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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their prevalence and clinical relevance remain to be determined. Here, we performed a new screen and a meta-analysis of SHANK copy-number and coding-sequence variants in ASD. Copy-number variants were analyzed in 5,657 patients and 19,163 controls, coding-sequence variants were ascertained in 760 to 2,147 patients and 492 to 1,090 controls (depending on the gene), and, individuals carrying de novo or truncating SHANK mutations underwent an extensive clinical investigation. Copy-number variants and truncating mutations in SHANK genes were present in ?1% of patients with ASD: mutations in SHANK1 were rare (0.04%) and present in males with normal IQ and autism; mutations in SHANK2 were present in 0.17% of patients with ASD and mild intellectual disability; mutations in SHANK3 were present in 0.69% of patients with ASD and up to 2.12% of the cases with moderate to profound intellectual disability. In summary, mutations of the SHANK genes were detected in the whole spectrum of autism with a gradient of severity in cognitive impairment. Given the rare frequency of SHANK1 and SHANK2 deleterious mutations, the clinical relevance of these genes remains to be ascertained. In contrast, the frequency and the penetrance of SHANK3 mutations in individuals with ASD and intellectual disability-more than 1 in 50-warrant its consideration for mutation screening in clinical practice.
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Common and rare variant analysis in early-onset bipolar disorder vulnerability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Bipolar disorder is one of the most common and devastating psychiatric disorders whose mechanisms remain largely unknown. Despite a strong genetic contribution demonstrated by twin and adoption studies, a polygenic background influences this multifactorial and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. To identify susceptibility genes on a severe and more familial sub-form of the disease, we conducted a genome-wide association study focused on 211 patients of French origin with an early age at onset and 1,719 controls, and then replicated our data on a German sample of 159 patients with early-onset bipolar disorder and 998 controls. Replication study and subsequent meta-analysis revealed two genes encoding proteins involved in phosphoinositide signalling pathway (PLEKHA5 and PLCXD3). We performed additional replication studies in two datasets from the WTCCC (764 patients and 2,938 controls) and the GAIN-TGen cohorts (1,524 patients and 1,436 controls) and found nominal P-values both in the PLCXD3 and PLEKHA5 loci with the WTCCC sample. In addition, we identified in the French cohort one affected individual with a deletion at the PLCXD3 locus and another one carrying a missense variation in PLCXD3 (p.R93H), both supporting a role of the phosphatidylinositol pathway in early-onset bipolar disorder vulnerability. Although the current nominally significant findings should be interpreted with caution and need replication in independent cohorts, this study supports the strategy to combine genetic approaches to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
James R Cerhan, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Hervé Ghesquières, James McKay, Sophia S Wang, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Lucia Conde, Paul I W de Bakker, Alexandra Nieters, David Cox, Laurie Burdett, Alain Monnereau, Christopher R Flowers, Anneclaire J De Roos, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Rebecca D Jackson, Eleanor Kane, Lauren R Teras, Mark P Purdue, Claire M Vajdic, John J Spinelli, Graham G Giles, Demetrius Albanes, Rachel S Kelly, Mariagrazia Zucca, Kimberly A Bertrand, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Charles Lawrence, Amy Hutchinson, Degui Zhi, Thomas M Habermann, Brian K Link, Anne J Novak, Ahmet Dogan, Yan W Asmann, Mark Liebow, Carrie A Thompson, Stephen M Ansell, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Amelie S Veron, Diana Zelenika, Hervé Tilly, Corinne Haioun, Thierry Jo Molina, Henrik Hjalgrim, Bengt Glimelius, Hans-Olov Adami, Paige M Bracci, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Elizabeth A Holly, Wendy Cozen, Patricia Hartge, Lindsay M Morton, Richard K Severson, Lesley F Tinker, Kari E North, Nikolaus Becker, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, Tracy Lightfoot, Simon Crouch, Alex Smith, Eve Roman, W Ryan Diver, Kenneth Offit, Andrew Zelenetz, Robert J Klein, Danylo J Villano, Tongzhang Zheng, Yawei Zhang, Theodore R Holford, Anne Kricker, Jenny Turner, Melissa C Southey, Jacqueline Clavel, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Elio Riboli, Paolo Vineis, Rudolph Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Roel C H Vermeulen, Heiner Boeing, Anne Tjonneland, Emanuele Angelucci, Simonetta Di Lollo, Marco Rais, Brenda M Birmann, Francine Laden, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Yuanqing Ye, Brian C H Chiu, Joshua Sampson, Liming Liang, Ju-Hyun Park, Charles C Chung, Dennis D Weisenburger, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Joseph F Fraumeni, Susan L Slager, Xifeng Wu, Silvia de Sanjosé, Karin E Smedby, Gilles Salles, Christine F Skibola, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 × 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 × 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 × 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 × 10(-13) and 3.63 × 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
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Global Genetic Architecture of an Erythroid Quantitative Trait Locus, HMIP-2.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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HMIP-2 is a human quantitative trait locus affecting peripheral numbers, size and hemoglobin composition of red blood cells, with a marked effect on the persistence of the fetal form of hemoglobin, HbF, in adults. The locus consists of multiple common variants in an enhancer region for MYB (chr 6q23.3), which encodes the hematopoietic transcription factor cMYB. Studying a European population cohort and four African-descended groups of patients with sickle cell anemia, we found that all share a set of two spatially separate HbF-promoting alleles at HMIP-2, termed "A" and "B." These typically occurred together ("A-B") on European chromosomes, but existed on separate homologous chromosomes in Africans. Using haplotype signatures for "A" and "B," we interrogated public population datasets. Haplotypes carrying only "A" or "B" were typical for populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The "A-B" combination was frequent in European, Asian, and Amerindian populations. Both alleles were infrequent in tropical regions, possibly undergoing negative selection by geographical factors, as has been reported for malaria with other hematological traits. We propose that the ascertainment of worldwide distribution patterns for common, HbF-promoting alleles can aid their further genetic characterization, including the investigation of gene-environment interaction during human migration and adaptation.
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Gene-wide analysis detects two new susceptibility genes for Alzheimer's disease.
Valentina Escott-Price, Celine Bellenguez, Li-San Wang, Seung-Hoan Choi, Denise Harold, Lesley Jones, Peter Holmans, Amy Gerrish, Alexey Vedernikov, Alexander Richards, Anita L Destefano, Jean-Charles Lambert, Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas, Adam C Naj, Rebecca Sims, Gyungah Jun, Joshua C Bis, Gary W Beecham, Benjamin Grenier-Boley, Giancarlo Russo, Tricia A Thornton-Wells, Nicola Denning, Albert V Smith, Vincent Chouraki, Charlene Thomas, M Arfan Ikram, Diana Zelenika, Badri N Vardarajan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Chiao-Feng Lin, Helena Schmidt, Brian Kunkle, Melanie L Dunstan, Maria Vronskaya, , Andrew D Johnson, Agustin Ruíz, Marie-Therese Bihoreau, Christiane Reitz, Florence Pasquier, Paul Hollingworth, Olivier Hanon, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dominique Campion, Paul K Crane, Clinton Baldwin, Tim Becker, Vilmundur Gudnason, Carlos Cruchaga, David Craig, Najaf Amin, Claudine Berr, Oscar L Lopez, Philip L De Jager, Vincent Deramecourt, Janet A Johnston, Denis Evans, Simon Lovestone, Luc Letenneur, Isabel Hernández, David C Rubinsztein, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Kristel Sleegers, Alison M Goate, Nathalie Fiévet, Matthew J Huentelman, Michael Gill, Kristelle Brown, M Ilyas Kamboh, Lina Keller, Pascale Barberger-Gateau, Bernadette McGuinness, Eric B Larson, Amanda J Myers, Carole Dufouil, Stephen Todd, David Wallon, Seth Love, Ekaterina Rogaeva, John Gallacher, Peter St George-Hyslop, Jordi Clarimón, Alberto Lleó, Anthony Bayer, Debby W Tsuang, Lei Yu, Magda Tsolaki, Paola Bossù, Gianfranco Spalletta, Petra Proitsi, John Collinge, Sandro Sorbi, Florentino Sanchez Garcia, Nick C Fox, John Hardy, Maria Candida Deniz Naranjo, Paolo Bosco, Robert Clarke, Carol Brayne, Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Michelangelo Mancuso, Gabriele Siciliano, Susanne Moebus, Patrizia Mecocci, Maria Del Zompo, Wolfgang Maier, Harald Hampel, Alberto Pilotto, Ana Frank-García, Francesco Panza, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Paolo Caffarra, Benedetta Nacmias, William Perry, Manuel Mayhaus, Lars Lannfelt, Hakon Hakonarson, Sabrina Pichler, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Martin Ingelsson, Duane Beekly, Victoria Alvarez, Fanggeng Zou, Otto Valladares, Steven G Younkin, Eliecer Coto, Kara L Hamilton-Nelson, Wei Gu, Cristina Razquin, Pau Pastor, Ignacio Mateo, Michael J Owen, Kelley M Faber, Palmi V Jonsson, Onofre Combarros, Michael C O'Donovan, Laura B Cantwell, Hilkka Soininen, Deborah Blacker, Simon Mead, Thomas H Mosley, David A Bennett, Tamara B Harris, Laura Fratiglioni, Clive Holmes, Renée F A G de Bruijn, Peter Passmore, Thomas J Montine, Karolien Bettens, Jerome I Rotter, Alexis Brice, Kevin Morgan, Tatiana M Foroud, Walter A Kukull, Didier Hannequin, John F Powell, Michael A Nalls, Karen Ritchie, Kathryn L Lunetta, John S K Kauwe, Eric Boerwinkle, Matthias Riemenschneider, Mercè Boada, Mikko Hiltunen, Eden R Martin, Reinhold Schmidt, Dan Rujescu, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Richard Mayeux, Christophe Tzourio, Albert Hofman, Markus M Nöthen, Caroline Graff, Bruce M Psaty, Jonathan L Haines, Mark Lathrop, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Lenore J Launer, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Lindsay A Farrer, Cornelia M van Duijn, Alfredo Ramírez, Sudha Seshadri, Gerard D Schellenberg, Philippe Amouyel, Julie Williams.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alzheimer's disease is a common debilitating dementia with known heritability, for which 20 late onset susceptibility loci have been identified, but more remain to be discovered. This study sought to identify new susceptibility genes, using an alternative gene-wide analytical approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 m genotypes from 25,580 Alzheimer's cases and 48,466 controls.
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Association of Genetic Variants in CDK6 and XRCC1 with the Risk of Dysplastic Nevi in Melanoma-Prone Families.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Dysplastic nevi (DN) is a strong risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and it frequently occurs in melanoma-prone families. To identify genetic variants for DN, we genotyped 677 tagSNPs in 38 melanoma candidate genes that are involved in pigmentation, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and melanocyte proliferation pathways in a total of 504 individuals (310 with DN, 194 without DN) from 53 melanoma-prone families (23 CDKN2A mutation positive and 30 negative). Conditional logistic regression, conditioning on families, was used to estimate the association between DN and each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) separately, adjusted for age, sex, CMM, and CDKN2A status. P-values for SNPs in the same gene were combined to yield gene-specific P-values. Two genes, CDK6 (cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and XRCC1, were significantly associated with DN after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (P=0.0001 and 0.00025, respectively), whereas neither gene was significantly associated with CMM. Associations for CDK6 SNPs were stronger in CDKN2A mutation-positive families (rs2079147, Pinteraction=0.0033), whereas XRCC1 SNPs had similar effects in mutation-positive and -negative families. The association for one of the associated SNPs in XRCC1 (rs25487) was replicated in two independent data sets (random-effect meta-analysis: P<0.0001). Our findings suggest that some genetic variants may contribute to DN risk independently of their association with CMM in melanoma-prone families.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 August 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.316.
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Combined sequence-based and genetic mapping analysis of complex traits in outbred rats.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Genetic mapping on fully sequenced individuals is transforming understanding of the relationship between molecular variation and variation in complex traits. Here we report a combined sequence and genetic mapping analysis in outbred rats that maps 355 quantitative trait loci for 122 phenotypes. We identify 35 causal genes involved in 31 phenotypes, implicating new genes in models of anxiety, heart disease and multiple sclerosis. The relationship between sequence and genetic variation is unexpectedly complex: at approximately 40% of quantitative trait loci, a single sequence variant cannot account for the phenotypic effect. Using comparable sequence and mapping data from mice, we show that the extent and spatial pattern of variation in inbred rats differ substantially from those of inbred mice and that the genetic variants in orthologous genes rarely contribute to the same phenotype in both species.
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Genome-wide association study of multiple congenital heart disease phenotypes identifies a susceptibility locus for atrial septal defect at chromosome 4p16.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of congenital heart disease (CHD). Our discovery cohort comprised 1,995 CHD cases and 5,159 controls and included affected individuals from each of the 3 major clinical CHD categories (with septal, obstructive and cyanotic defects). When all CHD phenotypes were considered together, no region achieved genome-wide significant association. However, a region on chromosome 4p16, adjacent to the MSX1 and STX18 genes, was associated (P = 9.5 × 10??) with the risk of ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) in the discovery cohort (N = 340 cases), and this association was replicated in a further 417 ASD cases and 2,520 controls (replication P = 5.0 × 10??; odds ratio (OR) in replication cohort = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.65; combined P = 2.6 × 10?¹?). Genotype accounted for ~9% of the population-attributable risk of ASD.
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Mutations in TUBG1, DYNC1H1, KIF5C and KIF2A cause malformations of cortical development and microcephaly.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The genetic causes of malformations of cortical development (MCD) remain largely unknown. Here we report the discovery of multiple pathogenic missense mutations in TUBG1, DYNC1H1 and KIF2A, as well as a single germline mosaic mutation in KIF5C, in subjects with MCD. We found a frequent recurrence of mutations in DYNC1H1, implying that this gene is a major locus for unexplained MCD. We further show that the mutations in KIF5C, KIF2A and DYNC1H1 affect ATP hydrolysis, productive protein folding and microtubule binding, respectively. In addition, we show that suppression of mouse Tubg1 expression in vivo interferes with proper neuronal migration, whereas expression of altered ?-tubulin proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae disrupts normal microtubule behavior. Our data reinforce the importance of centrosomal and microtubule-related proteins in cortical development and strongly suggest that microtubule-dependent mitotic and postmitotic processes are major contributors to the pathogenesis of MCD.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pulmonary fibrosis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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We performed a genome-wide association study of non-Hispanic, white individuals with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs; n = 1,616) and controls (n = 4,683), with follow-up replication analyses in 876 cases and 1,890 controls. We confirmed association with TERT at 5p15, MUC5B at 11p15 and the 3q26 region near TERC, and we identified seven newly associated loci (Pmeta = 2.4 × 10(-8) to 1.1 × 10(-19)), including FAM13A (4q22), DSP (6p24), OBFC1 (10q24), ATP11A (13q34), DPP9 (19p13) and chromosomal regions 7q22 and 15q14-15. Our results suggest that genes involved in host defense, cell-cell adhesion and DNA repair contribute to risk of fibrotic IIPs.
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Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.
Lars G Fritsche, Wei Chen, Matthew Schu, Brian L Yaspan, Yi Yu, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Donald J Zack, Satoshi Arakawa, Valentina Cipriani, Stephan Ripke, Robert P Igo, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Xueling Sim, Daniel E Weeks, Robyn H Guymer, Joanna E Merriam, Peter J Francis, Gregory Hannum, Anita Agarwal, Ana Maria Armbrecht, Isabelle Audo, Tin Aung, Gaetano R Barile, Mustapha Benchaboune, Alan C Bird, Paul N Bishop, Kari E Branham, Matthew Brooks, Alexander J Brucker, William H Cade, Melinda S Cain, Peter A Campochiaro, Chi-Chao Chan, Ching-Yu Cheng, Emily Y Chew, Kimberly A Chin, Itay Chowers, David G Clayton, Radu Cojocaru, Yvette P Conley, Belinda K Cornes, Mark J Daly, Baljean Dhillon, Albert O Edwards, Evangelos Evangelou, Jesen Fagerness, Henry A Ferreyra, James S Friedman, Asbjorg Geirsdottir, Ronnie J George, Christian Gieger, Neel Gupta, Stephanie A Hagstrom, Simon P Harding, Christos Haritoglou, John R Heckenlively, Frank G Holz, Guy Hughes, John P A Ioannidis, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Peronne Joseph, Gyungah Jun, Yoichiro Kamatani, Nicholas Katsanis, Claudia N Keilhauer, Jane C Khan, Ivana K Kim, Yutaka Kiyohara, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Jaclyn L Kovach, Igor Kozak, Clara J Lee, Kristine E Lee, Peter Lichtner, Andrew J Lotery, Thomas Meitinger, Paul Mitchell, Saddek Mohand-Saïd, Anthony T Moore, Denise J Morgan, Margaux A Morrison, Chelsea E Myers, Adam C Naj, Yusuke Nakamura, Yukinori Okada, Anton Orlin, M Carolina Ortube, Mohammad I Othman, Chris Pappas, Kyu Hyung Park, Gayle J T Pauer, Neal S Peachey, Olivier Poch, Rinki Ratna Priya, Robyn Reynolds, Andrea J Richardson, Raymond Ripp, Guenther Rudolph, Euijung Ryu, José-Alain Sahel, Debra A Schaumberg, Hendrik P N Scholl, Stephen G Schwartz, William K Scott, Humma Shahid, Haraldur Sigurdsson, Giuliana Silvestri, Theru A Sivakumaran, R Theodore Smith, Lucia Sobrin, Eric H Souied, Dwight E Stambolian, Hreinn Stefansson, Gwen M Sturgill-Short, Atsushi Takahashi, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Barbara J Truitt, Evangelia E Tsironi, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Lingam Vijaya, Johannes R Vingerling, Eranga N Vithana, Andrew R Webster, H-Erich Wichmann, Thomas W Winkler, Tien Y Wong, Alan F Wright, Diana Zelenika, Ming Zhang, Ling Zhao, Kang Zhang, Michael L Klein, Gregory S Hageman, G Mark Lathrop, Kari Stefansson, Rando Allikmets, Paul N Baird, Michael B Gorin, Jie Jin Wang, Caroline C W Klaver, Johanna M Seddon, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Sudha K Iyengar, John R W Yates, Anand Swaroop, Bernhard H F Weber, Michiaki Kubo, Margaret M DeAngelis, Thierry Léveillard, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jonathan L Haines, Lindsay A Farrer, Iris M Heid, Gonçalo R Abecasis, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced AMD cases and >60,000 controls of European and Asian ancestry. We identified 19 loci associated at P < 5 × 10(-8). These loci show enrichment for genes involved in the regulation of complement activity, lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. Our results include seven loci with associations reaching P < 5 × 10(-8) for the first time, near the genes COL8A1-FILIP1L, IER3-DDR1, SLC16A8, TGFBR1, RAD51B, ADAMTS9 and B3GALTL. A genetic risk score combining SNP genotypes from all loci showed similar ability to distinguish cases and controls in all samples examined. Our findings provide new directions for biological, genetic and therapeutic studies of AMD.
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Quantitative Variation in Plasma Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Activity Shows Allelic Heterogeneity in the ABO Blood Group Locus.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) occupies a pivotal role in cardiovascular homeostasis. Major loci for plasma ACE have been identified at ACE on Chromosome 17 and at ABO on Chromosome 9. We sought to characterise the genetic architecture of plasma ACE at finer resolution in two populations. We carried out a GWAS in 1810 individuals of Japanese ethnicity; this identified signals at ACE and ABO that together accounted for nearly half of the population variability of the trait. We conducted measured haplotype analysis at the ABO locus in 1425 members of 248 British families using haplotypes of three SNPs, which together tagged the alleles responsible for the principal blood group antigens A1, A2, B and O. Type O alleles were associated with intermediate plasma ACE activity compared to Type A1 alleles (in whom plasma ACE activity was ?36% lower) and Type B alleles (in whom plasma ACE activity was ?36% higher). We demonstrated heterogeneity among A alleles: A2 alleles were associated with plasma ACE activity that was very similar to the O alleles. Variation at ACE accounted for 35% of the trait variance, and variation at ABO accounted for 15%. A further 10% could be ascribed to polygenic effects.
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Deciphering the 8q24.21 association for glioma.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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We have previously identified tagSNPs at 8q24.21 influencing glioma risk. We have sought to fine-map the location of the functional basis of this association using data from four genome-wide association studies, comprising a total of 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls. To improve marker density across the 700 kb region, we imputed genotypes using 1000 Genomes Project data and high-coverage sequencing data generated on 253 individuals. Analysis revealed an imputed low-frequency SNP rs55705857 (P = 2.24 × 10(-38)) which was sufficient to fully capture the 8q24.21 association. Analysis by glioma subtype showed the association with rs55705857 confined to non-glioblastoma multiforme (non-GBM) tumours (P = 1.07 × 10(-67)). Validation of the non-GBM association was shown in three additional datasets (625 non-GBM cases, 2412 controls; P = 1.41 × 10(-28)). In the pooled analysis, the odds ratio for low-grade glioma associated with rs55705857 was 4.3 (P = 2.31 × 10(-94)). rs55705857 maps to a highly evolutionarily conserved sequence within the long non-coding RNA CCDC26 raising the possibility of direct functionality. These data provide additional insights into the aetiological basis of glioma development.
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A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI.
Mark M Iles, Matthew H Law, Simon N Stacey, Jiali Han, Shenying Fang, Ruth Pfeiffer, Mark Harland, Stuart MacGregor, John C Taylor, Katja K Aben, Lars A Akslen, Marie-Françoise Avril, Esther Azizi, Bert Bakker, Kristrun R Benediktsdottir, Wilma Bergman, Giovanna Bianchi Scarrà, Kevin M Brown, Donato Calista, Valérie Chaudru, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Anne E Cust, Florence Demenais, Anne C de Waal, Tadeusz Dębniak, David E Elder, Eitan Friedman, Pilar Galán, Paola Ghiorzo, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Alisa M Goldstein, Nelleke A Gruis, Johan Hansson, Per Helsing, Marko Hočevar, Veronica Höiom, John L Hopper, Christian Ingvar, Marjolein Janssen, Mark A Jenkins, Peter A Kanetsky, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Julie Lang, G Mark Lathrop, Sancy Leachman, Jeffrey E Lee, Jan Lubiński, Rona M Mackie, Graham J Mann, Nicholas G Martin, Jose I Mayordomo, Anders Molven, Suzanne Mulder, Eduardo Nagore, Srdjan Novaković, Ichiro Okamoto, Jon H Olafsson, Hakan Olsson, Hubert Pehamberger, Ketty Peris, Maria Pilar Grasa, Dolores Planelles, Susana Puig, Joan Anton Puig-Butille, Juliette Randerson-Moor, Celia Requena, Licia Rivoltini, Monica Rodolfo, Mario Santinami, Bardur Sigurgeirsson, Helen Snowden, Fengju Song, Patrick Sulem, Kristin Thorisdottir, Rainer Tuominen, Patricia Van Belle, Nienke van der Stoep, Michelle M van Rossum, Qingyi Wei, Judith Wendt, Diana Zelenika, Mingfeng Zhang, Maria Teresa Landi, Gudmar Thorleifsson, D Timothy Bishop, Christopher I Amos, Nicholas K Hayward, Kari Stefansson, Julia A Newton Bishop, Jennifer H Barrett, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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We report the results of an association study of melanoma that is based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed an association between several SNPs in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined P = 3.6 × 10(-12), per-allele odds ratio for allele A = 1.16). In addition to identifying a new melanoma-susceptibility locus, this is to our knowledge the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and exhibit no association with BMI. This suggests FTOs function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity.
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Childhood acute leukemia, maternal beverage intake during pregnancy, and metabolic polymorphisms.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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This study aimed to analyze the associations between childhood acute leukemia (AL) and maternal caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy, and to explore interactions between caffeinated and alcoholic beverage consumption and polymorphisms of enzymes involved in caffeine and ethanol metabolisms.
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AP1S2 is mutated in X-linked Dandy-Walker malformation with intellectual disability, basal ganglia disease and seizures (Pettigrew syndrome).
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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MRXS5 or Pettigrew syndrome was described 20 years ago in a four generation family including nine affected individuals presenting with facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, Dandy-Walker malformation and inconstant choreoathetosis. Four individuals had iron deposition in the basal ganglia seen on MRI or at autopsy. The mutation causing Pettigrew has remained elusive since the initial description of the condition. We report the identification of a mutation in the X-linked AP1S2 gene in the original Pettigrew syndrome family using X-chromosome exome sequencing. We report additional phenotype details for several of the affected individuals, allowing us to further refine the phenotype corresponding to this X-linked intellectual disability syndrome. The AP1S2 c.426+1?G>T mutation segregates with the disease in the Pettigrew syndrome family and results in loss of 46 amino acids in the clathrin adaptor complex small chain domain that spans most of the AP1S2 protein sequence. The mutation reported here in AP1S2 is the first mutation that is not predicted to cause a premature termination of the coding sequence or absence of the AP1S2 protein. Although most of the families affected by a mutation in AP1S2 were initially described as having different disorders assigned to at least three different OMIM numbers (MIM 300629, 300630 and 304340), our analysis of the phenotype shows that they are all the same syndrome with recognition complicated by highly variable expressivity that is seen within as well as between families and is probably not explained by differences in mutation severity.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 12 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.135.
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Genome-wide association study identifies loci on 12q24 and 13q32 associated with tetralogy of Fallot.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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We conducted a genome-wide association study to search for risk alleles associated with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), using a northern European discovery set of 835 cases and 5159 controls. A region on chromosome 12q24 was associated (P = 1.4 × 10(-7)) and replicated convincingly (P = 3.9 × 10(-5)) in 798 cases and 2931 controls [per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27 in replication cohort, P = 7.7 × 10(-11) in combined populations]. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the glypican 5 gene on chromosome 13q32 were also associated (P = 1.7 × 10(-7)) and replicated convincingly (P = 1.2 × 10(-5)) in 789 cases and 2927 controls (per allele OR = 1.31 in replication cohort, P = 3.03 × 10(-11) in combined populations). Four additional regions on chromosomes 10, 15 and 16 showed suggestive association accompanied by nominal replication. This study, the first genome-wide association study of a congenital heart malformation phenotype, provides evidence that common genetic variation influences the risk of TOF.
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CpG methylation changes within the IL2RA promoter in type 1 diabetes of childhood onset.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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None of the polymorphic variants of the IL2RA gene found associated with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) was shown to have a functional effect. To test if the epigenetic variation could play a role at this locus, we studied the methylation of 6 CpGs located within the proximal promoter of IL2RA gene in 252 T1D patients compared with 286 age-matched controls. We found that DNA methylation at CpGs -373 and -456 was slightly but significantly higher in patients than in controls (40.4 ± 4.6 vs 38.3 ± 5.4, p=1.4E4; 91.4 ± 2.8 vs 89.5 ± 5.3, p=1.8E-6), while other CpG showed a strictly comparable methylation. Among 106 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the neighboring 180 kb region, we found that 28 SNPs were associated with DNA methylation at CpG -373. Sixteen of these SNPs were known to be associated with T1D. Our findings suggest that the effect of IL2RA risk alleles on T1D may be partially mediated through epigenetic changes.
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A genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus for renal cell carcinoma on 12p11.23.
Xifeng Wu, Ghislaine Scelo, Mark P Purdue, Nathaniel Rothman, Mattias Johansson, Yuanqing Ye, Zhaoming Wang, Diana Zelenika, Lee E Moore, Christopher G Wood, Egor Prokhortchouk, Valerie Gaborieau, Kevin B Jacobs, Wong-Ho Chow, Jorge R Toro, David Zaridze, Jie Lin, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Dana Mates, Viorel Jinga, Vladimír Bencko, Alena Slamova, Ivana Holcatova, Marie Navratilova, Vladimir Janout, Paolo Boffetta, Joanne S Colt, Faith G Davis, Kendra L Schwartz, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Patricia Harnden, Christine D Berg, Ann W Hsing, Robert L Grubb, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Eric J Duell, José Ramón Quirós, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Miren Dorronsoro, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Jakob Linseisen, Börje Ljungberg, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Victoria L Stevens, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Paul D Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Tony Fletcher, Kvetoslava Koppova, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Simone Benhamou, Michelle A Hildebrandt, Xia Pu, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Amy Hutchinson, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F Fraumeni, Mark Lathrop, Konstantin G Skryabin, James D McKay, Jian Gu, Paul Brennan, Stephen J Chanock.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urologic cancer. Only two common susceptibility loci for RCC have been confirmed to date. To identify additional RCC common susceptibility loci, we conducted an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS). We analyzed 533 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with RCC in 894 cases and 1516 controls of European descent recruited from MD Anderson Cancer Center in the primary scan, and validated the top 500 SNPs in silico in 3772 cases and 8505 controls of European descent involved in the only published GWAS of RCC. We identified two common variants in linkage disequilibrium, rs718314 and rs1049380 (r(2) = 0.64, D? = 0.84), in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) gene on 12p11.23 as novel susceptibility loci for RCC (P = 8.89 × 10(-10) and P = 6.07 × 10(-9), respectively, in meta-analysis) with an allelic odds ratio of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.26] for rs718314 and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.25) for rs1049380. It has been recently identified that rs718314 in ITPR2 is associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic locus associated with both cancer risk and WHR.
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Genome-wide association study of HPV seropositivity.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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High-risk ? mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas ? cutaneous HPV types (e.g. HPV8) have been implicated in non-melanoma skin cancer. Although antibodies against the capsid protein L1 of HPV are considered as markers of cumulative exposure, not all infected persons seroconvert. To identify common genetic variants that influence HPV seroconversion, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study. Genome-wide genotyping of 316 015 single nucleotide polymorphisms was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 BeadChip in 4811 subjects from a central European case-control study of lung, head and neck and kidney cancer that had serology data available on 13 HPV types. Only one association met genome-wide significance criteria, namely that between HPV8 seropositivity and rs9357152 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-1.50 for the minor allele G; P=1.2 × 10(-10)], a common genetic variant (minor allele frequency=0.33) located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II region at 6p21.32. This association was subsequently replicated in an independent set of 2344 subjects from a Latin American case-control study of head and neck cancer (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.18-1.56, P=2.2 × 10(-5)), yielding P=1.3 × 10(-14) in the combined analysis (P-heterogeneity=0.87). No heterogeneity was noted by cancer status (controls/lung cancer cases/head and neck cancer cases/kidney cancer cases). This study provides a proof of principle that genetic variation plays a role in antibody reactivity to HPV infection.
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Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.
, Georg B Ehret, Patricia B Munroe, Kenneth M Rice, Murielle Bochud, Andrew D Johnson, Daniel I Chasman, Albert V Smith, Martin D Tobin, Germaine C Verwoert, Shih-Jen Hwang, Vasyl Pihur, Peter Vollenweider, Paul F O'Reilly, Najaf Amin, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Alexander Teumer, Nicole L Glazer, Lenore Launer, Jing Hua Zhao, Yurii Aulchenko, Simon Heath, Siim Sõber, Afshin Parsa, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Abbas Dehghan, Feng Zhang, Gavin Lucas, Andrew A Hicks, Anne U Jackson, John F Peden, Toshiko Tanaka, Sarah H Wild, Igor Rudan, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Alex N Parker, Cristiano Fava, John C Chambers, Ervin R Fox, Meena Kumari, Min Jin Go, Pim van der Harst, Wen Hong Linda Kao, Marketa Sjögren, D G Vinay, Myriam Alexander, Yasuharu Tabara, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Peter H Whincup, Yongmei Liu, Gang Shi, Johanna Kuusisto, Bamidele Tayo, Mark Seielstad, Xueling Sim, Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, Terho Lehtimäki, Giuseppe Matullo, Ying Wu, Tom R Gaunt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Matthew N Cooper, Carl G P Platou, Elin Org, Rebecca Hardy, Santosh Dahgam, Jutta Palmen, Veronique Vitart, Peter S Braund, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Adebowale Adeyemo, Walter Palmas, Harry Campbell, Barbara Ludwig, Maciej Tomaszewski, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Nicholette D Palmer, Thor Aspelund, Melissa Garcia, Yen-Pei C Chang, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Nanette I Steinle, Diederick E Grobbee, Dan E Arking, Sharon L Kardia, Alanna C Morrison, Dena Hernandez, Samer Najjar, Wendy L McArdle, David Hadley, Morris J Brown, John M Connell, Aroon D Hingorani, Ian N M Day, Debbie A Lawlor, John P Beilby, Robert W Lawrence, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Albert W Dreisbach, Yali Li, J Hunter Young, Joshua C Bis, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Linda S Adair, Nanette R Lee, Ming-Huei Chen, Matthias Olden, Cristian Pattaro, Judith A Hoffman Bolton, Anna Köttgen, Sven Bergmann, Vincent Mooser, Nish Chaturvedi, Timothy M Frayling, Muhammad Islam, Tazeen H Jafar, Jeanette Erdmann, Smita R Kulkarni, Stefan R Bornstein, Jürgen Gräßler, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Johannes Kettunen, Philip Howard, Andrew Taylor, Simonetta Guarrera, Fulvio Ricceri, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Alan B Weder, Steven C Hunt, Yan V Sun, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lori L Bonnycastle, Laura J Scott, Heather M Stringham, Leena Peltonen, Markus Perola, Erkki Vartiainen, Stefan-Martin Brand, Jan A Staessen, Thomas J Wang, Paul R Burton, María Soler Artigas, Yanbin Dong, Harold Snieder, Xiaoling Wang, Haidong Zhu, Kurt K Lohman, Megan E Rudock, Susan R Heckbert, Nicholas L Smith, Kerri L Wiggins, Ayo Doumatey, Daniel Shriner, Gudrun Veldre, Margus Viigimaa, Sanjay Kinra, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Vikal Tripathy, Carl D Langefeld, Annika Rosengren, Dag S Thelle, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Terrence Forrester, Gina Hilton, Colin A McKenzie, Tunde Salako, Naoharu Iwai, Yoshikuni Kita, Toshio Ogihara, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Tomonori Okamura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Satoshi Umemura, Susana Eyheramendy, Thomas Meitinger, H-Erich Wichmann, Yoon Shin Cho, Hyung-Lae Kim, Jong-Young Lee, James Scott, Joban S Sehmi, Weihua Zhang, Bo Hedblad, Peter Nilsson, George Davey Smith, Andrew Wong, Narisu Narisu, Alena Stančáková, Leslie J Raffel, Jie Yao, Sekar Kathiresan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, M Arfan Ikram, W T Longstreth, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Nick R G Shrine, Louise V Wain, Mario A Morken, Amy J Swift, Jaana Laitinen, Inga Prokopenko, Paavo Zitting, Jackie A Cooper, Steve E Humphries, John Danesh, Asif Rasheed, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Hugh Watkins, Stephan J L Bakker, Wiek H van Gilst, Charles S Janipalli, K Radha Mani, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Albert Hofman, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Ben A Oostra, Ayse Demirkan, Aaron Isaacs, Fernando Rivadeneira, Edward G Lakatta, Marco Orrù, Angelo Scuteri, Mika Ala-Korpela, Antti J Kangas, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Pasi Soininen, Taru Tukiainen, Peter Würtz, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Marcus Dörr, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Guangju Zhai, James F Meschia, Michael A Nalls, Pankaj Sharma, Janos Terzic, M V Kranthi Kumar, Matthew Denniff, Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska, Lynne E Wagenknecht, F Gerald R Fowkes, Fadi J Charchar, Peter E H Schwarz, Caroline Hayward, Xiuqing Guo, Charles Rotimi, Michiel L Bots, Eva Brand, Nilesh J Samani, Ozren Polašek, Philippa J Talmud, Fredrik Nyberg, Diana Kuh, Maris Laan, Kristian Hveem, Lyle J Palmer, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Juan P Casas, Karen L Mohlke, Paolo Vineis, Olli Raitakari, Santhi K Ganesh, Tien Y Wong, E Shyong Tai, Richard S Cooper, Markku Laakso, Dabeeru C Rao, Tamara B Harris, Richard W Morris, Anna F Dominiczak, Mika Kivimäki, Michael G Marmot, Tetsuro Miki, Danish Saleheen, Giriraj R Chandak, Josef Coresh, Gerjan Navis, Veikko Salomaa, Bok-Ghee Han, Xiaofeng Zhu, Jaspal S Kooner, Olle Melander, Paul M Ridker, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, Alan F Wright, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Martin Farrall, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Peter P Pramstaller, Roberto Elosua, Nicole Soranzo, Eric J G Sijbrands, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Alan R Shuldiner, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jerome I Rotter, Rainer Rettig, Manuela Uda, David P Strachan, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Jacques S Beckmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Ramachandran S Vasan, Michael Boehnke, Martin G Larson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Bruce M Psaty, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Aravinda Chakravarti, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Mark J Caulfield, Toby Johnson.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (?140?mm?Hg systolic blood pressure or? ?90?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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Combining gene mapping and phenotype assessment for fast mutation finding in non-consanguineous autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa families.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Among inherited retinal dystrophies, autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) is the most genetically heterogenous condition with 32 genes currently known that account for ~60 % of patients. Molecular diagnosis thus requires the tedious systematic sequencing of 506 exons. To rapidly identify the causative mutations, we devised a strategy that combines gene mapping and phenotype assessment in small non-consanguineous families. Two unrelated sibships with arRP had whole-genome scan using SNP microchips. Chromosomal regions were selected by calculating a score based on SNP coverage and genotype identity of affected patients. Candidate genes from the regions with the highest scores were then selected based on phenotype concordance of affected patients with previously described phenotype for each candidate gene. For families RP127 and RP1459, 33 and 40 chromosomal regions showed possible linkage, respectively. By comparing the scores with the phenotypes, we ended with one best candidate gene for each family, namely tubby-like protein 1 (TULP1) and C2ORF71 for RP127 and RP1459, respectively. We found that RP127 patients were compound heterozygous for two novel TULP1 mutations, p.Arg311Gln and p.Arg342Gln, and that RP1459 patients were compound heterozygous for two novel C2ORF71 mutations, p.Leu777PhefsX34 and p.Leu777AsnfsX28. Phenotype assessment showed that TULP1 patients had severe early onset arRP and that C2ORF71 patients had a cone rod dystrophy type of arRP. Only two affected individuals in each sibship were sufficient to lead to mutation identification by screening the best candidate gene selected by a combination of gene mapping and phenotype characterization.
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Genetics of venous thrombosis: insights from a new genome wide association study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Venous Thrombosis (VT) is a common multifactorial disease associated with a major public health burden. Genetics factors are known to contribute to the susceptibility of the disease but how many genes are involved and their contribution to VT risk still remain obscure. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with VT risk.
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Complete exon sequencing of all known Usher syndrome genes greatly improves molecular diagnosis.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Usher syndrome (USH) combines sensorineural deafness with blindness. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Early diagnosis is critical for adapted educational and patient management choices, and for genetic counseling. To date, nine causative genes have been identified for the three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2 and USH3). Current diagnostic strategies make use of a genotyping microarray that is based on the previously reported mutations. The purpose of this study was to design a more accurate molecular diagnosis tool.
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Chromosome 7p11.2 (EGFR) variation influences glioma risk.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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While gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, their etiology is largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci for glioma, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of two case-control series from France and Germany (2269 cases and 2500 controls). Pooling these data with previously reported UK and US GWA studies provided data on 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls genotyped for 424 460 common tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these data, we demonstrate two statistically independent associations between glioma and rs11979158 and rs2252586, at 7p11.2 which encompasses the EGFR gene (population-corrected statistics, P(c) = 7.72 × 10(-8) and 2.09 × 10(-8), respectively). Both associations were independent of tumor subtype, and were independent of EGFR amplification, p16INK4a deletion and IDH1 mutation status in tumors; compatible with driver effects of the variants on glioma development. These findings show that variation in 7p11.2 is a determinant of inherited glioma risk.
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A novel locus (CORD12) for autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy on chromosome 2q24.2-2q33.1.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Rod-cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) are degenerative retinal dystrophies leading to blindness. To identify new genes responsible for these diseases, we have studied one large non consanguineous French family with autosomal dominant (ad) CRD.
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Genome-wide population-based association study of extremely overweight young adults--the GOYA study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ?1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight individuals. We aimed to identify new loci associated with BMI and to ascertain whether using an extreme sampling design would identify the variants known to be associated with BMI in general populations.
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Bivariate association analysis in selected samples: application to a GWAS of two bone mineral density phenotypes in males with high or low BMD.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Our specific aims were to evaluate the power of bivariate analysis and to compare its performance with traditional univariate analysis in samples of unrelated subjects under varying sampling selection designs. Bivariate association analysis was based on the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model that allows different genetic models for different traits. We conducted extensive simulations for the case of two correlated quantitative phenotypes, with the quantitative trait locus making equal or unequal contributions to each phenotype. Our simulation results confirmed that the power of bivariate analysis is affected by the size, direction and source of the phenotypic correlations between traits. They also showed that the optimal sampling scheme depends on the size and direction of the induced genetic correlation. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of SUR-based bivariate test by applying it to a real Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values measured at the lumbar spine (LS) and at the femoral neck (FN) in a sample of unrelated males with low BMD (LS Z-scores ? -2) and with high BMD (LS and FN Z-scores >0.5). A substantial amount of top hits in bivariate analysis did not reach nominal significance in any of the two single-trait analyses. Altogether, our studies suggest that bivariate analysis is of practical significance for GWAS of correlated phenotypes.
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Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to thousands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies, marker-assisted or genome-wide selection. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of highly-multiplexed SNP genotyping for genetic mapping in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), the main conifer used for commercial plantation in southwestern Europe.
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Common variants at ABCA7, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, EPHA1, CD33 and CD2AP are associated with Alzheimers disease.
Paul Hollingworth, Denise Harold, Rebecca Sims, Amy Gerrish, Jean-Charles Lambert, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Richard Abraham, Marian L Hamshere, Jaspreet Singh Pahwa, Valentina Moskvina, Kimberley Dowzell, Nicola Jones, Alexandra Stretton, Charlene Thomas, Alex Richards, Dobril Ivanov, Caroline Widdowson, Jade Chapman, Simon Lovestone, John Powell, Petroula Proitsi, Michelle K Lupton, Carol Brayne, David C Rubinsztein, Michael Gill, Brian Lawlor, Aoibhinn Lynch, Kristelle S Brown, Peter A Passmore, David Craig, Bernadette McGuinness, Stephen Todd, Clive Holmes, David Mann, A David Smith, Helen Beaumont, Donald Warden, Gordon Wilcock, Seth Love, Patrick G Kehoe, Nigel M Hooper, Emma R L C Vardy, John Hardy, Simon Mead, Nick C Fox, Martin Rossor, John Collinge, Wolfgang Maier, Frank Jessen, Eckart Rüther, Britta Schürmann, Reiner Heun, Heike Kölsch, Hendrik van den Bussche, Isabella Heuser, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang, Martin Dichgans, Lutz Frölich, Harald Hampel, John Gallacher, Michael Hüll, Dan Rujescu, Ina Giegling, Alison M Goate, John S K Kauwe, Carlos Cruchaga, Petra Nowotny, John C Morris, Kevin Mayo, Kristel Sleegers, Karolien Bettens, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Peter P De Deyn, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Gill Livingston, Nicholas J Bass, Hugh Gurling, Andrew McQuillin, Rhian Gwilliam, Panagiotis Deloukas, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Christopher E Shaw, Magda Tsolaki, Andrew B Singleton, Rita Guerreiro, Thomas W Mühleisen, Markus M Nöthen, Susanne Moebus, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Norman Klopp, H-Erich Wichmann, V Shane Pankratz, Sigrid B Sando, Jan O Aasly, Maria Barcikowska, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson, Neill R Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, , Cornelia M van Duijn, Monique M B Breteler, M Arfan Ikram, Anita L Destefano, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Oscar Lopez, Lenore J Launer, Sudha Seshadri, Claudine Berr, Dominique Campion, Jacques Epelbaum, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Christophe Tzourio, Annick Alpérovitch, Mark Lathrop, Thomas M Feulner, Patricia Friedrich, Caterina Riehle, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Manuel Mayhaus, S Nicolhaus, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Kari Stefansson, Jón Snaedal, Sigurbjorn Bjornsson, Palmi V Jonsson, Vincent Chouraki, Benjamin Genier-Boley, Mikko Hiltunen, Hilkka Soininen, Onofre Combarros, Diana Zelenika, Marc Delepine, María J Bullido, Florence Pasquier, Ignacio Mateo, Ana Frank-García, Elisa Porcellini, Olivier Hanon, Eliecer Coto, Victoria Alvarez, Paolo Bosco, Gabriele Siciliano, Michelangelo Mancuso, Francesco Panza, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi, Paola Bossù, Paola Piccardi, Beatrice Arosio, Giorgio Annoni, Davide Seripa, Alberto Pilotto, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Alexis Brice, Didier Hannequin, Federico Licastro, Lesley Jones, Peter A Holmans, Thorlakur Jonsson, Matthias Riemenschneider, Kevin Morgan, Steven G Younkin, Michael J Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Philippe Amouyel, Julie Williams.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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We sought to identify new susceptibility loci for Alzheimers disease through a staged association study (GERAD+) and by testing suggestive loci reported by the Alzheimers Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC) in a companion paper. We undertook a combined analysis of four genome-wide association datasets (stage 1) and identified ten newly associated variants with P ? 1 × 10(-5). We tested these variants for association in an independent sample (stage 2). Three SNPs at two loci replicated and showed evidence for association in a further sample (stage 3). Meta-analyses of all data provided compelling evidence that ABCA7 (rs3764650, meta P = 4.5 × 10(-17); including ADGC data, meta P = 5.0 × 10(-21)) and the MS4A gene cluster (rs610932, meta P = 1.8 × 10(-14); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.2 × 10(-16)) are new Alzheimers disease susceptibility loci. We also found independent evidence for association for three loci reported by the ADGC, which, when combined, showed genome-wide significance: CD2AP (GERAD+, P = 8.0 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 8.6 × 10(-9)), CD33 (GERAD+, P = 2.2 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.6 × 10(-9)) and EPHA1 (GERAD+, P = 3.4 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 6.0 × 10(-10)).
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Genome-wide association study identifies three new melanoma susceptibility loci.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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We report a genome-wide association study for melanoma that was conducted by the GenoMEL Consortium. Our discovery phase included 2,981 individuals with melanoma and 1,982 study-specific control individuals of European ancestry, as well as an additional 6,426 control subjects from French or British populations, all of whom were genotyped for 317,000 or 610,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our analysis replicated previously known melanoma susceptibility loci. Seven new regions with at least one SNP with P < 10(-5) and further local imputed or genotyped support were selected for replication using two other genome-wide studies (from Australia and Texas, USA). Additional replication came from case-control series from the UK and The Netherlands. Variants at three of the seven loci replicated at P < 10(-3): an SNP in ATM (rs1801516, overall P = 3.4 × 10(-9)), an SNP in MX2 (rs45430, P = 2.9 × 10(-9)) and an SNP adjacent to CASP8 (rs13016963, P = 8.6 × 10(-10)). A fourth locus near CCND1 remains of potential interest, showing suggestive but inconclusive evidence of replication (rs1485993, overall P = 4.6 × 10(-7) under a fixed-effects model and P = 1.2 × 10(-3) under a random-effects model). These newly associated variants showed no association with nevus or pigmentation phenotypes in a large British case-control series.
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A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.
James D McKay, Thérèse Truong, Valerie Gaborieau, Amélie Chabrier, Shu-Chun Chuang, Graham Byrnes, David Zaridze, Oxana Shangina, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Alexandru Bucur, Vladimír Bencko, Ivana Holcatova, Vladimir Janout, Lenka Foretova, Pagona Lagiou, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Simone Benhamou, Christine Bouchardy, Wolfgang Ahrens, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi, Renato Talamini, Luigi Barzan, Kristina Kjaerheim, Gary J Macfarlane, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Lorenzo Simonato, Cristina Canova, Antonio Agudo, Xavier Castellsague, Ray Lowry, David I Conway, Patricia A McKinney, Claire M Healy, Mary E Toner, Ariana Znaor, María Paula Curado, Sergio Koifman, Ana Menezes, Victor Wünsch-Filho, Jose Eluf Neto, Leticia Fernández Garrote, Stefania Boccia, Gabriella Cadoni, Dario Arzani, Andrew F Olshan, Mark C Weissler, William K Funkhouser, Jingchun Luo, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Marcin Lener, Dorota Oszutowska, Stephen M Schwartz, Chu Chen, Sherianne Fish, David R Doody, Joshua E Muscat, Philip Lazarus, Carla J Gallagher, Shen-Chih Chang, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Qingyi Wei, Erich M Sturgis, Li-E Wang, Silvia Franceschi, Rolando Herrero, Karl T Kelsey, Michael D McClean, Carmen J Marsit, Heather H Nelson, Marjorie Romkes, Shama Buch, Tomoko Nukui, Shilong Zhong, Martin Lacko, Johannes J Manni, Wilbert H M Peters, Rayjean J Hung, John Mclaughlin, Lars Vatten, Inger Njølstad, Gary E Goodman, John K Field, Triantafillos Liloglou, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Carlos A González, J Ramon Quiros, Carmen Martínez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Nerea Larranaga, Kay-Tee Khaw, Timothy Key, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Antonia Trichopoulou, Jakob Linseisen, Heiner Boeing, Göran Hallmans, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Merethe Kumle, Elio Riboli, Kristjan Välk, Tõnu Vooder, Tõnu Voodern, Andres Metspalu, Diana Zelenika, Anne Boland, Marc Delepine, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Hélène Blanché, Ivo G Gut, Pilar Galán, Simon Heath, Mia Hashibe, Richard B Hayes, Paolo Boffetta, Mark Lathrop, Paul Brennan.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ? 5 × 10??). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p?=?1×10??) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10??) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10??); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10??; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.
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A SUMOylation-defective MITF germline mutation predisposes to melanoma and renal carcinoma.
Corine Bertolotto, Fabienne Lesueur, Sandy Giuliano, Thomas Strub, Mahaut de Lichy, Karine Bille, Philippe Dessen, Benoit d'Hayer, Hamida Mohamdi, Audrey Remenieras, Eve Maubec, Arnaud de la Fouchardiere, Vincent Molinie, Pierre Vabres, Stéphane Dalle, Nicolas Poulalhon, Tanguy Martin-Denavit, Luc Thomas, Pascale Andry-Benzaquen, Nicolas Dupin, Françoise Boitier, Annick Rossi, Jean-Luc Perrot, Bruno Labeille, Caroline Robert, Bernard Escudier, Olivier Caron, Laurence Brugières, Simon Saule, Betty Gardie, Sophie Gad, Stéphane Richard, Jérôme Couturier, Bin Tean Teh, Paola Ghiorzo, Lorenza Pastorino, Susana Puig, Celia Badenas, Hakan Olsson, Christian Ingvar, Etienne Rouleau, Rosette Lidereau, Philippe Bahadoran, Philippe Vielh, Eve Corda, Hélène Blanché, Diana Zelenika, Pilar Galán, , François Aubin, Bertrand Bachollet, Céline Becuwe, Pascaline Berthet, Yves Jean Bignon, Valérie Bonadona, Jean-Louis Bonafe, Marie-Noëlle Bonnet-Dupeyron, Frédéric Cambazard, Jacqueline Chevrant-Breton, Isabelle Coupier, Sophie Dalac, Liliane Demange, Michel D'Incan, Catherine Dugast, Laurence Faivre, Lynda Vincent-Fétita, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Brigitte Gilbert, Florent Grange, Jean-Jacques Grob, Philippe Humbert, Nicolas Janin, Pascal Joly, Delphine Kerob, Christine Lasset, Dominique Leroux, Julien Levang, Jean-Marc Limacher, Cristina Livideanu, Michel Longy, Alain Lortholary, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Sandrine Mansard, Ludovic Mansuy, Karine Marrou, Christine Mateus, Christine Maugard, Nicolas Meyer, Catherine Noguès, Pierre Souteyrand, Laurence Venat-Bouvet, Hélène Zattara, Valérie Chaudru, Gilbert M Lenoir, Mark Lathrop, Irwin Davidson, Marie-Françoise Avril, Florence Demenais, Robert Ballotti, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes; risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension. A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene; it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes. We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (?KXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K-occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer.
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Evidence of the association of BIN1 and PICALM with the AD risk in contrasting European populations.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 5 loci (BIN1, CLU, CR1, EXOC3L2, and PICALM) as genetic determinants of Alzheimers disease (AD). We attempted to confirm the association between these genes and the AD risk in 3 contrasting European populations (from Finland, Italy, and Spain). Because CLU and CR1 had already been analyzed in these populations, we restricted our investigation to BIN1, EXO2CL3, and PICALM. In a total of 2816 AD cases and 2706 controls, we unambiguously replicated the association of rs744373 (for BIN1) and rs541458 (for PICALM) polymorphisms with the AD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.15-1.38], p = 2.9 × 10(-7), and OR = 0.80, 95% CI [0.74-0.88], p = 4.6 × 10(-7), respectively). In a meta-analysis, rs597668 (EXOC3L2) was also associated with the AD risk, albeit to a lesser extent (OR = 1.19, 95% CI [1.06-1.32], p = 2.0 × 10(-3)). However, this signal did not appear to be independent of APOE. In conclusion, we confirmed that BIN1 and PICALM are genetic determinants of AD, whereas the potential involvement of EXOC3L2 requires further investigation.
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Sex-specific role for adenylyl cyclase type 7 in alcohol dependence.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Alcohol has been shown to critically modulate cyclic adenosine-3,5 monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. A number of downstream effectors that respond to the cAMP signals (e.g., protein kinase A, cAMP response element binding protein) have, in turn, been examined in relation to alcohol consumption. These studies did not, however, delineate the point at which the actions of alcohol on the cAMP cascade might translate into differences in drinking behavior. To further understand the role of cAMP synthesis in alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated a specific adenylyl cyclase isoform, adenylyl cyclase (AC) Type 7, whose activity is selectively enhanced by ethanol.
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Genome-wide association study confirms BST1 and suggests a locus on 12q24 as the risk loci for Parkinsons disease in the European population.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify common Parkinsons disease (PD) risk variants in the European population. The initial genome-wide scan was conducted in a French sample of 1039 cases and 1984 controls, using almost 500 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two SNPs at SNCA were found to be associated with PD at the genome-wide significance level (P < 3 × 10(-8)). An additional set of promising and new association signals was identified and submitted for immediate replication in two independent case-control studies of subjects of European descent. We first carried out an in silico replication study using GWAS data from the WTCCC2 PD study sample (1705 cases, 5200 WTCCC controls). Nominally replicated SNPs were further genotyped in a third sample of 1527 cases and 1864 controls from France and Australia. We found converging evidence of association with PD on 12q24 (rs4964469, combined P = 2.4 × 10(-7)) and confirmed the association on 4p15/BST1 (rs4698412, combined P = 1.8 × 10(-6)), previously reported in Japanese data. The 12q24 locus includes RFX4, an isoform of which, named RFX4_v3, encodes brain-specific transcription factors that regulate many genes involved in brain morphogenesis and intracellular calcium homeostasis.
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Resequencing of positional candidates identifies low frequency IL23R coding variants protecting against inflammatory bowel disease.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohns disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most ?20% of the genetic variance for Crohns disease. Several factors may account for this unexplained heritability, including rare risk variants not adequately tagged thus far in GWAS. That rare susceptibility variants indeed contribute to variation in multifactorial phenotypes has been demonstrated for colorectal cancer, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, blood pressure, type 1 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and, in the case of Crohns disease, for NOD2 (refs. 14,15). Here we describe the use of high-throughput resequencing of DNA pools to search for rare coding variants influencing susceptibility to Crohns disease in 63 GWAS-identified positional candidate genes. We identify low frequency coding variants conferring protection against inflammatory bowel disease in IL23R, but we conclude that rare coding variants in positional candidates do not make a large contribution to inherited predisposition to Crohns disease.
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Incidence of breast cancer and its subtypes in relation to individual and multiple low-penetrance genetic susceptibility loci.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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There is limited evidence on how the risk of breast cancer and its subtypes depend on low-penetrance susceptibility loci, individually or in combination.
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CCDC39 is required for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex and for normal ciliary motility in humans and dogs.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited disorder characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, reduced fertility in males and situs inversus in about 50% of affected individuals (Kartagener syndrome). It is caused by motility defects in the respiratory cilia that are responsible for airway clearance, the flagella that propel sperm cells and the nodal monocilia that determine left-right asymmetry. Recessive mutations that cause PCD have been identified in genes encoding components of the outer dynein arms, radial spokes and cytoplasmic pre-assembly factors of axonemal dyneins, but these mutations account for only about 50% of cases of PCD. We exploited the unique properties of dog populations to positionally clone a new PCD gene, CCDC39. We found that loss-of-function mutations in the human ortholog underlie a substantial fraction of PCD cases with axonemal disorganization and abnormal ciliary beating. Functional analyses indicated that CCDC39 localizes to ciliary axonemes and is essential for assembly of inner dynein arms and the dynein regulatory complex.
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Gene-environment interactions in 7610 women with breast cancer: prospective evidence from the Million Women Study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Information is scarce about the combined effects on breast cancer incidence of low-penetrance genetic susceptibility polymorphisms and environmental factors (reproductive, behavioural, and anthropometric risk factors for breast cancer). To test for evidence of gene-environment interactions, we compared genotypic relative risks for breast cancer across the other risk factors in a large UK prospective study.
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Genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma identifies two susceptibility loci on 2p21 and 11q13.3.
Mark P Purdue, Mattias Johansson, Diana Zelenika, Jorge R Toro, Ghislaine Scelo, Lee E Moore, Egor Prokhortchouk, Xifeng Wu, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Valerie Gaborieau, Kevin B Jacobs, Wong-Ho Chow, David Zaridze, Vsevolod Matveev, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Alexandru Bucur, Vladimír Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Paolo Boffetta, Joanne S Colt, Faith G Davis, Kendra L Schwartz, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Patricia Harnden, Christine D Berg, Ann W Hsing, Robert L Grubb, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Eric J Duell, José Ramón Quirós, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Miren Dorronsoro, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Jakob Linseisen, Börje Ljungberg, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Anush Mukeria, Oxana Shangina, Victoria L Stevens, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Paul D Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Inger Njølstad, Grethe S Tell, Camilla Stoltenberg, Rajiv Kumar, Kvetoslava Koppova, Olivier Cussenot, Simone Benhamou, Egbert Oosterwijk, Sita H Vermeulen, Katja K H Aben, Saskia L van der Marel, Yuanqing Ye, Christopher G Wood, Xia Pu, Alexander M Mazur, Eugenia S Boulygina, Nikolai N Chekanov, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Ivo Gut, Simon Heath, Hélène Blanché, Amy Hutchinson, Gilles Thomas, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F Fraumeni, Konstantin G Skryabin, James D McKay, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock, Mark Lathrop, Paul Brennan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 3,772 affected individuals (cases) and 8,505 controls of European background from 11 studies and followed up 6 SNPs in 3 replication studies of 2,198 cases and 4,918 controls. Two loci on the regions of 2p21 and 11q13.3 were associated with RCC susceptibility below genome-wide significance. Two correlated variants (r² = 0.99 in controls), rs11894252 (P = 1.8 × 10??) and rs7579899 (P = 2.3 × 10??), map to EPAS1 on 2p21, which encodes hypoxia-inducible-factor-2 alpha, a transcription factor previously implicated in RCC. The second locus, rs7105934, at 11q13.3, contains no characterized genes (P = 7.8 × 10?¹?). In addition, we observed a promising association on 12q24.31 for rs4765623, which maps to SCARB1, the scavenger receptor class B, member 1 gene (P = 2.6 × 10??). Our study reports previously unidentified genomic regions associated with RCC risk that may lead to new etiological insights.
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A new locus (SPG46) maps to 9p21.2-q21.12 in a Tunisian family with a complicated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum.
Neurogenetics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) with thin corpus callosum (TCC) and mental impairment is a frequent subtype of complicated HSP, often inherited as an autosomal recessive (AR) trait. It is clear from molecular genetic analyses that there are several underlying causes of this syndrome, with at least six genetic loci identified to date. However, SPG11 and SPG15 are the two major genes for this entity. To map the responsible gene in a large AR-HSP-TCC family of Tunisian origin, we investigated a consanguineous family with a diagnosis of AR-HSP-TCC excluded for linkage to the SPG7, SPG11, SPG15, SPG18, SPG21, and SPG32 loci. A genome-wide scan was undertaken using 6,090 SNP markers covering all chromosomes. The phenotypic presentation in five patients was suggestive of a complex HSP that associated an early-onset spastic paraplegia with mild handicap, mental deterioration, congenital cataract, cerebellar signs, and TCC. The genome-wide search identified a single candidate region on chromosome 9, exceeding the LOD score threshold of +3. Fine mapping using additional markers narrowed the candidate region to a 45.1-Mb interval (15.4 cM). Mutations in three candidate genes were excluded. The mapping of a novel AR-HSP-TCC locus further demonstrates the extensive genetic heterogeneity of this condition. We propose that testing for this locus should be performed, after exclusion of mutations in SPG11 and SPG15 genes, in AR-HSP-TCC families, especially when cerebellar ataxia and cataract are present.
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A follow-up study of a genome-wide association scan identifies a susceptibility locus for venous thrombosis on chromosome 6p24.1.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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To identify genetic susceptibility factors conferring increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT), we conducted a multistage study, following results of a previously published GWAS that failed to detect loci for developing VT. Using a collection of 5862 cases with VT and 7112 healthy controls, we identified the HIVEP1 locus on chromosome 6p24.1 as a susceptibility locus for VT. Indeed, the HIVEP1 rs169713C allele was associated with an increased risk for VT, with an odds ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.13-1.27, p = 2.86 x 10(-9)). HIVEP1 codes for a protein that participates in the transcriptional regulation of inflammatory target genes by binding specific DNA sequences in their promoter and enhancer regions. The current results provide the identification of a locus involved in VT susceptibility that lies outside the traditional coagulation/fibrinolysis pathway.
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New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk.
Josée Dupuis, Claudia Langenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Richa Saxena, Nicole Soranzo, Anne U Jackson, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren, Reedik Mägi, Andrew P Morris, Joshua Randall, Toby Johnson, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Peter Henneman, Harald Grallert, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Christopher S Franklin, Pau Navarro, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, John R B Perry, Josephine M Egan, Taina Lajunen, Niels Grarup, Thomas Sparsø, Alex Doney, Benjamin F Voight, Heather M Stringham, Man Li, Stavroula Kanoni, Peter Shrader, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Lu Qi, Nicholas J Timpson, Christian Gieger, Carina Zabena, Ghislain Rocheleau, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Felicity Payne, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Kristin Ardlie, Yavuz Ariyurek, Beverley Balkau, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Eric Boerwinkle, Amélie Bonnefond, Lori L Bonnycastle, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Guillaume Charpentier, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabe Crawford, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Christian Dina, Michael R Erdos, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Rune Frants, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Christopher J Groves, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Ulf Gyllensten, Samy Hadjadj, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, Christian Herder, Andrew A Hicks, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Bo Isomaa, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Valeriya Lyssenko, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, Alisa K Manning, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Laura J McCulloch, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Mario A Morken, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Narisu Narisu, Matthew J Neville, Ben A Oostra, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Colin N A Palmer, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Irene Pichler, Ozren Polašek, Danielle Posthuma, Simon C Potter, Anneli Pouta, Michael A Province, Bruce M Psaty, Wolfgang Rathmann, Nigel W Rayner, Kenneth Rice, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Michael Roden, Olov Rolandsson, Annelli Sandbaek, Manjinder Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Avan Aihie Sayer, Paul Scheet, Laura J Scott, Udo Seedorf, Stephen J Sharp, Beverley Shields, Gunnar Sigurethsson, Eric J G Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Laila Simpson, Andrew Singleton, Nicholas L Smith, Ulla Sovio, Amy Swift, Holly Syddall, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Toshiko Tanaka, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, André G Uitterlinden, Ko Willems van Dijk, Mandy van Hoek, Dhiraj Varma, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Nicole Vogelzangs, Gérard Waeber, Peter J Wagner, Andrew Walley, G Bragi Walters, Kim L Ward, Hugh Watkins, Michael N Weedon, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Jaqueline C M Witteman, John W G Yarnell, Eleftheria Zeggini, Diana Zelenika, Björn Zethelius, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, M Carola Zillikens, , Ingrid B Borecki, Ruth J F Loos, Pierre Meneton, Patrik K E Magnusson, David M Nathan, Gordon H Williams, Andrew T Hattersley, Kaisa Silander, Veikko Salomaa, George Davey Smith, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Joachim Spranger, Fredrik Karpe, Alan R Shuldiner, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Andrew D Morris, Lars Lind, Lyle J Palmer, Frank B Hu, Paul W Franks, Shah Ebrahim, Michael Marmot, W H Linda Kao, James S Pankow, Michael J Sampson, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Peter Paul Pramstaller, H Erich Wichmann, Thomas Illig, Igor Rudan, Alan F Wright, Michael Stumvoll, Harry Campbell, James F Wilson, Richard N Bergman, Thomas A Buchanan, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, David Altshuler, Jerome I Rotter, David S Siscovick, Brenda W J H Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Panos Deloukas, Timothy D Spector, Timothy M Frayling, Luigi Ferrucci, Augustine Kong, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Yurii S Aulchenko, Antonio Cao, Angelo Scuteri, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Dawn M Waterworth, Peter Vollenweider, Leena Peltonen, Vincent Mooser, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Nicholas J Wareham, Robert Sladek, Philippe Froguel, Richard M Watanabe, James B Meigs, Leif Groop, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Jose C Florez, Inês Barroso.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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Diffusion lung capacity of patients with arterial hypertension.
Coll Antropol
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusion lung capacity in patients with untreated hypertension. For this purpose, a total of 30 cases and 30 controls were included in the present study, which was based on several spirometry indicators in the analysis. The measurements were based on "single breath approach". The results indicated that the two groups differed in several spirometry results, including vital capacity, maximum willing ventilation, but the overall lung diffusion capacity did not seem to be significantly different between cases and controls. The results suggest that although there is a strong link between respiratory and circulatory system, the overall lung diffusion capacity is not altered by the increased arterial pressure and hypertension. Furthermore, the results of this suggest the need for creation of the population-specific spirometry standards for the population of Herzegovina in order to provide more meaningful results of spirometry.
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Prevalence and risk factors of the rheumatoid arthritis in Herzegovina region in 2003-2005.
Coll Antropol
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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In this study we evidenced prevalence of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Herzegovina region of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and studied selected RA risk factors. Sample of subjects comprised RA diagnosed subjects which were compared to randomly selected controls. In diagnosing the RA we used criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis suggested by The American College of Rheumatology. Risk factors of RA included in this investigation were (1) educational status, (2) quality of nutrition, and (3) socioeconomic status. Average prevalence of the RA in our sample was 0.46/100, ranged from 0.36/100 to 0.64/100, which is comparable to other European samples. The RA occurrence is six times more often in females than in males. We have found indices that the Mediterranean diet has to be considered as protective factor against RA. Although RA occurrence is more frequent in the low socioeconomic samples of subjects, because of the methodological reasons we can not undoubtedly support the socioeconomic status as significant risk factor of the RA. Finally, it is interesting that we have found education level as risk factor significantly related to RA occurrence in our sample. All evidenced should be more precisely studied in some future study, while accurately controlling all relevant factors.
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Common variants at five new loci associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease.
Marcin Imielinski, Robert N Baldassano, Anne Griffiths, Richard K Russell, Vito Annese, Marla Dubinsky, Subra Kugathasan, Jonathan P Bradfield, Thomas D Walters, Patrick Sleiman, Cecilia E Kim, Aleixo Muise, Kai Wang, Joseph T Glessner, Shehzad Saeed, Haitao Zhang, Edward C Frackelton, Cuiping Hou, James H Flory, George Otieno, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Robert Grundmeier, Massimo Castro, Anna Latiano, Bruno Dallapiccola, Joanne Stempak, Debra J Abrams, Kent Taylor, Dermot McGovern, , Gary Silber, Iwona Wrobel, Antonio Quiros, Jeffrey C Barrett, Sarah Hansoul, Dan L Nicolae, Judy H Cho, Richard H Duerr, John D Rioux, Steven R Brant, Mark S Silverberg, Kent D Taylor, M Michael Barmuda, Alain Bitton, Themistocles Dassopoulos, Lisa Wu Datta, Todd Green, Anne M Griffiths, Emily O Kistner, Michael T Murtha, Miguel D Regueiro, Jerome I Rotter, L Philip Schumm, A Hillary Steinhart, Stephen R Targan, Ramnik J Xavier, Cécile Libioulle, Cynthia Sandor, Mark Lathrop, Jacques Belaiche, Olivier Dewit, Ivo Gut, Simon Heath, Debby Laukens, Myriam Mni, Paul Rutgeerts, André Van Gossum, Diana Zelenika, Denis Franchimont, J P Hugot, Martine De Vos, Séverine Vermeire, Edouard Louis, Lon R Cardon, Carl A Anderson, Hazel Drummond, Elaine Nimmo, Tariq Ahmad, Natalie J Prescott, Clive M Onnie, Sheila A Fisher, Jonathan Marchini, Jilur Ghori, Suzannah Bumpstead, Rhian Gwillam, Mark Tremelling, Panos Delukas, John Mansfield, Derek Jewell, Jack Satsangi, Christopher G Mathew, Miles Parkes, Michel Georges, Mark J Daly, Melvin B Heyman, George D Ferry, Barbara Kirschner, Jessica Lee, Jonah Essers, Richard Grand, Michael Stephens, Arie Levine, David Piccoli, John Van Limbergen, Salvatore Cucchiara, Dimitri S Monos, Stephen L Guthery, Lee Denson, David C Wilson, Straun F A Grant, Mark Daly, Hakon Hakonarson.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study in early-onset IBD involving 3,426 affected individuals and 11,963 genetically matched controls recruited through international collaborations in Europe and North America, thereby extending the results from a previous study of 1,011 individuals with early-onset IBD. We have identified five new regions associated with early-onset IBD susceptibility, including 16p11 near the cytokine gene IL27 (rs8049439, P = 2.41 x 10(-9)), 22q12 (rs2412973, P = 1.55 x 10(-9)), 10q22 (rs1250550, P = 5.63 x 10(-9)), 2q37 (rs4676410, P = 3.64 x 10(-8)) and 19q13.11 (rs10500264, P = 4.26 x 10(-10)). Our scan also detected associations at 23 of 32 loci previously implicated in adult-onset Crohns disease and at 8 of 17 loci implicated in adult-onset ulcerative colitis, highlighting the close pathogenetic relationship between early- and adult-onset IBD.
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Mutations of the FHL1 gene cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a rare disorder characterized by early joint contractures, muscular dystrophy, and cardiac involvement with conduction defects and arrhythmias. So far, only 35% of EDMD cases are genetically elucidated and associated with EMD or LMNA gene mutations, suggesting the existence of additional major genes. By whole-genome scan, we identified linkage to the Xq26.3 locus containing the FHL1 gene in three informative families belonging to our EMD- and LMNA-negative cohort. Analysis of the FHL1 gene identified seven mutations, in the distal exons of FHL1 in these families, three additional families, and one isolated case, which differently affect the three FHL1 protein isoforms: two missense mutations affecting highly conserved cysteines, one abolishing the termination codon, and four out-of-frame insertions or deletions. The predominant phenotype was characterized by myopathy with scapulo-peroneal and/or axial distribution, as well as joint contractures, and associated with a peculiar cardiac disease characterized by conduction defects, arrhythmias, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in all index cases of the seven families. Heterozygous female carriers were either asymptomatic or had cardiac disease and/or mild myopathy. Interestingly, four of the FHL1-mutated male relatives had isolated cardiac disease, and an overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was present in two. Expression and functional studies demonstrated that the FHL1 proteins were severely reduced in all tested patients and that this was associated with a severe delay in myotube formation in the two patients for whom myoblasts were available. In conclusion, FHL1 should be considered as a gene associated with the X-linked EDMD phenotype, as well as with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
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Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and CR1 associated with Alzheimers disease.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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The gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE) on chromosome 19 is the only confirmed susceptibility locus for late-onset Alzheimers disease. To identify other risk loci, we conducted a large genome-wide association study of 2,032 individuals from France with Alzheimers disease (cases) and 5,328 controls. Markers outside APOE with suggestive evidence of association (P < 10(-5)) were examined in collections from Belgium, Finland, Italy and Spain totaling 3,978 Alzheimers disease cases and 3,297 controls. Two loci gave replicated evidence of association: one within CLU (also called APOJ), encoding clusterin or apolipoprotein J, on chromosome 8 (rs11136000, OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.90, P = 7.5 x 10(-9) for combined data) and the other within CR1, encoding the complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1, on chromosome 1 (rs6656401, OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, P = 3.7 x 10(-9) for combined data). Previous biological studies support roles of CLU and CR1 in the clearance of beta amyloid (Abeta) peptide, the principal constituent of amyloid plaques, which are one of the major brain lesions of individuals with Alzheimers disease.
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Common susceptibility alleles are unlikely to contribute as strongly as the FV and ABO loci to VTE risk: results from a GWAS approach.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex disease that has a major genetic component of risk. To identify genetic factors that may modify the risk of VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study by analyzing approximately 317 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 453 VTE cases and 1327 controls. Only 3 SNPs located in the FV and ABO blood group genes were found associated with VTE at a genome-wide significant level of 1.7 x 10(-7). Detailed analysis of these SNPs in additional cohorts of more than 1700 cases and 1400 controls revealed that the association observed at the FV locus was the result of the increased risk mediated by the FV Leiden mutation, whereas O and A2 blood groups were found to be at lower risk for VTE. Apart from the FV and ABO loci, no other locus was found strongly associated with VTE. However, using this large cohort of subjects, we were able to replicate the mild effects of 2 nonsynonymous SNPs, rs1613662 in GP6 and rs13146272 in CYP4V2, recently suspected to be associated with VTE.
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Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for glioma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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To identify risk variants for glioma, we conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies by genotyping 550K tagging SNPs in a total of 1,878 cases and 3,670 controls, with validation in three additional independent series totaling 2,545 cases and 2,953 controls. We identified five risk loci for glioma at 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT; P = 1.50 x 10(-17)), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26; P = 2.34 x 10(-18)), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A-CDKN2B; P = 7.24 x 10(-15)), 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1; P = 2.52 x 10(-12)) and 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1; P = 1.07 x 10(-8)). These data show that common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles contribute to the risk of developing glioma and provide insight into disease causation of this primary brain tumor.
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Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure.
Christopher Newton-Cheh, Toby Johnson, Vesela Gateva, Martin D Tobin, Murielle Bochud, Lachlan Coin, Samer S Najjar, Jing Hua Zhao, Simon C Heath, Susana Eyheramendy, Konstantinos Papadakis, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Feng Zhang, Martin Farrall, Toshiko Tanaka, Chris Wallace, John C Chambers, Kay-Tee Khaw, Peter Nilsson, Pim van der Harst, Silvia Polidoro, Diederick E Grobbee, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Michiel L Bots, Louise V Wain, Katherine S Elliott, Alexander Teumer, Jian'an Luan, Gavin Lucas, Johanna Kuusisto, Paul R Burton, David Hadley, Wendy L McArdle, , Morris Brown, Anna Dominiczak, Stephen J Newhouse, Nilesh J Samani, John Webster, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jacques S Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Noha Lim, Kijoung Song, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Dawn M Waterworth, Xin Yuan, Leif Groop, Marju Orho-Melander, Alessandra Allione, Alessandra Di Gregorio, Simonetta Guarrera, Salvatore Panico, Fulvio Ricceri, Valeria Romanazzi, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Inês Barroso, Manjinder S Sandhu, Robert N Luben, Gabriel J Crawford, Pekka Jousilahti, Markus Perola, Michael Boehnke, Lori L Bonnycastle, Francis S Collins, Anne U Jackson, Karen L Mohlke, Heather M Stringham, Timo T Valle, Cristen J Willer, Richard N Bergman, Mario A Morken, Angela Döring, Christian Gieger, Thomas Illig, Thomas Meitinger, Elin Org, Arne Pfeufer, H Erich Wichmann, Sekar Kathiresan, Jaume Marrugat, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, David S Siscovick, Isaac Subirana, Nelson B Freimer, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Mark I McCarthy, Paul F O'Reilly, Leena Peltonen, Anneli Pouta, Paul E de Jong, Harold Snieder, Wiek H van Gilst, Robert Clarke, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, John F Peden, Udo Seedorf, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Giovanni Tognoni, Edward G Lakatta, Serena Sanna, Paul Scheet, David Schlessinger, Angelo Scuteri, Marcus Dörr, Florian Ernst, Stephan B Felix, Georg Homuth, Roberto Lorbeer, Thorsten Reffelmann, Rainer Rettig, Uwe Völker, Pilar Galán, Ivo G Gut, Serge Hercberg, G Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Nicole Soranzo, Frances M Williams, Guangju Zhai, Veikko Salomaa, Markku Laakso, Roberto Elosua, Nita G Forouhi, Henry Völzke, Cuno S Uiterwaal, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Mattijs E Numans, Giuseppe Matullo, Gerjan Navis, Göran Berglund, Sheila A Bingham, Jaspal S Kooner, John M Connell, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Hugh Watkins, Tim D Spector, Jaakko Tuomilehto, David Altshuler, David P Strachan, Maris Laan, Pierre Meneton, Nicholas J Wareham, Manuela Uda, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Vincent Mooser, Olle Melander, Ruth J F Loos, Paul Elliott, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Mark Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N ? 71,225 European ancestry, N ? 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N = 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 × 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 × 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 × 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 × 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 × 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 × 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 × 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 × 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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Common variants at 30 loci contribute to polygenic dyslipidemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To dissect the polygenic basis of these traits, we conducted genome-wide association screens in 19,840 individuals and replication in up to 20,623 individuals. We identified 30 distinct loci associated with lipoprotein concentrations (each with P < 5 x 10(-8)), including 11 loci that reached genome-wide significance for the first time. The 11 newly defined loci include common variants associated with LDL cholesterol near ABCG8, MAFB, HNF1A and TIMD4; with HDL cholesterol near ANGPTL4, FADS1-FADS2-FADS3, HNF4A, LCAT, PLTP and TTC39B; and with triglycerides near AMAC1L2, FADS1-FADS2-FADS3 and PLTP. The proportion of individuals exceeding clinical cut points for high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides varied according to an allelic dosage score (P < 10(-15) for each trend). These results suggest that the cumulative effect of multiple common variants contributes to polygenic dyslipidemia.
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Alpha-synuclein gene rearrangements in dominantly inherited parkinsonism: frequency, phenotype, and mechanisms.
Arch. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Genomic multiplications of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) cause autosomal dominant Parkinson disease (ADPD). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and phenotype of SNCA rearrangements in a large series of families with typical or atypical AD parkinsonism.
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Genome-wide association study identifies three loci associated with melanoma risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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We report a genome-wide association study of melanoma conducted by the GenoMEL consortium based on 317K tagging SNPs for 1,650 selected cases and 4,336 controls, with replication in an additional two cohorts (1,149 selected cases and 964 controls from GenoMEL, and a population-based case-control study in Leeds of 1,163 cases and 903 controls). The genome-wide screen identified five loci with genotyped or imputed SNPs reaching P < 5 x 10(-7). Three of these loci were replicated: 16q24 encompassing MC1R (combined P = 2.54 x 10(-27) for rs258322), 11q14-q21 encompassing TYR (P = 2.41 x 10(-14) for rs1393350) and 9p21 adjacent to MTAP and flanking CDKN2A (P = 4.03 x 10(-7) for rs7023329). MC1R and TYR are associated with pigmentation, freckling and cutaneous sun sensitivity, well-recognized melanoma risk factors. Common variants within the 9p21 locus have not previously been associated with melanoma. Despite wide variation in allele frequency, these genetic variants show notable homogeneity of effect across populations of European ancestry living at different latitudes and show independent association to disease risk.
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High-resolution autosomal radiation hybrid maps of the pig genome and their contribution to the genome sequence assembly.
BMC Genomics
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The release of the porcine genome sequence offers great perspectives for Pig genetics and genomics, and more generally will contribute to the understanding of mammalian genome biology and evolution. The process of producing a complete genome sequence of high quality, while facilitated by high-throughput sequencing technologies, remains a difficult task. The porcine genome was sequenced using a combination of a hierarchical shotgun strategy and data generated with whole genome shotgun. In addition to the BAC contig map used for the clone-by-clone approach, genomic mapping resources for the pig include two radiation hybrid (RH) panels at two different resolutions. These two panels have been used extensively for the physical mapping of pig genes and markers prior to the availability of the pig genome sequence.
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Contribution of global rare copy-number variants to the risk of sporadic congenital heart disease.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Previous studies have shown that copy-number variants (CNVs) contribute to the risk of complex developmental phenotypes. However, the contribution of global CNV burden to the risk of sporadic congenital heart disease (CHD) remains incompletely defined. We generated genome-wide CNV data by using Illumina 660W-Quad SNP arrays in 2,256 individuals with CHD, 283 trio CHD-affected families, and 1,538 controls. We found association of rare genic deletions with CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, p = 0.0008). Rare deletions in study participants with CHD had higher gene content (p = 0.001) with higher haploinsufficiency scores (p = 0.03) than they did in controls, and they were enriched with Wnt-signaling genes (p = 1 × 10(-5)). Recurrent 15q11.2 deletions were associated with CHD risk (OR = 8.2, p = 0.02). Rare de novo CNVs were observed in ~5% of CHD trios; 10 out of 11 occurred on the paternally transmitted chromosome (p = 0.01). Some of the rare de novo CNVs spanned genes known to be involved in heart development (e.g., HAND2 and GJA5). Rare genic deletions contribute ~4% of the population-attributable risk of sporadic CHD. Second to previously described CNVs at 1q21.1, deletions at 15q11.2 and those implicating Wnt signaling are the most significant contributors to the risk of sporadic CHD. Rare de novo CNVs identified in CHD trios exhibit paternal origin bias.
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Genome-wide association study in a Lebanese cohort confirms PHACTR1 as a major determinant of coronary artery stenosis.
PLoS ONE
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The manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) follows a well-choreographed series of events that includes damage of arterial endothelial cells and deposition of lipids in the sub-endothelial layers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple populations with distinctive genetic and lifestyle backgrounds are a crucial step in understanding global CAD pathophysiology. In this study, we report a GWAS on the genetic basis of arterial stenosis as measured by cardiac catheterization in a Lebanese population. The locus of the phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1) showed association with coronary stenosis in a discovery experiment with genome wide data in 1,949 individuals (rs9349379, OR?=?1.37, p?=?1.57×10(-5)). The association was replicated in an additional 2,547 individuals (OR?=?1.31, p?=?8.85×10(-6)), leading to genome-wide significant association in a combined analysis (OR?=?1.34, p?=?8.02×10(-10)). Results from this GWAS support a central role of PHACTR1 in CAD susceptibility irrespective of lifestyle and ethnic divergences. This association provides a plausible component for understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of stenosis in cardiac vessels and a potential drug target against CAD.
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Genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration identifies associated variants in the TNXB-FKBPL-NOTCH4 region of chromosome 6p21.3.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual loss in Western populations. Susceptibility is influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Known genetic risk loci do not account for all the heritability. We therefore carried out a genome-wide association study of AMD in the UK population with 893 cases of advanced AMD and 2199 controls. This showed an association with the well-established AMD risk loci ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2)-HTRA1 (HtrA serine peptidase 1) (P =2.7 × 10(-72)), CFH (complement factor H) (P =2.3 × 10(-47)), C2 (complement component 2)-CFB (complement factor B) (P =5.2 × 10(-9)), C3 (complement component 3) (P =2.2 × 10(-3)) and CFI (P =3.6 × 10(-3)) and with more recently reported risk loci at VEGFA (P =1.2 × 10(-3)) and LIPC (hepatic lipase) (P =0.04). Using a replication sample of 1411 advanced AMD cases and 1431 examined controls, we confirmed a novel association between AMD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 6p21.3 at TNXB (tenascin XB)-FKBPL (FK506 binding protein like) [rs12153855/rs9391734; discovery P =4.3 × 10(-7), replication P =3.0 × 10(-4), combined P =1.3 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-1.6] and the neighbouring gene NOTCH4 (Notch 4) (rs2071277; discovery P =3.2 × 10(-8), replication P =3.8 × 10(-5), combined P =2.0 × 10(-11), OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4). These associations remained significant in conditional analyses which included the adjacent C2-CFB locus. TNXB, FKBPL and NOTCH4 are all plausible AMD susceptibility genes, but further research will be needed to identify the causal variants and determine whether any of these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD.
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Caution in interpreting results from imputation analysis when linkage disequilibrium extends over a large distance: a case study on venous thrombosis.
PLoS ONE
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By applying an imputation strategy based on the 1000 Genomes project to two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we detected a susceptibility locus for venous thrombosis on chromosome 11p11.2 that was missed by previous GWAS analyses that had been conducted on the same datasets. A comprehensive linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis of the whole locus where twelve SNPs exhibited association p-values lower than 2.23 10(-11) and the use of independent case-control samples demonstrated that the culprit variant was a rare variant located ~1 Mb away from the original hits, not tagged by current genome-wide genotyping arrays and even not well imputed in the original GWAS samples. This variant was in fact the rs1799963, also known as the FII G20210A prothrombin mutation. This work may be of major interest not only for its scientific impact but also for its methodological findings.
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A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance.
Alisa K Manning, Marie-France Hivert, Robert A Scott, Jonna L Grimsby, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Han Chen, Denis Rybin, Ching-Ti Liu, Lawrence F Bielak, Inga Prokopenko, Najaf Amin, Daniel Barnes, Gemma Cadby, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Erik Ingelsson, Anne U Jackson, Toby Johnson, Stavroula Kanoni, Claes Ladenvall, Vasiliki Lagou, Jari Lahti, Cécile Lecoeur, Yongmei Liu, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, May E Montasser, Pau Navarro, John R B Perry, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Perttu Salo, Naveed Sattar, Dmitry Shungin, Rona J Strawbridge, Toshiko Tanaka, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ping An, Mariza de Andrade, Jeanette S Andrews, Thor Aspelund, Mustafa Atalay, Yurii Aulchenko, Beverley Balkau, Stefania Bandinelli, Jacques S Beckmann, John P Beilby, Claire Bellis, Richard N Bergman, John Blangero, Mladen Boban, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Yvonne Böttcher, Claude Bouchard, Eric Brunner, Danijela Budimir, Harry Campbell, Olga Carlson, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Francis S Collins, Arturo Corbatón-Anchuelo, David Couper, Ulf de Faire, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Josephine M Egan, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Michael R Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Elodie Eury, Luigi Ferrucci, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Paul W Franks, Timothy M Frayling, Philippe Froguel, Pilar Galán, Eco de Geus, Bruna Gigante, Nicole L Glazer, Anuj Goel, Leif Groop, Vilmundur Gudnason, Göran Hallmans, Anders Hamsten, Ola Hansson, Tamara B Harris, Caroline Hayward, Simon Heath, Serge Hercberg, Andrew A Hicks, Aroon Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Jennie Hui, Joseph Hung, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Min A Jhun, Paul C D Johnson, J Wouter Jukema, Antti Jula, W H Kao, Jaakko Kaprio, Sharon L R Kardia, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Ivana Kolčić, Peter Kovacs, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Markku Laakso, Timo Lakka, Lars Lannfelt, G Mark Lathrop, Lenore J Launer, Karin Leander, Guo Li, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Ruth J F Loos, Jian'an Luan, Valeriya Lyssenko, Reedik Mägi, Patrik K E Magnusson, Michael Marmot, Pierre Meneton, Karen L Mohlke, Vincent Mooser, Mario A Morken, Iva Miljkovic, Narisu Narisu, Jeff O'Connell, Ken K Ong, Ben A Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, James S Pankow, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Marina Pehlić, Leena Peltonen, Brenda Penninx, Marijana Pericic, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Patricia A Peyser, Ozren Polašek, Peter P Pramstaller, Michael A Province, Katri Räikkönen, Rainer Rauramaa, Emil Rehnberg, Ken Rice, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Aimo Ruokonen, Timo Saaristo, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Veikko Salomaa, David B Savage, Richa Saxena, Peter Schwarz, Udo Seedorf, Bengt Sennblad, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Alan R Shuldiner, Eric J G Sijbrands, David S Siscovick, Johannes H Smit, Kerrin S Small, Nicholas L Smith, Albert Vernon Smith, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Michael Stumvoll, Yan V Sun, Amy J Swift, Anke Tönjes, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Stella Trompet, André G Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Max Vikström, Veronique Vitart, Marie-Claude Vohl, Benjamin F Voight, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Dawn M Waterworth, Hugh Watkins, Eleanor Wheeler, Elisabeth Widén, Sarah H Wild, Sara M Willems, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Alan F Wright, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Diana Zelenika, Tatijana Zemunik, Lina Zgaga, , Nicholas J Wareham, Mark I McCarthy, Inês Barroso, Richard M Watanabe, Jose C Florez, Josée Dupuis, James B Meigs, Claudia Langenberg.
Nat. Genet.
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Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and ?-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 × 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
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Association of the CpG methylation pattern of the proximal insulin gene promoter with type 1 diabetes.
PLoS ONE
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The insulin (INS) region is the second most important locus associated with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). The study of the DNA methylation pattern of the 7 CpGs proximal to the TSS in the INS gene promoter revealed that T1D patients have a lower level of methylation of CpG -19, -135 and -234 (p?=?2.10(-16)) and a higher methylation of CpG -180 than controls, while methylation was comparable for CpG -69, -102, -206. The magnitude of the hypomethylation relative to a control population was 8-15% of the corresponding levels in controls and was correlated in CpGs -19 and -135 (r?=?0.77) and CpG -135 and -234 (r?=?0.65). 70/485 (14%) of T1D patients had a simultaneous decrease in methylation of CpG -19, -135, -234 versus none in 317 controls. CpG methylation did not correlate with glycated hemoglobin or with T1D duration. The methylation of CpG -69, -102, -180, -206, but not CpG -19, -135, -234 was strongly influenced by the cis-genotype at rs689, a SNP known to show a strong association with T1D. We hypothesize that part of this genetic association could in fact be mediated at the statistical and functional level by the underlying changes in neighboring CpG methylation. Our observation of a CpG-specific, locus-specific methylation pattern, although it can provide an epigenetic biomarker of a multifactorial disease, does not indicate whether the reported epigenetic pattern preexists or follows the establishment of T1D. To explore the effect of chronic hyperglycemia on CpG methylation, we studied non obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who were found to have decreased CpG-19 methylation versus age-matched controls, similar to T1D (p?=?2.10(-6)) but increased CpG-234 methylation (p?=?5.10(-8)), the opposite of T1D. The causality and natural history of the different epigenetic changes associated with T1D or T2D remain to be determined.
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Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.
Zari Dastani, Marie-France Hivert, Nicholas Timpson, John R B Perry, Xin Yuan, Robert A Scott, Peter Henneman, Iris M Heid, Jorge R Kizer, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Christian Fuchsberger, Toshiko Tanaka, Andrew P Morris, Kerrin Small, Aaron Isaacs, Marian Beekman, Stefan Coassin, Kurt Lohman, Lu Qi, Stavroula Kanoni, James S Pankow, Hae-Won Uh, Ying Wu, Aurelian Bidulescu, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Celia M T Greenwood, Martin Ladouceur, Jonna Grimsby, Alisa K Manning, Ching-Ti Liu, Jaspal Kooner, Vincent E Mooser, Peter Vollenweider, Karen A Kapur, John Chambers, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Rune Frants, Ko Willems-Vandijk, Ben A Oostra, Sara M Willems, Claudia Lamina, Thomas W Winkler, Bruce M Psaty, Russell P Tracy, Jennifer Brody, Ida Chen, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Peter P Pramstaller, David M Evans, Beate St Pourcain, Naveed Sattar, Andrew R Wood, Stefania Bandinelli, Olga D Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Stefan Böhringer, Diana van Heemst, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Kati Kristiansson, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Britt-Marie Loo, Tamara Harris, Melissa Garcia, Alka Kanaya, Margot Haun, Norman Klopp, H-Erich Wichmann, Panos Deloukas, Efi Katsareli, David J Couper, Bruce B Duncan, Margreet Kloppenburg, Linda S Adair, Judith B Borja, , James G Wilson, Solomon Musani, Xiuqing Guo, Toby Johnson, Robert Semple, Tanya M Teslovich, Matthew A Allison, Susan Redline, Sarah G Buxbaum, Karen L Mohlke, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Christie M Ballantyne, George V Dedoussis, Frank B Hu, Yongmei Liu, Bernhard Paulweber, Timothy D Spector, P Eline Slagboom, Luigi Ferrucci, Antti Jula, Markus Perola, Olli Raitakari, Jose C Florez, Veikko Salomaa, Johan G Eriksson, Timothy M Frayling, Andrew A Hicks, Terho Lehtimäki, George Davey Smith, David S Siscovick, Florian Kronenberg, Cornelia van Duijn, Ruth J F Loos, Dawn M Waterworth, James B Meigs, Josée Dupuis, J Brent Richards, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Christian Dina, Ryan P Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J McCulloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A McCarroll, Oliver M Hofmann, Ayellet V Segrè, Mandy van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noel P Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S Elliott, Amanda L Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Caroline S Fox, Christopher S Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Wen H L Kao, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Johanna Kuusisto, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R Owen, Felicity Payne, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proença, Inga Prokopenko, Wolfgang Rathmann, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparsø, Klaus Straßburger, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Amy J Swift, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Rob M Van Dam, Timon W van Haeften, Thijs van Herpt, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G Bragi Walters, Michael N Weedon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline Witteman, Richard N Bergman, Stéphane Cauchi, Francis S Collins, Anna L Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A Hide, Graham A Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Andrew D Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Richard M Watanabe, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Bernhard O Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J Daly, Andrew T Hattersley, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Nicole Soranzo, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Reedik Mägi, Joshua Randall, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, Taina Lajunen, Alex Doney, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Nicholas J Timpson, Carina Zabena, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Yavuz Ariyurek, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Amélie Bonnefond, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Matthew J Neville, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Andreas F H 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Zee, John B Whitfield, John R Thompson, Ida Surakka, Tim D Spector, Johannes H Smit, Juha Sinisalo, James Scott, Juha Saharinen, Chiara Sabatti, Lynda M Rose, Robert Roberts, Mark Rieder, Alex N Parker, Guillaume Paré, Christopher J O'Donnell, Markku S Nieminen, Deborah A Nickerson, Grant W Montgomery, Wendy McArdle, David Masson, Nicholas G Martin, Fabio Marroni, Gavin Lucas, Robert Luben, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Guillaume Lettre, Lenore J Launer, Edward G Lakatta, Reijo Laaksonen, Kirsten O Kyvik, Inke R König, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lee M Kaplan, Asa Johansson, A Cecile J W Janssens, Wilmar Igl, G Kees Hovingh, Christian Hengstenberg, Aki S Havulinna, Nicholas D Hastie, Tamara B Harris, Talin Haritunians, Alistair S Hall, Leif C Groop, Elena González, Nelson B Freimer, Jeanette Erdmann, Kenechi G Ejebe, Angela Döring, Anna F Dominiczak, Serkalem Demissie, Panagiotis Deloukas, Ulf de Faire, Gabriel Crawford, Yii-Der I Chen, Mark J Caulfield, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Themistocles L Assimes, Thomas Quertermous, Mark Seielstad, Tien Y Wong, E-Shyong Tai, Alan B Feranil, Christopher W Kuzawa, Herman A Taylor, Stacey B Gabriel, Hilma Holm, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ronald M Krauss, José M Ordovás, Patricia B Munroe, Jaspal S Kooner, Alan R Tall, Robert A Hegele, John J P Kastelein, Eric E Schadt, David P Strachan, Muredach P Reilly, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Paul M Ridker, Daniel J Rader, Sekar Kathiresan.
PLoS Genet.
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Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P?=?4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N?=?4,232 African Americans, N?=?1,776 Asians, and N?=?29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p?=?4.3×10(-3), n?=?22,044), increased triglycerides (p?=?2.6×10(-14), n?=?93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p?=?1.8×10(-5), n?=?77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p?=?4.4×10(-3), n?=?15,234), increased fasting insulin (p?=?0.015, n?=?48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p?=?4.5×10(-13), n?=?96,748) and decreased BMI (p?=?1.4×10(-4), n?=?121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
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Multiple apical plasma membrane constituents are associated with susceptibility to meconium ileus in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
Nat. Genet.
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Variants associated with meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis were identified in 3,763 affected individuals by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Five SNPs at two loci near SLC6A14 at Xq23-24 (minimum P = 1.28 × 10(-12) at rs3788766) and SLC26A9 at 1q32.1 (minimum P = 9.88 × 10(-9) at rs4077468) accounted for ~5% of phenotypic variability and were replicated in an independent sample of affected individuals (n = 2,372; P = 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). By incorporating the knowledge that disease-causing mutations in CFTR alter electrolyte and fluid flux across surface epithelium into a hypothesis-driven GWAS (GWAS-HD), we identified associations with the same SNPs in SLC6A14 and SLC26A9 and established evidence for the involvement of SNPs in a third solute carrier gene, SLC9A3. In addition, GWAS-HD provided evidence of association between meconium ileus and multiple genes encoding constituents of the apical plasma membrane where CFTR resides (P = 0.0002; testing of 155 apical membrane genes jointly and in replication, P = 0.022). These findings suggest that modulating activities of apical membrane constituents could complement current therapeutic paradigms for cystic fibrosis.
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Genome wide association study for plasma levels of natural anticoagulant inhibitors and protein C anticoagulant pathway: the MARTHA project.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Deficiencies of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) or an impaired PC anticoagulant pathway increase the risk of venous thrombosis (VT). By conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on two independent samples of VT patients totalling 951 subjects typed for 472 173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we observed that common SNPs explain 21% and 27% of the genetic variance of plasma AT and PS levels, even though no SNP reached genome-wide significance. For PC, we showed that two PROCR SNPs, rs867186 (Ser219Gly) and rs6060278, additionally explained c. 20% (P = 1·19 × 10(-31)) of the variance of plasma PC levels. We also observed that c. 40% of the remaining genetic variance of PC levels could be due to yet unidentified common SNPs. The PROCR locus was also found to explain c. 8% (P < 10(-10)) of agkistrodon contortrix venom (ACV) (exploring the PC pathway) variability which was under the main control of the F5 and F2 loci that further explained about 40% and 10%, respectively. We presented here the first GWAS for plasma AT and free-PS levels and ACV in Caucasian samples. We identified three independent loci associated with ACV (F2, F5 and PROCR) and replicated two independent effects on plasma PC levels at the PROCR locus.
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