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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sevelamer Does Not Decrease Lipopolysaccharide or Soluble CD14 Levels But Decreases Soluble Tissue Factor, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, and Oxidized LDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals With Untreated HIV Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits.
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The Clinical Characteristics and Pathological Patterns of Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis in HIV-Infected Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN), a form of immune complex GN, is not well-defined in HIV-infected patients. This study characterizes PIGN in this patients' population and determine the impact of histopathological patterns on renal outcome and mortality.
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Hepatitis C viremia and the risk of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected individuals.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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?The role of active hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk has not been clarified.
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Top 10 developments in lupus nephritis.
Curr Rheumatol Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Lupus nephritis affects up to 60 % of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Traditionally, it has been treated with high-dose immunosuppression consisting of cyclophosphamide and prednisone; however, recent trials have demonstrated mycophenolate mofetil as a safe and effective alternative for both induction and maintenance of disease. Other progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, outcomes in renal transplantation, and associations with genetic risk factors. This review highlights key developments in our understanding of lupus nephritis over the past decade.
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Comparison of risk factors and outcomes in HIV immune complex kidney disease and HIV-associated nephropathy.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is well described, but the clinical features of a group of renal pathologies characterized by Ig or immune complex depositions referred to as HIV-associated immune complex kidney disease (HIVICK) have not been well established. The objective of this study is to assess risk factors for HIVICK compared with contemporaneous control participants.
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Blood pressure excursions below the cerebral autoregulation threshold during cardiac surgery are associated with acute kidney injury.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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To determine whether mean arterial blood pressure excursions below the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with acute kidney injury after surgery.
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HIV Viremia and T-Cell Activation Differentially Affect the Performance of Glomerular Filtration Rate Equations Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Serum creatinine and cystatin C are used as markers of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The performance of these GFR markers relative to exogenously measured GFR (mGFR) in HIV-positive individuals is not well established.
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APOL1 risk variants predict histopathology and progression to ESRD in HIV-related kidney disease.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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With earlier institution of antiretroviral therapy, kidney diseases other than HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) predominate in HIV-infected persons. Outcomes for these diseases are typically worse among those infected with HIV, but the reasons for this are not clear. Here, we examined the role of APOL1 risk variants in predicting renal histopathology and progression to ESRD in 98 HIV-infected African Americans with non-HIVAN kidney disease on biopsy. We used survival analysis to determine time to ESRD associated with APOL1 genotype. Among the 29 patients with two APOL1 risk alleles, the majority (76%) had FSGS and 10% had hypertensive nephrosclerosis. In contrast, among the 54 patients with one APOL1 risk allele, 47% had immune-complex GN as the predominant lesion and only 23% had FSGS. Among the 25 patients with no APOL1 risk allele, 40% had immune-complex GN and 12% had FSGS. In 310 person-years of observation, 29 patients progressed to ESRD. In adjusted analyses, individuals with two APOL1 risk alleles had a nearly three-fold higher risk for ESRD compared with those with one or zero risk alleles (P=0.03). In summary, these data demonstrate an association between APOL1 variants and renal outcomes in non-HIVAN kidney disease, suggesting a possible use for APOL1 genotyping to help guide the care of HIV-infected patients.
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The impact of hepatitis C coinfection on kidney disease related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): a biopsy study.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Approximately 1 in 4 individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States is coinfected with the hepatitis C virus. Both conditions increase the risk for the development and progression of kidney disease. The effect, however, of coexisting HIV and hepatitis C infection on the spectrum and progression of kidney disease is not well known. To compare the clinical features, histopathologic kidney diagnoses, and proportion of individuals progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), we reviewed the clinical records of HIV-infected individuals with and without hepatitis C coinfection who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous kidney biopsies between February 7, 1995, and March 30, 2009.Of the 249 HIV-infected individuals included in this study, 58% were coinfected with hepatitis C. Coinfected individuals were older (mean age, 46 ± 7 vs. 44 ± 10 yr, respectively; p < 0.01) and more likely to have used illicit drugs (85% vs. 14%, respectively; p < 0.01) compared to HIV-infected individuals without hepatitis C. HIV-associated nephropathy was the most common histopathologic diagnosis in both groups. Immune-complex glomerulonephritides (ICGNs), including lupus-like nephritis, postinfectious glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulopathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, and nonspecific ICGNs, occurred more frequently in individuals coinfected with hepatitis C than in those not coinfected (22% vs. 11%, respectively; p = 0.02). Although the proportion of those who died was similar between the 2 groups, hepatitis C coinfection was independently associated with a greater risk of progression to ESKD (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.99; p = 0.02).The current study demonstrates that coinfection with hepatitis C in individuals infected with HIV predisposes these individuals to immune-complex glomerulonephritides and is associated with increased risk of ESKD in the biopsied population.
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Decreased kidney function in a community-based cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-negative individuals in Rakai, Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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High prevalences of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported from HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa when initiating antiretroviral therapy. However little is known about natural history HIV-related kidney disease or about background rates of reduced GFR in HIV-negative individuals in this region.
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Recent developments in HIV-related kidney disease.
HIV Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Although kidney disease has been a recognized complication of HIV infection since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, its epidemiology, underlying causes and treatment have evolved in developed countries where HAART has been widely available. HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV immune complex-mediated kidney disease were the prominent renal diagnoses in the earlier period of the HIV epidemic. While HIV immune complex-mediated kidney disease remains a common finding among HIV-infected individuals with kidney disease, the incidence of HIV-associated nephropathy has been diminishing in developed countries. The role of the metabolic effects of long-term HAART exposure and nephrotoxicity of certain antiretroviral medications on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease is now of increasing concern. The long-term clinical implications of acute kidney injury among HIV-infected persons are increasingly recognized. Kidney disease in HIV-infected persons continues to be a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in this patient population; therefore, early recognition and treatment of kidney disease are imperative in lessening the impact of kidney disease on the health of HIV-infected individuals. This review focuses on recent developments and ongoing challenges in the understanding, diagnosis and management of HIV-related kidney disease.
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Characteristics of patients with HIV and biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with HIV infection and biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis (AIN).
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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: what the hospitalist needs to know.
J Hosp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has now been linked to gadolinium-based contrast (GBC) exposure in those with compromised kidney function, particularly those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). When ESRD is present, symptoms can be quite devastating for the patient including severe pain and immobility and even death. For those at risk, avoidance of GBC exposure, whenever possible, is absolutely essential to prevent this potentially devastating complication. Identifying those at risk depends in some circumstances on appropriate recognition of renal dysfunction and understanding appropriate use of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation formulas. Although hemodialysis (but not peritoneal dialysis) removes gadolinium, the availability of dialysis should never be used as a justification for GBC use in this high-risk population. Unfortunately there is a lack of a universally effective therapy. Resolution of acute kidney injury (AKI) appears to attenuate disease in most cases, while kidney transplantation has been associated with variable success.
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Predictors of complication after percutaneous ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy in HIV-infected individuals: possible role of hepatitis C and HIV co-infection.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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HIV-infected patients often undergo kidney biopsy. The risks of percutaneous ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy in this population are not well established.
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A prospective study of protein excretion using short-interval timed urine collections in patients with lupus nephritis.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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The 24-h urine protein-to-creatinine ratio is the gold standard in evaluating proteinuria in lupus nephritis; however, the urine collection is inconvenient to the patient. Random spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratios, although convenient, have poor agreement with the 24-h ratios in these patients. Here, we sought to define a timed collection interval providing accurate and precise data and patient convenience. Urine from 41 patients, in 2 medical centers, with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis was collected at 6-h intervals for 24 h. The protein-to-creatinine ratio of each short collection was then compared with that of a 24-h collection made by combining the 6-h samples. A first morning void and spot urine samples were collected before and after the 24-h collection, respectively. There was significant diurnal variation with peak proteinuria at 6-12 h and nadir at 18-24 h. Each 6-h collection showed excellent correlation and concordance with the 24-h protein-to-creatinine ratio, but the 12-24-h interval had the best agreement. In contrast to the random spot urines, the first morning void also had excellent correlation and concordance, but underestimated the 24-h protein-to-creatinine ratio. Our study shows that a 12-h overnight urine collection is the best surrogate, with excellent agreement with the 24-h protein-to-creatinine ratio, and it is convenient for patients. There was little variability between centers, an important feature for clinical trials.
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Randomized, double-blind, placebo-matched, multicenter trial of abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine with lopinavir/ritonavir for initial HIV treatment.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and tenofovir DF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) are widely used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial HIV-1 treatment. This is the first completed, randomized clinical trial to directly compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these agents, each in combination with lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral-naive patients.
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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: incidence, associations, and effect of risk factor assessment--report of 33 cases.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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To describe the presentation and clinical course of patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at a large acute-care hospital, to evaluate the overall incidence of NSF, and to assess the effect of a hospital-wide policy regarding gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) use on NSF incidence.
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HIV-associated nephropathy patients with and without apolipoprotein L1 gene variants have similar clinical and pathological characteristics.
Kidney Int.
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Recently, an association was found between nondiabetic kidney disease in African Americans and two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene, encoding apolipoprotein L1. In this study we determined the frequency of APOL1 risk variants in patients with biopsy-proven HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and distinctive pathological characteristics potentially driven by those risk variants. Among 76 patients with HIVAN, 60 were successfully genotyped for APOL1 G1 and G2 polymorphisms. In this cohort, 37 had two risk alleles, 18 were heterozygous, and 5 had neither risk variant. There were no differences in the pathological findings of HIVAN and the number of APOL1 risk alleles. Further, the progression to end-stage kidney disease or death did not differ by the number of risk alleles. Median renal survival was 9.3 months in patients with zero or one risk allele compared to 11.7 months in patients with two APOL1 risk alleles. Thus, our study suggests that although the majority of African-American patients with HIVAN have two APOL1 risk alleles other as yet unknown factors in the host, including genetic risk variants and environmental or viral factors, may influence the development of this disorder in those with zero or one APOL1 risk allele.
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False-negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen in a vaccinated dialysis patient with a high level of HBV DNA in the United States.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
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Screening with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is highly recommended for at-risk individuals. Mutations in the HBsAg can result in an inability to detect the virus during routine screening. We describe a hemodialysis patient found to have high levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and HBV antibody but negative HBsAg on two routine assays.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.