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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association of progesterone receptor gene polymorphism with male infertility and clinical outcome of ICSI.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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To investigate the association of Progesterone Receptor (PR) gene variations and male infertility
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HIV gp120 induced gene expression signatures in vaginal epithelial cells.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Gp120 is the envelope protein of HIV which binds to CD4 independent proteins on vaginal epithelial cells. HIV-gp120 has been reported to modulate gene expression in several cell types. How this interaction may alter the physiologic vaginal milieu during the earliest stages of vaginal transmission of HIV, is currently unknown. Vaginal epithelial cells were treated with HIV-gp120, and a global snapshot of changes in gene expression profiles, were unraveled by microarray analysis. The differentially expressed genes were involved in diverse cellular functions. Genes of immunomodulatory processes and induction of proteases were highly enriched. We propose that the induction of inflammation and proteases may act in concert to weaken the vaginal epithelium, making it more permeable to viral entry. Identification of the gene signatures involved in vaginal-HIV dialogue would aid in understanding the environ induced by HIV itself, as the virus invades and gains entry into its host.
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Levels of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 in normozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men and its association with motility, fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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To compare the expression profiles of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 motility proteins in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men and determine its correlation with sperm motility, fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate.
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Progesterone utilizes the PI3K-AKT pathway in human spermatozoa to regulate motility and hyperactivation but not acrosome reaction.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Progesterone is a physiologic regulator of sperm hyperactivation and acrosome reaction and it does so by activating a range of kinases present in the spermatozoa. In the present study, the involvement of the AKT- phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway in mediating progesterone response in human spermatozoa was investigated. In capacitated spermatozoa, progesterone transiently and concentration dependently lead to phosphorylation of AKT at both Thr 308 and Ser 473 in the tail region. This phosphorylation was inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that progesterone leads to activation of PI3K-AKT pathway. The activation of AKT in response to progesterone is calcium dependent and the CatSper channel inhibitor mibefradil significantly reduced progesterone mediated AKT phosphorylation. Preincubation of spermatozoa with wortmannin inhibited the progesterone mediated increase in tyrosine phosphorylation and also attenuated the increase in number of motile, progressively motile and hyperactive spermatozoa but not the number of acrosome reacted spermatozoa. These observations imply that progesterone via CatSper activates the PI3K-AKT pathway required for motility and hyperactivation but not for acrosome reaction.
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Cellular ontogeny of RBMY during human spermatogenesis and its role in sperm motility.
J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The Y-chromosome-encoded gene RBMY (RNA-binding motif on Y) is a male germline RNA-binding protein and is postulated to be a RNA-splicing regulator. In order to understand the roles of RBMY in different stages of male gamete maturation, the present study aimed at determining its cellular expression during spermatogenesis, spermeogenesis and in mature spermatozoa. In the spermatogonia (cKIT-positive cells), RBMY immunolocalized as two distinct foci, one in the nucleolus and the other in the subnuclear region; in the spermatocytes (cKIT-negative cells), the nucleus had punctuate staining with a subnuclear foci; in the pachytene cells, the protein was localized as a punctuate pattern in the nucleus spread along the elongating chromosomes. In the round and the elongating spermatids, the protein expression was polarized and restricted to the cytoplasm and in the developing mid-piece. In testicular and ejaculated sperm, RBMY was localized to the mid-piece region and weakly in the tail. Incubation of spermatozoa with the RBMY antibody reduced its motility. The spatial differences in expression of RBMY in the germ cells and the presences of this protein in post-meiotic cells and in transcriptionally inert spermatozoa suggest its involvement in multiple functions beyond RNA splicing. One such possible function of RBMY could be its involvement in sperm motility.
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HIV gp120 binds to mannose receptor on vaginal epithelial cells and induces production of matrix metalloproteinases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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During sexual transmission of HIV in women, the virus breaches the multi-layered CD4 negative stratified squamous epithelial barrier of the vagina, to infect the sub-epithelial CD4 positive immune cells. However the mechanisms by which HIV gains entry into the sub-epithelial zone is hitherto unknown. We have previously reported human mannose receptor (hMR) as a CD4 independent receptor playing a role in HIV transmission on human spermatozoa. The current study was undertaken to investigate the expression of hMR in vaginal epithelial cells, its HIV gp120 binding potential, affinity constants and the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) downstream of HIV gp120 binding to hMR.
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Decidualized endometrial stromal cell derived factors promote trophoblast invasion.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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To evaluate the effects of decidua-derived factors on trophoblast invasion.
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Segmental lichen aureus: a report of two cases treated with methylprednisolone aceponate.
Australas. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Two cases of segmental lichen aureus with a response to topical 0.1% methylprednisolone aceponate ointment are reported. A 9-year-old child and a 23-year-old man showed complete resolution of their lesions following treatment with the latter after 7 months and 4 months, respectively. Lichen aureus is a rare form of the pigmented purpuric dermatoses characterized by golden-brown and lichenoid macules and papules, most often on the lower extremities. Segmental presentations have seldom been described. Histology showed a lichenoid infiltrate with extravasation of red blood cells and haemosiderin deposition. The aetiology is unclear and treatment is disappointing. We report an uncommon segmental presentation of lichen aureus with resolution of the lesions after treatment with a topical corticosteroid.
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High-affinity binding of seminal plasma PSP94 to human immunoglobulin is through the Fab domain.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) is one of the major proteins present in human seminal plasma. We had earlier reported that PSP94 has the ability to bind to human IgG. The aims of the present study were to further delineate the PSP94-IgG interaction and to understand whether this could have any significance in sperm function. Direct binding of IgG fragments to PSP94 showed maximal binding with F(ab)(2) followed by Fab, while Fc displayed least binding in ELISA. Binding kinetics of PSP94-IgG interaction using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed high-affinity binding of IgG to PSP94 with a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 8.8 x 10(-)(11)M. PSP94-IgG interaction was found to be through the Fab domains of IgG. Real-time interaction kinetics revealed association constants for binding of IgG, Fab, and F(ab)(2) towards PSP94 to be of the same order but with altered dissociation constants. IgG and its F(ab)(2) fragment once complexed to PSP94 demonstrated negligible dissociation, while dissociation rate of Fab fragment was 6.6 x 10(-)(4). In silico molecular modeling of PSP94-IgG complex identified N- and C-terminal beta-strands of PSP94 to be the most plausible region involved in IgG interaction. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that IgG bound to human spermatozoa predominantly in the tail region, which could be prevented when IgG was preincubated with PSP94. This study reports for the first time that IgG forms a high-affinity complex with PSP94 through its F(ab)(2) domain and reveals the ability of PSP94 to prevent binding of IgG to spermatozoa.
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Regulation of decidualization, interleukin-11 and interleukin-15 by homeobox A 10 in endometrial stromal cells.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Cytokine production by the endometrial stromal and decidual cells is essential for successful differentiation of the endometrial stromal cells and uterine leukocytes to sustain pregnancy. Interleukin-11 and -15 (IL-11 and IL-15) secreted by the stromal and decidual cells are two key modulators of the process of decidualization and natural killer cell (NK) activity in the uterus and are essential for pregnancy. However, limited information exists on the maternal factors that regulate the production of these cytokines by the stromal cells. In this study, we investigated the role of homeobox A10 (HOXA10) in the regulation of expression of genes encoding the decidualization markers insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP1), prolactin and the cytokines IL-11 and IL-15 by endometrial stromal and decidual cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that the expression of IGFBP1, Prolactin (PRL), HOXA10, IL11, and IL15 are co-regulated during steroid hormone-mediated decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells in vitro. In the predecidual cells, downregulation of HOXA10 by siRNA suppresses IGFBP1 and IL15, but increases IL11 expression. In the decidualized cells, knocking down HOXA10 inhibits IGFBP1 and PRL expression but elevates the expression of IL11 and IL15. In addition, our data also demonstrate that transient inhibition of HOXA10 expression in the predecidual cells does not influence its ability to subsequently decidualize or affect cytokine expression, suggesting that steroid hormone-mediated decidualization and cytokine production in vitro does not require HOXA10 preconditioning.
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Follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene variants in women with primary and secondary amenorrhea.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
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This retrospective study was designed to analyze the FSHR gene variants in subjects with primary and secondary amenorrhea with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.
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Expression of endometrial protein kinase a during early pregnancy in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata).
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Embryo-induced signaling pathways are considered to be important for initiation and sustenance of pregnancy. However many of these pathways remain to be deciphered in primates. In the present study, differential display RT-PCR was used to identify genes or gene fragments that are differentially expressed in endometrium of bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) on Day 6 of pregnancy. Of several fragments found to be differentially expressed, a fragment of 567 base pair (named GG1) was characterized in detail. GG1 was highly represented in endometrium of pregnant animals compared with that of nonpregnant animals. Sequencing analysis revealed homology of this fragment to exons 7, 8, 9, and 10 and surprisingly to intron 6 of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory type I alpha (tissue-specific extinguisher 1) (PRKAR1A). The increased expression of this fragment in gestational endometrium was confirmed by quantitative PCR studies. Two transcripts of 3.0 kilobase (kb) and 1.5 kb were detected in Northern blot probed with labeled GG1. Protein expressions of alpha regulatory (PRKAR1A) and alpha catalytic (PRKCA) subunits of PKA were also higher in gestational endometrium compared with that in nongestational endometrium. Further in vitro studies using human endometrial explants demonstrated regulation of PRKAR1A (or GG1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 or cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) by estradiol. This is the first study to date on the differential expression of PKA in primate endometrium during early pregnancy and its in vitro regulation by estradiol.
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Longer CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene is associated with premature ovarian failure.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disorder characterized by lack of ovulation and elevated serum gonadotrophin levels before the age of 40 years. The cause of POF in most cases is unknown. As mice lacking the Androgen receptor (Ar) gene reportedly have a POF-like phenotype, we hypothesize that, variations in the AR gene maybe one of the causative factors for POF in humans. Thus the objective of the study is to evaluate the number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the AR gene in non-familial, non-syndromic cases of POF.
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Gene expression profiling during early folliculogenesis in the mouse ovary.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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To evaluate genes involved in ovarian primordial-to-primary follicle transition.
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Stage-specific localization and expression of c-kit in the adult human testis.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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The c-kit receptor (KIT) and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), represent one of the key regulators of testicular formation, development, and function and have been extensively studied in various animal models. The present study was undertaken to characterize the pattern of localization and expression of c-kit in normal adult human testis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that KIT is expressed in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia, acrosomal granules of spermatids, and Leydig cells. Interestingly, a rather heterogenous pattern of expression of the protein along the basement membrane was observed. Intense protein localization in spermatogonia was detected in stages I-III, whereas low expression was observed in stages IV-VI of the seminiferous epithelium, indicating that the expression of the molecule was stage specific. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the transcripts of the gene were also localized in a similar non-uniform pattern. To the best of our knowledge, such a stage-specific expression of KIT has not been reported previously in the human testis. The results of the present study may expand current knowledge about the c-kit/SCF system in human spermatogenesis.
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Poor ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation is associated with FSH receptor polymorphism.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Similarities in the phenotype observed in women with FSH receptor mutation and in FSH receptor knockout mice have clearly established a critical role of this protein in normal gonadal function. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the exonic region of the FSH receptor gene have been shown to be associated with altered ovarian response in subjects undergoing gonadotrophin treatment. Recent in-vitro studies have shown that the A allele at the -29 position in the 5 untranslated region of the FSH receptor gene is associated with impaired transcriptional activity. Differential expression of the FSH receptor and its function may be one of the factors responsible for altered ovarian response. These observations prompted a study of the association between FSH receptor genotype at the -29 position and ovarian response in women undergoing gonadotrophin treatment. Analysis of the data revealed that the subjects with AA genotype at the -29 position required the highest amount of exogenous FSH for ovulation induction, and oestradiol concentrations before the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration were significantly lower (P = 0.015) compared with the GA genotype. The number of pre-ovulatory follicles and retrieved oocytes were lowest in the subjects with AA genotype. These results indicate that the AA genotype at position -29 may be associated with the poor ovarian response.
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HOXA10 signals on the highway through pregnancy.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Implantation represents the remarkable synchronization between the development of the embryo and the differentiation of the endometrium. It depends on uterine-dependent and embryo-specific events, which are critically and sequentially coordinated. A plethora of molecules have been identified which play major roles before and after embryo implantation. In recent years HomeoboxA10 (HOXA10) has emerged as one of the most promising candidates which regulate the events occurring in the maternal compartment for successful establishment of pregnancy. HOXA10 is a transcription factor that is crucial for development and patterning of the uterus during embryogenesis. In the adult endometrium, HOXA10 is expressed in a menstrual cycle dependent manner and it is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones and embryonic signals, HOXA10 is required for uterine receptivity and implantation, and is a key regulator of decidualization. In the decidua, HOXA10 is involved in regulation of cell cycle and local immunomodulation. The present review summarizes the events that are regulated by HOXA10 in embryo implantation and decidualization.
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AP-1 transcription factors, mucin-type molecules and MMPs regulate the IL-11 mediated invasiveness of JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo trophoblastic cells.
PLoS ONE
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This study examines the IL-11 mediated activation of downstream signaling and expression of effector molecules to resolve the controversies associated with the IL-11 mediated regulation of the invasiveness of two commonly used trophoblastic cell models viz. JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells. It has been reported that IL-11 increases the invasiveness of JEG-3 cells while, reduces the invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Invasion assay performed simultaneously for both the cell lines confirmed the above findings. In addition, HTR-8/SVneo cells showed a higher basal invasiveness than JEG-3 cells. Western blot showed the IL-11 mediated activation of STAT3(tyr705) and STAT1(tyr701) in both the cell lines. However, IL-11 activated the ERK1/2 phosphorylation in JEG-3 cells but, inhibited it in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Within 10 min of IL-11 treatment, p-STAT3(tyr705) was localized inside the nucleus of both the cell lines but, there was enhanced co-localization of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1/3 (PIAS1/3) and p-STAT3(tyr705) in HTR-8/SVneo cells and not in JEG-3 cells. This could be reason for the poor responsiveness of STAT3 responsive genes like mucin 1 (MUC1) in HTR-8/SVneo cells and not in JEG-3 cells. Further, microarray analysis of the IL-11 treated cells revealed differential responsiveness of JEG-3 as compared to HTR-8/SVneo cells. Several family of genes like activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors (Jun and Fos), mucin-type molecules, MMP23B etc showed enhanced expression in IL-11 treated JEG-3 cells while, there was no response or decrease in their expression in IL-11 treated HTR-8/SVneo cells. Expression of these molecules was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, HTR-8/SVneo cells also showed a significant decrease in the expression of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 upon IL-11 treatment. Hence, IL-11 mediated differential activation of signaling and expression of effector molecules is responsible for the differential invasive response of JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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