Platinum-based chemotherapy is widely used to treat various cancers, but many patients ultimately relapse due to drug resistance. We employed phosphoproteomic analysis and functional assays of the response of SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin as a strategy to identify kinases as candidate druggable targets to sensitize cells to platinum. A SILAC-based approach combined with TiO2-based phosphopeptide enrichment allowed the direct identification of ERK1/2, p90RSK, and ERBB2 as kinases whose phosphorylation is regulated by cisplatin. Bioinformatic analysis revealed enrichment in linear phosphorylation motifs predicted to be targets of p38MAPK, CDK2, and PIM2. All three PIM kinases were found expressed in a panel of 10 ovarian cancer cell lines, with the oncogenic PIM2 being the most commonly induced by cisplatin. Targeting PIM2 kinase by either biochemical inhibitors or RNA interference impaired cell growth, decreased cisplatin-triggered BAD phosphorylation, and sensitized ovarian cancer cells to drug-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of PIM2 triggered anchorage-independent growth and resulted in increased BAD phosphorylation and cell resistance to DNA damaging agents. The data show that the PIM2 kinase plays a role in the response of ovarian cancer cells to platinum drugs and suggest that PIM inhibitors may find clinical application as an adjunct to platinum-based therapies.
Mutations in the PPP6C catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) are drivers for the development of melanoma. Here, we analyse a panel of melanoma-associated mutations in PPP6C and find that these generally compromise assembly of the PP6 holoenzyme and catalytic activity towards a model substrate. Detailed analysis of one mutant, PPP6C-H114Y, in both primary melanoma and engineered cell lines reveals it is destabilized and undergoes increased proteasome-mediated turnover. Global analysis of phosphatase substrates by mass spectrometry identifies the oncogenic kinase Aurora-A as the major PP6 substrate that is dysregulated under these conditions. Accordingly, cells lacking PPP6C or carrying the PPP6C-H114Y allele have elevated Aurora-A kinase activity and display chromosome instability with associated Aurora-A-dependent micronucleation. Chromosomes mis-segregated to these micronuclei are preferentially stained by the DNA damage marker ?-H2AX, suggesting that loss of PPP6C promotes both chromosome instability and DNA damage. These findings support the view that formation of micronuclei rather than chromosome instability alone explains how loss of PPP6C, and more generally mitotic spindle and centrosome defects, can act as drivers for genome instability in melanoma and other cancers.
We have used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry, to identify common and discrete components of the respective receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent phosphotyrosine-associated networks induced by acute stimulation of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGF or HGF. In total, we obtained quantitative information for 274 proteins, which respond to either or both stimuli by >1.5 fold changes in enrichment, following immuno-precipitation with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies. The data reveal a high degree of overlap between the respective signaling networks but also clear points of departure. A small number of HGF specific effectors were identified including myosin-X, galectin-1, ELMO2 and EphrinB1, while a larger set of EGF specific effectors (39 proteins) includes both novel (e.g., MAP4K3) and established components of receptor tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways. Using available protein-interaction data the identified proteins have been assembled into a highly connected network that can be visualized using the Cytoscape tool.
The scattering response of epithelial cells to activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase represents one facet of an "invasive growth" program. It is a complex event that incorporates loss of cell-cell adhesion, morphological changes, and cell motility. Ubiquitination is a reversible posttranslational modification that may target proteins for degradation or coordinate signal transduction pathways. There are approximately 79 active deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) predicted in the human genome. Here, via a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library approach, we have identified 12 DUBs that are necessary for aspects of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-dependent scattering response of A549 cells. Different phenotypes are evident that range from full loss of scattering, similar to receptor knockdown (e.g., USP30, USP33, USP47), to loss of cell-cell contacts even in the absence of HGF but defective motility (e.g., USP3, ATXN3L). The knockdowns do not incur defective receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or MAP kinase activation. Our data suggest widespread involvement of the ubiquitin system at multiple stages of the Met activation response, implying significant crosstalk with phosphorylation-based transduction pathways. Development of small-molecule inhibitors of particular DUBs may offer a therapeutic approach to contain metastasis.
The proteome of any system is a dynamic entity, such that the intracellular concentration of a protein is dictated by the relative rates of synthesis and degradation. In this work, we have analyzed time-dependent changes in the incorporation of a stable amino acid resolved precursor, a protocol we refer to as "dynamic SILAC", using 1-D gel separation followed by in-gel digestion and LC-MS/MS analyses to profile the intracellular stability of almost 600 proteins from human A549 adenocarcinoma cells, requiring multiple measures of the extent of labeling with stable isotope labeled amino acids in a classic label-chase experiment. As turnover rates are acquired, a profile can be built up that allows exploration of the dynamic proteome and of putative features that predispose a protein to a high or a low rate of turnover. Moreover, measurement of the turnover rate of individual components of supramolecular complexes provides a unique insight in processes of protein complex assembly and turnover.
Trafficking of activated receptors may dictate the signaling output through the exposure to a changing palette of substrates and effectors. Here, we have used the acute application of a chemical inhibitor of dynamin activity, Dynasore, to inhibit internalization of activated EGF receptors together with quantitative mass spectrometry. This has generated a global snapshot of phosphorylation associated changes, which are contingent upon the endosomal trafficking of the activated EGF receptor. Using a SILAC approach, we have been able to quantitate >500 proteins in pTyr immunoprecipitation experiments and close to 800 individual phosphopeptides through affinity based enrichment strategies. This study provides >2 orders of magnitude increase in the coverage of potential EGF effectors than hitherto assessed in the context of endocytosis. There is a strong positive correlation between EGF responsiveness and sensitivity to Dynasore, with ~40% of EGF responses being significantly changed by endocytic inhibition. Proteins which are functionally linked to endosomal sorting are strongly influenced by receptor entry, suggesting that the activated receptor can govern its fate by influencing endosomal dynamics. However, the majority of EGF-responsive enzymes which we quantify, do not exhibit this property. Hence, our results provide many examples of key signaling proteins that are impervious to EGFR receptor endocytosis but nevertheless confirm the broad principle of endocytosis influence upon the network response.
The cytoplasmic dynein motor generates pulling forces to center and orient the mitotic spindle within the cell. During this positioning process, dynein oscillates from one pole of the cell cortex to the other but only accumulates at the pole farthest from the spindle. Here, we show that dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1) is required for this asymmetric cortical localization of dynein and has a specific function defining spindle orientation. DYNLL1 interacted with a spindle-microtubule-associated adaptor formed by CHICA and HMMR via TQT motifs in CHICA. In cells depleted of CHICA or HMMR, the mitotic spindle failed to orient correctly in relation to the growth surface. Furthermore, CHICA TQT motif mutants localized to the mitotic spindle but failed to recruit DYNLL1 to spindle microtubules and did not correct the spindle orientation or dynein localization defects. These findings support a model where DYNLL1 and CHICA-HMMR form part of the regulatory system feeding back spindle position to dynein at the cell cortex.
In mitosis, animal cells lose their adhesion to the surrounding surfaces and become rounded. During mitotic exit, they reestablish these adhesions and at the same time physically contract and divide. How these competing processes are spatially segregated at the cell cortex remains mysterious. To address this question, we define the specific effector pathways used by RhoA and Rac1 in mitotic cells. We demonstrate that the MKlp1-CYK4 centralspindlin complex is a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) for Rac1 and not RhoA and that CYK4 negatively regulated Rac1 activity at the cell equator in anaphase. Cells expressing a CYK4 GAP mutant had defects in cytokinesis and showed elevated staining for the cell adhesion marker vinculin. These defects could be rescued by depletion of ARHGEF7 and p21-activated kinase, Rac1-specific effector proteins required for cell adhesion. Based on these findings, we propose that CYK4 GAP activity is required during anaphase to inhibit Rac1-dependent effector pathways associated with control of cell spreading and adhesion.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.