 assay showed elevations of the CA 19-9 antigen specifically on the proteins MUC5AC or MUC16 in all sample sets. By combining measurements of the standard CA 19-9 assay with detection of CA 19-9 on MUC5AC and MUC16, the sensitivity of cancer detection was improved relative to CA 19-9 alone in each sample set, achieving 67-80% sensitivity at 98% specificity. This finding demonstrates the value of measuring glycans on specific proteins for improving biomarker performance. Diagnostic tests with improved sensitivity for detecting pancreatic cancer could have important applications for improving the treatment and management of patients suffering from this disease.
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Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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Inhibitors of COX indicate that upregulation of inflammatory eicosanoids produced by COX, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), are early events in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Ginger has shown downregulation of COX in vitro and decreased incidence/multiplicity of adenomas in rats. This study was conducted to determine if 2.0 g/d of ginger could decrease the levels of PGE(2), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12-, and 15-HETE), in the colon mucosa of healthy volunteers. To investigate this aim, we randomized 30 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and day 28 was used to obtain colon biopsies. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was used to determine eicosanoid levels in the biopsies, and levels were expressed per protein or per free arachidonic acid. There were no significant differences in mean percent change between baseline and day 28 for any of the eicosanoids, when normalized to protein. There was a significant decrease in mean percent change in PGE(2) (P = 0.05) and 5-HETE (P = 0.04), and a trend toward significant decreases in 12-HETE (P = 0.09) and 15-HETE (P = 0.06) normalized to free arachidonic acid. There was no difference between the groups in terms of total adverse events P = 0.55). On the basis of these results, it seems that ginger has the potential to decrease eicosanoid levels, perhaps by inhibiting their synthesis from arachidonic acid. Ginger also seemed to be tolerable and safe. Further investigation in people at high risk for CRC seems warranted.
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Phase IIa clinical trial of curcumin for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Curcumin is derived from the spice tumeric and has antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects in vitro and in animal models, including preventing aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas in murine models of colorectal carcinogenesis. Inhibiting the production of the procarcinogenic eicosanoids prostaglandin E? (PGE?) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) can suppress carcinogenesis in rodents. Curcumin reduces mucosal concentrations of PGE? (via inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2) and 5-HETE (via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase) in rats. Although preclinical data support curcumin activity in many sites, the poor bioavailability reported for this agent supports its use in the colorectum. We assessed the effects of oral curcumin (2 g or 4 g per day for 30 days) on PGE? within ACF (primary endpoint), 5-HETE, ACF number, and proliferation in a nonrandomized, open-label clinical trial in 44 eligible smokers with eight or more ACF on screening colonoscopy. We assessed pre- and posttreatment concentrations of PGE? and 5-HETE by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in ACF and normal-tissue biopsies; ACF number via rectal endoscopy; proliferation by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry; and curcumin concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum and rectal mucosal samples. Forty-one subjects completed the study. Neither dose of curcumin reduced PGE? or 5-HETE within ACF or normal mucosa or reduced Ki-67 in normal mucosa. A significant 40% reduction in ACF number occurred with the 4-g dose (P < 0.005), whereas ACF were not reduced in the 2-g group. The ACF reduction in the 4-g group was associated with a significant, five-fold increase in posttreatment plasma curcumin/conjugate levels (versus pretreatment; P = 0.009). Curcumin was well tolerated at both 2 g and 4 g. Our data suggest that curcumin can decrease ACF number, and this is potentially mediated by curcumin conjugates delivered systemically.
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Regulatory approval of cancer risk-reducing (chemopreventive) drugs: moving what we have learned into the clinic.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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This article endeavors to clarify the current requirements and status of regulatory approval for chemoprevention (risk reduction) drugs and discusses possible improvements to the regulatory pathway for chemoprevention. Covering a wide range of topics in as much depth as space allows, this report is written in a style to facilitate the understanding of nonscientists and to serve as a framework for informing the directions of experts engaged more deeply with this issue. Key topics we cover here are as follows: a history of definitive cancer chemoprevention trials and their influence on the evolution of regulatory assessments; a brief review of the long-standing success of pharmacologic risk reduction of cardiovascular diseases and its relevance to approval for cancer risk reduction drugs; the use and limitations of biomarkers for developing and the approval of cancer risk reduction drugs; the identification of individuals at a high(er) risk for cancer and who are appropriate candidates for risk reduction drugs; business models that should incentivize pharmaceutical industry investment in cancer risk reduction; a summary of scientific and institutional barriers to development of cancer risk reduction drugs; and a summary of major recommendations that should help facilitate the pathway to regulatory approval for pharmacologic cancer risk reduction drugs.
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Effect of cyclooxygenase genotype and dietary fish oil on colonic eicosanoids in mice.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Dietary ?3 fatty acids can modulate substrate availability for cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases, thus modulating downstream eicosanoid formation. This could be an alternative approach to using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other COX inhibitors for limiting Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in colon cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to evaluate to what extent COX- and lipoxygenase-derived products could be modulated by dietary fish oil in normal colonic mucosa and to evaluate the role of COX-1 and COX-2 in the formation of these products. Mice (wild-type, COX-1 null or COX-2 null) were fed a diet supplying a broad mixture of fatty acids present in European/American diets, supplemented with either olive oil (oleate control diet) or menhaden (fish) oil ad libitum for 9-11 weeks. Colonic eicosanoid levels were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS), and proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. For the dietary alteration of colonic arachidonic acid: eicosapentaenoic ratios resulted in large shifts in formation of COX and lipoxygenase metabolites. COX-1 knockout virtually abolished PGE(2) formation, but interestingly, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (12-HETE) acid and 15-HETE formation was increased. The large changes in eicosanoid profiles were accompanied by relatively small changes in colonic crypt proliferation, but such changes in eicosanoid formation might have greater biological impact upon carcinogen challenge. These results indicate that in normal colon, inhibition of COX-2 would have little effect on reducing PGE(2) levels.
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CYP24A1 is an independent prognostic marker of survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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The active form of vitamin D, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-D(3)), exerts antiproliferative effects in cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (AC). CYP24A1 is overexpressed in many cancers and encodes the enzyme that catabolizes 1,25-D(3). The purpose of our study was to assess CYP24A1 as a prognostic marker and to study its relevance to antiproliferative activity of 1,25-D(3) in lung AC cells.
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Quantitation of 6-, 8- and 10-Gingerols and 6-Shogaol in Human Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection.
Int J Biomed Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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Zingiber officinale is one of the most commonly used spices. We developed a method to determine the main pungent ginger constituents, 6-, 8- and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in human plasma. Quantitation was achieved using a reversed-phase C(18) column using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 5.0 ?g/mL. The within-day coefficients of variation for the assay at 5.0 ?g/mL were ? 5% for all analytes. The recovery of all four analytes was ?99% for at 5.0 ?g/mL. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 ?g/mL except for 10-gingerol which was 0.25 ?g/mL. Currently, there is no analytical method for detecting pungent ginger constituents in human plasma. This HPLC method allows for the detection of all four of gingers pungent constituents simultaneously in a relatively short run time of 25 minutes. This method should be useful for determining plasma levels of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in phase I clinical trials.
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Repeat dose study of the cancer chemopreventive agent resveratrol in healthy volunteers: safety, pharmacokinetics, and effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has cancer chemopreventive properties in preclinical models. It has been shown to downregulate the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) in rodents. The purpose of the study was to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after repeated dosing. Forty healthy volunteers ingested resveratrol at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g daily for 29 days. Levels of resveratrol and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-UV in plasma obtained before and up to 24 hours after a dose between days 21 and 28. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma taken predosing and on day 29. Resveratrol was safe, but the 2.5 and 5 g doses caused mild to moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, resveratrol-4-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide were major plasma metabolites. Maximal plasma levels and areas under the concentration versus time curve for the metabolites dramatically exceeded those for resveratrol, in the case of areas under the concentration versus time curve, by up to 20.3-fold. Compared with predosing values, the ingestion of resveratrol caused a decrease in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (P<0.04 for both), respectively, in all volunteers. The decrease was most marked at the 2.5 g dose level. The results suggest that repeated administration of high doses of resveratrol generates micromolar concentrations of parent and much higher levels of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in the plasma. The observed decrease in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 might contribute to cancer chemopreventive activity.
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Clinical pharmacology of resveratrol and its metabolites in colorectal cancer patients.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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Resveratrol is a phytochemical with chemopreventive activity in preclinical rodent models of colorectal carcinogenesis. Antiproliferation is one of the many chemopreventive modes of action it has been shown to engage in. Concentrations of resveratrol, which can be achieved in human tissues after p.o. administration, have not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of resveratrol and its metabolites in the colorectal tissue of humans who ingested resveratrol. Twenty patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer consumed eight daily doses of resveratrol at 0.5 or 1.0 g before surgical resection. Resveratrol was found to be well tolerated. Normal and malignant biopsy tissue samples were obtained before dosing. Parent compound plus its metabolites resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-4-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, resveratrol-4-O-sulfate, resveratrol sulfate glucuronide, and resveratrol disulfate were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV or mass spectrometric detection in colorectal resection tissue. Quantitation was achieved by HPLC/UV. Cell proliferation, as reflected by Ki-67 staining, was compared in preintervention and postintervention tissue samples. Resveratrol and resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide were recovered from tissues at maximal mean concentrations of 674 and 86.0 nmol/g, respectively. Levels of resveratrol and its metabolites were consistently higher in tissues originating in the right side of the colon compared with the left. Consumption of resveratrol reduced tumor cell proliferation by 5% (P = 0.05). The results suggest that daily p.o. doses of resveratrol at 0.5 or 1.0 g produce levels in the human gastrointestinal tract of an order of magnitude sufficient to elicit anticarcinogenic effects. Resveratrol merits further clinical evaluation as a potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent.
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Reliable gene expression measurements from fine needle aspirates of pancreatic tumors: effect of amplicon length and quality assessment.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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Biomarker use for pancreatic cancer diagnosis has been impaired by a lack of samples suitable for reliable quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Fine needle aspirates (FNAs) from pancreatic masses were studied to define potential causes of RNA degradation and develop methods for accurately measuring gene expression.
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Ultra-low flow liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet (UV) detection for piperine quantitation in human plasma.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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A robust and sensitive ultra-low flow liquid chromatography (UFLC) method that can reproducibly, at reasonable cost, detect low concentrations of piperine from human plasma is necessary. Piperine in plasma was separated and quantified by a gradient method using ultraviolet detection at a maximal absorbance wavelength of 340 nm. An aliquot was injected onto a reversed-phase column Waters SymmetryShield, 2.1 x 100 mm, 3.5 microm, C(18) column, attached to a Waters absorbosphere, 4.6 x 30 mm, C(18) guard column and eluted with a mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (25:74.9:0.1, v/v/v) on line A and acetonitrile/acetic acid (99.9:0.1, v/v) on line B. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min. The gradient method consisted of an opening condition of 20% pump B, with a linear increase to 37% pump B over 8 min, then a linear increase to 100% pump B at 11 min, 2 min at 100% pump B, and then a return to the opening condition (20% pump B) via a linear gradient over 2 min, followed by 5 min re-equilibration at opening conditions. The total run time was 20 min for each sample. All samples were processed protected from ambient light to avoid isomerization of piperine. The plasma assay was linear with R = 0.9995, with a lower limit of detection [signal-to-noise (S/N) > 5:1] of 100 pg of piperine loaded into the analytical system with acceptable accuracy and precision. Extraction recoveries of piperine from human plasma were 88% for quality control high (QCH), 93% for quality control medium (QCM), and 90% for quality control low (QCL), and the matrix effect was <12%. Piperine was quantifiable from a 50 mg oral dose given to human volunteers. A UFLC method for the rapid assay of human plasma with sensitivity to detect as low as 5 ng/mL piperine was developed. The method sensitivity equals that of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS) methods with much less cost.
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Breast cancer histology and receptor status characterization in Asian Indian and Pakistani women in the U.S.--a SEER analysis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breast cancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breast cancer in Indian/Pakistani women.in the U.S.
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Targeting breast stem cells with the cancer preventive compounds curcumin and piperine.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
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The cancer stem cell hypothesis asserts that malignancies arise in tissue stem and/or progenitor cells through the dysregulation or acquisition of self-renewal. In order to determine whether the dietary polyphenols, curcumin, and piperine are able to modulate the self-renewal of normal and malignant breast stem cells, we examined the effects of these compounds on mammosphere formation, expression of the breast stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and Wnt signaling. Mammosphere formation assays were performed after curcumin, piperine, and control treatment in unsorted normal breast epithelial cells and normal stem and early progenitor cells, selected by ALDH positivity. Wnt signaling was examined using a Topflash assay. Both curcumin and piperine inhibited mammosphere formation, serial passaging, and percent of ALDH+ cells by 50% at 5 microM and completely at 10 microM concentration in normal and malignant breast cells. There was no effect on cellular differentiation. Wnt signaling was inhibited by both curcumin and piperine by 50% at 5 microM and completely at 10 microM. Curcumin and piperine separately, and in combination, inhibit breast stem cell self-renewal but do not cause toxicity to differentiated cells. These compounds could be potential cancer preventive agents. Mammosphere formation assays may be a quantifiable biomarker to assess cancer preventive agent efficacy and Wnt signaling assessment can be a mechanistic biomarker for use in human clinical trials.
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Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Ginger has been used to treat numerous types of nausea and vomiting. Ginger has also been studied for its efficacy for acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, its efficacy for delayed CINV in a diverse oncology population is unknown.
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Pancreatic cancer serum detection using a lectin/glyco-antibody array method.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Pancreatic cancer is a formidable disease and early detection biomarkers are needed to make inroads into improving the outcomes in these patients. In this work, lectin antibody microarrays were utilized to detect unique glycosylation patterns of proteins from serum. Antibodies to four potential glycoprotein markers that were found in previous studies were printed on nitrocellulose coated glass slides and these microarrays were hybridized against patient serum to extract the target glycoproteins. Lectins were then used to detect different glycan structural units on the captured glycoproteins in a sandwich assay format. The biotinylated lectins used to assess differential glycosylation patterns were Aleuria aurentia lectin (AAL), Sambucus nigra bark lectin (SNA), Maackia amurensis lectin II (MAL), Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), and Concanavalin A (ConA). Captured glycoproteins were evaluated on the microarray in situ by on-plate digestion and direct analysis using MALDI QIT-TOF mass spectroscopy. Analysis was performed using serum from 89 normal controls, 35 chronic pancreatitis samples, 37 diabetic samples and 22 pancreatic cancer samples. We found that this method had excellent reproducibility as measured by the signal deviation of control blocks as on-slide standard and 41 pairs of pure technical replicates. It was possible to discriminate cancer from the other disease groups and normal samples with high sensitivity and specificity where the response of Alpha-1-beta glycoprotein to lectin SNA increased by 69% in the cancer sample compared to the other noncancer groups (95% confidence interval 53-86%). These data suggest that differential glycosylation patterns detected on high-throughput lectin glyco-antibody microarrays are a promising biomarker approach for the early detection of pancreatic cancer.
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The effect of radiation dose and chemotherapy on overall survival in 237 patients with Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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To study the effects of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and their interaction in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Standard operating procedures for serum and plasma collection: early detection research network consensus statement standard operating procedure integration working group.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Specimen collection is an integral component of clinical research. Specimens from subjects with various stages of cancers or other conditions, as well as those without disease, are critical tools in the hunt for biomarkers, predictors, or tests that will detect serious diseases earlier or more readily than currently possible. Analytic methodologies evolve quickly. Access to high-quality specimens, collected and handled in standardized ways that minimize potential bias or confounding factors, is key to the "bench to bedside" aim of translational research. It is essential that standard operating procedures, "the how" of creating the repositories, be defined prospectively when designing clinical trials. Small differences in the processing or handling of a specimen can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability and reproducibility, especially when multiplex methods are used. A representative working group, Standard Operating Procedures Internal Working Group (SOPIWG), comprised of members from across Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) was formed to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for various types of specimens collected and managed for our biomarker discovery and validation work. This report presents our consensus on SOPs for the collection, processing, handling, and storage of serum and plasma for biomarker discovery and validation.
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Time to treatment in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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To determine whether time to treatment (TTT) has an effect on overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether patient or treatment factors are associated with TTT.
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Elevation of plasma TGF-beta1 during radiation therapy predicts radiation-induced lung toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: a combined analysis from Beijing and Michigan.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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To test whether radiation-induced elevations of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) during radiation therapy (RT) correlate with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate the ability of mean lung dose (MLD) to improve the predictive power.
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Prostatic alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer: a relationship which may depend on genetic variation in ALA metabolism.
PLoS ONE
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Previous observational studies have reported associations between prostate cancer and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). However, few investigations have been able to study this relationship prospectively and in well-controlled settings. Moreover, no studies have determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence ALA metabolism are associated with this common cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between prostatic levels of ALA, SNPs and prostate cancer-specific biomarkers in samples collected from a previous randomized clinical trial conducted using a presurgical model and which tested the effects of flaxseed supplementation, a rich source of ALA, prior to prostatectomy (n?=?134). Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was determined and immunohistochemistry was used to assess tumor proliferation rate (Ki67). Prostatic ALA was determined with gas chromatography. Seven previously identified SNPs associated with delta-6 desaturase activity (rs99780, rs174537, rs174545, rs174572, rs498793, rs3834458 and rs968567) were tested for associations with prostatic ALA, PSA and Ki67. Despite consuming seven times more ALA per day, men in the flaxseed arm had similar amounts of prostatic ALA relative to men not consuming flaxseed. In unadjusted analysis, there were significant positive associations between prostatic ALA and PSA (??=?0.191, p?=?0.028) and Ki67 (??=?0.186, p?=?0.037). After adjusting for covariates (flaxseed, age, race, BMI and statin-use) the association between ALA and PSA remained (p?=?0.004) but was slightly attenuated for Ki67 (p?=?0.051). We did not observe associations between any of the SNPs studied and prostatic ALA; however, in models for PSA there was a significant interaction between rs498793 and ALA and for Ki67 there were significant interactions with ALA and rs99780 and rs174545. Independent and inverse associations were observed between rs174572 and Ki67. This study provides evidence that prostatic ALA, independent of the amount of ALA consumed, is positively associated with biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer and that genetic variation may modify this relationship.
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A Mediterranean dietary intervention in persons at high risk of colon cancer: recruitment and retention to an intensive study requiring biopsies.
Contemp Clin Trials
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This study recruited persons at increased risk of colon cancer to an intensive dietary intervention study that required biopsies of the colon by flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and after six months of intervention. A total of 1314 individuals contacted the study, and only 16 individuals indicated that the sigmoidoscopy procedure was an obstacle to study participation. A total of 270 individuals completed a screening visit and signed a screening consent form. Inquiries about the study tended to be fewer in the winter and late summer. Failure to return food records was the most common reason for exclusion. Dietary recall at enrollment indicated that subjects were consuming significantly more vegetables, lower sodium and a lower glycemic load on the day before starting the study vs. during the eligibility phase which might have an impact on biomarker measures. This makes it important to capture dietary changes in the period between determination of eligibility and enrollment. Subjects (n=120) were randomized to follow a Healthy Eating or a Mediterranean Diet, each of which required substantial dietary record-keeping. The study completion rate was 78%, and subjects reported high satisfaction with study participation. Of the 93 individuals who completed the study, only one refused the flexible sigmoidoscopy at the final visit. These findings suggest that flexible sigmoidoscopy does not appear to be a barrier for recruitment of high-risk individuals to an intensive dietary intervention trial, but that completing food records can be.
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Characterization of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
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The anti-proliferative effects of 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-D(3), calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D) are mediated by the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). In the present study, we characterized VDR expression in lung adenocarcinoma (AC).
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Increased plasma levels of the APC-interacting protein MAPRE1, LRG1, and IGFBP2 preceding a diagnosis of colorectal cancer in women.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
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Longitudinal blood collections from cohort studies provide the means to search for proteins associated with disease before clinical diagnosis. We investigated plasma samples from the Womens Health Initiative (WHI) cohort to determine quantitative differences in plasma proteins between subjects subsequently diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) and matched controls that remained cancer-free during the period of follow-up. Proteomic analysis of WHI samples collected before diagnosis of CRC resulted in the identification of six proteins with significantly (P < 0.05) elevated concentrations in cases compared with controls. Proteomic analysis of two CRC cell lines showed that five of the six proteins were produced by cancer cells. Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (MAPRE1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were individually assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 58 pairs of newly diagnosed CRC samples and controls and yielded significant elevations (P < 0.05) among cases relative to controls. A combination of these four markers resulted in a receiver operating characteristics curve with an area under the curve value of 0.841 and 57% sensitivity at 95% specificity. This combination rule was tested in an independent set of WHI samples collected within 7 months before diagnosis from cases and matched controls resulting in 41% sensitivity at 95% specificity. A panel consisting of CEA, MAPRE1, IGFBP2, and LRG1 has predictive value in prediagnostic CRC plasmas.
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Microsatellite instability and DNA mismatch repair protein deficiency in Lynch syndrome colorectal polyps.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
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Colorectal cancers associated with Lynch syndrome are characterized by deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) function. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of MMR protein expression in Lynch syndrome-associated polyps. Sixty-two colorectal polyps--37 adenomatous polyps, 23 hyperplastic polyps, and 2 sessile serrated polyps (SSP)--from 34 subjects with germline MMR gene mutations were tested for MSI using a single pentaplex PCR for five mononucleotide repeat microsatellite markers, and also for expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 proteins by immunohistochemistry. High-level MSI (MSI-H) was seen in 15 of 37 (41%) adenomatous polyps, one of 23 (4%) hyperplastic polyps, and one of two (50%) SSPs. Loss of MMR protein expression was seen in 18 of 36 (50%) adenomatous polyps, zero of 21 hyperplastic polyps, and zero of two SSPs. Adenomatous polyps 8 mm or larger in size were significantly more likely to show MSI-H [OR, 9.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.52-65.65; P = 0.02] and deficient MMR protein expression (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.20-8.37; P = 0.02) compared with those less than 8 mm in size. All (six of six) adenomatous polyps 10 mm or larger in size showed both MSI-H and loss of MMR protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Our finding that the prevalence of MMR deficiency increases with the size of adenomatous polyps suggests that loss of MMR function is a late event in Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal neoplasia. Although testing large adenomatous polyps may be of value in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome, the absence of an MMR-deficient phenotype in an adenoma cannot be considered as a strong evidence against Lynch syndrome, as it is with colorectal carcinomas.
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Detection of hypermethylated vimentin in urine of patients with colorectal cancer.
J Mol Diagn
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We demonstrated previously that urine contains low-molecular-weight (LMW) (<300 bp), circulation-derived DNA that can be used to detect cancer-specific mutations if a tumor is present. The goal of this study was to develop an assay to detect the colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated, circulation-derived, epigenetic DNA marker hypermethylated vimentin gene (mVIM) in the urine of patients with CRC. An artificial 18-nucleotide DNA sequence was tagged at the 5 end of the primers of the first PCR cycle to increase the amplicon size, which was then integrated into the primers of the second PCR cycle. A quantitative MethyLight PCR-based assay targeting a 39-nucleotide template was developed and used to quantify mVIM in CRC tissues and matched urine samples. mVIM was detected in 75% of LMW urine DNA samples from patients with CRC (n = 20) and in 10% of urine samples of control subjects with no known neoplasia (n = 20); 12 of 17 LMW urine DNA samples (71%) but only 2 of 17 high-molecular-weight urine DNA samples (12%) from patients with mVIM-positive tissues contained detectable mVIM, suggesting that the mVIM detected in LMW urine DNA is derived from the circulation. The detection of mVIM in urine was significantly associated with CRC compared with controls (P < 0.0001, by Fishers exact test). A potential urine test for CRC screening using epigenetic markers is discussed.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.