JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Methods for analysis of autophagy in plants.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The plant vacuole is a major site for the breakdown and recycling of cellular macromolecules. Cytoplasmic components destined for degradation are delivered to the vacuole in vesicles termed autophagosomes, and the breakdown products are transported back into the cytosol for reuse, with the overall process termed autophagy. In plants, autophagy is required for nutrient remobilization and recycling during senescence and nutrient deficiency, for clearance of protein aggregates and damaged organelles during environmental stress, for pathogen defense, and for general cellular maintenance under normal growth conditions. There is growing interest in autophagy in plants due to the wide range of processes in which it functions. While much of the work thus far has used the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, autophagy is now under investigation in a number of other plants, particularly in economically important crop species. Here, I discuss methods for assessing autophagy activity in plant cells. Microscopic and biochemical assays are described, along with ways to distinguish the steady-state number of autophagosomes from flux through the autophagic pathway. Some deficiencies still exist in plant autophagy analysis, and there is a particular need for more accurate methods of quantifying autophagic flux in plants.
Related JoVE Video
Root growth movements: waving and skewing.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Roots anchor a plant in the soil, acquire nutrition and respond to environmental cues. Roots perform these functions using intricate movements and a variety of pathways have been implicated in mediating their growth patterns. These include endogenous genetic factors, perception of multiple environmental stimuli, signaling pathways interacting with hormonal dynamics and cellular processes of rapid cell elongation. In this review we attempt to consolidate our understanding of two specific types of root movements, waving and skewing, that arise on the surface of growth media, and how they are regulated by various genes and factors. These include crucial factors that are part of a complex nexus of processes including polar auxin transport and cytoskeletal dynamics. This knowledge can be extrapolated in the future for engineering plants with root architecture better suited for different soil and growth conditions such as abiotic stresses or even extended spaceflight. Technological innovations and interdisciplinary approaches promise to allow the tracking of root movements on a much finer scale, thus helping to expedite the discovery of more nodes in the regulation of root waving and skewing and movement in general.
Related JoVE Video
Functional redundancy between trans-Golgi network SNARE family members in Arabidopsis thaliana.
BMC Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vesicle fusion is an essential process for maintaining the structure and function of the endomembrane system. Fusion is mediated by t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) fusion proteins on the target membrane and v-SNAREs on the vesicle membrane; v-and t-SNAREs interact with each other, driving vesicle fusion with the target membrane. The Arabidopsis thaliana trans-Golgi network resident SNAREs SYP41 and VTI12, along with YKT61/62, have been shown to function in vesicle fusion in vitro, consistent with immunoprecipitation results showing their interaction in Arabidopsis cell extracts. Conflicting published results have indicated that SYP4 family members are either functionally redundant or have distinct and essential functions; the reason for this discrepancy is unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Links between ER stress and autophagy in plants.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is a major pathway for the delivery of proteins or organelles to be degraded in the vacuole and recycled. It can be induced by abiotic stresses, senescence, and pathogen infection. Recent research has shown that autophagy is activated by ER stress. Here we review the major progress that has been made in the study of autophagy and ER stress in plants, and describe the links between ER stress and autophagy to guide further study on how autophagy is regulated in response to ER stress.
Related JoVE Video
Degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum by autophagy in plants.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eukaryotic cells have developed sophisticated strategies to contend with environmental stresses faced in their lifetime. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER exceeds the folding capacity of ER chaperones. ER stress responses have been well characterized in animals and yeast, and autophagy has been suggested to play an important role in recovery from ER stress. In plants, the unfolded protein response signaling pathways have been studied, but changes in ER morphology and ER homeostasis during ER stress have not been analyzed previously. Autophagy has been reported to function in tolerance of several stress conditions in plants, including nutrient deprivation, salt and drought stresses, oxidative stress, and pathogen infection. However, whether autophagy also functions during ER stress has not been investigated. The goal of our study was to elucidate the role and regulation of autophagy during ER stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Related JoVE Video
The connection between ribophagy, autophagy and ribosomal RNA decay.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ribosomes are essential components of all cells. A large body of knowledge has been accumulated regarding ribosome synthesis and assembly; however, the pathways of normal ribosome turnover, especially rRNA decay, are not known. Some information on ribosome recycling derives from studies on starved yeast cells that use a specialized type of autophagy, called ribophagy, to differentially target ribosomes for degradation. We found that Arabidopsis RNS2, a conserved ribonuclease of the RNase T2 family, is necessary for normal decay of rRNA. Mutants lacking RNS2 activity have longer-lived rRNA, accumulate RNA in the vacuole and show constitutive macroautophagy. Thus, it is clear that normal rRNA decay is necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. These phenotypes and the subcellular localization of RNS2 in the endoplasmic reticulum and the vacuole suggest that RNS2 participates in a ribophagy-like mechanism that targets ribosomes for recycling under normal growth conditions.
Related JoVE Video
TNO1 is involved in salt tolerance and vacuolar trafficking in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor SYP41 is involved in vesicle fusion at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and interacts with AtVPS45, SYP61, and VTI12. These proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vacuole biogenesis and stress tolerance. A previously uncharacterized protein, named TNO1 (for TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein), was identified by coimmunoprecipitation as a SYP41-interacting protein. TNO1 was found to localize to the TGN by immunofluorescence microscopy. A tno1 mutant showed increased sensitivity to high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and LiCl and also to mannitol-induced osmotic stress. Localization of SYP61, which is involved in the salt stress response, was disrupted in the tno1 mutant. Vacuolar proteins were partially secreted to the apoplast in the tno1 mutant, suggesting that TNO1 is required for efficient protein trafficking to the vacuole. The tno1 mutant had delayed formation of the brefeldin A (BFA) compartment in cotyledons upon application of BFA, suggesting less efficient membrane fusion processes in the mutant. Unlike most TGN proteins, TNO1 does not relocate to the BFA compartment upon BFA treatment. These data demonstrate that TNO1 is involved in vacuolar trafficking and salt tolerance, potentially via roles in vesicle fusion and in maintaining TGN structure or identity.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy differentially controls plant basal immunity to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In plants, autophagy has been assigned pro-death and pro-survival roles in controlling programmed cell death associated with microbial effector-triggered immunity. The role of autophagy in basal immunity to virulent pathogens has not been addressed systematically, however. Using several autophagy-deficient (atg) genotypes, we determined the function of autophagy in basal plant immunity. Arabidopsis mutants lacking ATG5, ATG10 and ATG18a develop spreading necrosis upon infection with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, which is accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen intermediates and by enhanced hyphal growth. Likewise, treatment with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 causes spreading lesion formation in atg mutant genotypes. We suggest that autophagy constitutes a pro-survival mechanism that controls the containment of host tissue-destructive microbial infections. In contrast, atg plants do not show spreading necrosis, but exhibit marked resistance against the virulent biotrophic phytopathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Inducible defenses associated with basal plant immunity, such as callose production or mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, were unaltered in atg genotypes. However, phytohormone analysis revealed that salicylic acid (SA) levels in non-infected and bacteria-infected atg plants were slightly higher than those in Col-0 plants, and were accompanied by elevated SA-dependent gene expression and camalexin production. This suggests that previously undetected moderate infection-induced rises in SA result in measurably enhanced bacterial resistance, and that autophagy negatively controls SA-dependent defenses and basal immunity to bacterial infection. We infer that the way in which autophagy contributes to plant immunity to different pathogens is mechanistically diverse, and thus resembles the complex role of this process in animal innate immunity.
Related JoVE Video
AtRabD2b and AtRabD2c have overlapping functions in pollen development and pollen tube growth.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rab GTPases are important regulators of endomembrane trafficking, regulating exocytosis, endocytosis and membrane recycling. Many Rab-like proteins exist in plants, but only a subset have been functionally characterized.
Related JoVE Video
RNS2, a conserved member of the RNase T2 family, is necessary for ribosomal RNA decay in plants.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RNase T2 enzymes are conserved in most eukaryotic genomes, and expression patterns and phylogenetic analyses suggest that they may carry out an important housekeeping role. However, the nature of this role has been elusive. Here we show that RNS2, an intracellular RNase T2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, is essential for normal ribosomal RNA recycling. This enzyme is the main endoribonuclease activity in plant cells and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-derived structures, and vacuoles. Mutants lacking RNS2 activity accumulate RNA intracellularly, and rRNA in these mutants has a longer half-life. Normal rRNA turnover seems essential to maintain cell homeostasis because rns2 mutants display constitutive autophagy. We propose that RNS2 is part of a process that degrades rRNA to recycle its components. This process appears to be conserved in all eukaryotes.
Related JoVE Video
TOR is a negative regulator of autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is a protein degradation process by which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents under stress conditions or during senescence; a basal level of housekeeping autophagy also occurs under non-stressed conditions. Although a number of genes that function in autophagy (ATG genes) have been identified in plants, the upstream components that regulate the plant autophagy pathway are still obscure. Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a negative regulator of autophagy in both yeast and animals, and homologs of TOR in plants control plant growth and protein synthesis. However, a role for TOR in regulation of autophagy in plants has not been demonstrated previously.
Related JoVE Video
Increase in catalase-3 activity as a response to use of alternative catabolic substrates during sucrose starvation.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Periods of carbohydrate deprivation are commonly encountered by plant cells. Plants respond to this nutrient stress by the mobilization of stored carbohydrates and the reallocation of other cellular macromolecules to degradative pathways. Previously we identified a number of metabolic genes that are upregulated in Arabidopsis thaliana cells during sucrose starvation. One of the genes identified encodes acyl-CoA oxidase-4 (ACX4, EC 1.3.3.6), a peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase that is unique to plants and involved in beta-oxidation of short-chain fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that ACX4 activity increases during sucrose starvation, indicating a shift to a catabolic breakdown of fatty acids as a source of available carbon. This suggests a role for degradation of short-chain fatty acids in the response to sucrose starvation, leading in turn to the production of toxic H2O2. Catalase-3 (CAT3, EC 1.11.1.6) activity also increases during starvation as a direct response to the increase in oxidative stress caused by the rapid activation of alternative catabolic pathways, including a specific increase in ACX4 activity. Any disruption in ACX4 expression or in beta-oxidation of fatty acids in general prevents this increase in catalase activity and expression. We hypothesize that CAT3 activity increases to remove the H2O2 produced by alternative catabolic processes induced during the carbohydrate shortages caused by extended periods of low-light conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy is required for tolerance of drought and salt stress in plants.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Upon the induction of autophagy, a double membrane autophagosome forms around cytoplasmic components and delivers them to the vacuole or lysosome for degradation. In plants, autophagy has been shown previously to be induced during abiotic stresses including nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. In this paper, we demonstrate the induction of autophagy in high salt and osmotic stress conditions, concomitant with the upregulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana autophagy-related gene AtATG18a. Autophagy-defective RNAi-AtATG18a plants are more sensitive to salt and drought conditions than wild-type plants, demonstrating a role for autophagy in the response to these stresses. NADPH oxidase inhibitors block autophagy induction upon nutrient starvation and salt stress, but not during osmotic stress, indicating that autophagy can be activated by NADPH oxidase-dependent or -independent pathways. Together our results indicate that diverse environmental stresses can induce autophagy and that autophagy is regulated by distinct signaling pathways in different conditions.
Related JoVE Video
AtVPS45 is a positive regulator of the SYP41/SYP61/VTI12 SNARE complex involved in trafficking of vacuolar cargo.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a functional characterization of AtVPS45 (for vacuolar protein sorting 45), a protein from the Sec1/Munc18 family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that interacts at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) with the SYP41/SYP61/VTI12 SNARE complex. A null allele of AtVPS45 was male gametophytic lethal, whereas stable RNA interference lines with reduced AtVPS45 protein levels had stunted growth but were viable and fertile. In the silenced lines, we observed defects in vacuole formation that correlated with a reduction in cell expansion and with autophagy-related defects in nutrient turnover. Moreover, transport of vacuolar cargo with carboxy-terminal vacuolar sorting determinants was blocked in the silenced lines, suggesting that AtVPS45 functions in vesicle trafficking to the vacuole. These trafficking defects are similar to those observed in vti12 mutants, supporting a functional relationship between AtVPS45 and VTI12. Consistent with this, we found a decrease in SYP41 protein levels coupled to the silencing of AtVPS45, pointing to instability and malfunction of the SYP41/SYP61/VTI12 SNARE complex in the absence of its cognate Sec1/Munc18 regulator. Based on its localization on the TGN, we hypothesized that AtVPS45 could be involved in membrane fusion of retrograde vesicles recycling vacuolar trafficking machinery. Indeed, in the AtVPS45-silenced plants, we found a striking alteration in the subcellular fractionation pattern of vacuolar sorting receptors, which are required for sorting of carboxy-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant-containing cargo. We propose that AtVPS45 is essential for recycling of the vacuolar sorting receptors back to the TGN and that blocking this step underlies the defects in vacuolar cargo trafficking observed in the silenced lines.
Related JoVE Video
Function and regulation of macroautophagy in plants.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The plant vacuole is a major site for the degradation of macromolecules, which are transferred from the cytoplasm by autophagy via double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes. Autophagy functions at a basal level under normal growth conditions and is induced during senescence and upon exposure to stress conditions to recycle nutrients or degrade damaged proteins and organelles. Autophagy is also required for the regulation of programmed cell death as a response to pathogen infection and possibly during certain developmental processes. Little is known about how autophagy is regulated under these different conditions in plants, but recent evidence suggests that plants contain a functional TOR pathway which may control autophagy induction in conjunction with hormonal and/or environmental signals.
Related JoVE Video
Degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum by autophagy during endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this article, we show that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes morphological changes in structure during ER stress that can be attributed to autophagy. ER stress agents trigger autophagy as demonstrated by increased production of autophagosomes. In response to ER stress, a soluble ER marker localizes to autophagosomes and accumulates in the vacuole upon inhibition of vacuolar proteases. Membrane lamellae decorated with ribosomes were observed inside autophagic bodies, demonstrating that portions of the ER are delivered to the vacuole by autophagy during ER stress. In addition, an ER stress sensor, INOSITOL-REQUIRING ENZYME-1b (IRE1b), was found to be required for ER stress-induced autophagy. However, the IRE1b splicing target, bZIP60, did not seem to be involved, suggesting the existence of an undiscovered signaling pathway to regulate ER stress-induced autophagy in plants. Together, these results suggest that autophagy serves as a pathway for the turnover of ER membrane and its contents in response to ER stress in plants.
Related JoVE Video
What to eat: evidence for selective autophagy in plants.
J Integr Plant Biol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is a macromolecular degradation pathway by which cells recycle their contents as a developmental process, housekeeping mechanism, and response to environmental stress. In plants, autophagy involves the sequestration of cargo to be degraded, transport to the cell vacuole in a double-membrane bound autophagosome, and subsequent degradation by lytic enzymes. Autophagy has generally been considered to be a non-selective mechanism of degradation. However, studies in yeast and animals have found numerous examples of selective autophagy, with cargo including proteins, protein aggregates, and organelles. Recent work has also provided evidence for several types of selective autophagy in plants. The degradation of protein aggregates was the first selective autophagy described in plants, and, more recently, a hybrid protein of the mammalian selective autophagy adaptors p62 and NBR1, which interacts with the autophagy machinery and may function in autophagy of protein aggregates, was described in plants. Other intracellular components have been suggested to be selectively targeted by autophagy in plants, but the current evidence is limited. Here, we discuss recent findings regarding the selective targeting of cell components by autophagy in plants. [Formula: see text] [ Diane C. Bassham (Corresponding author)].
Related JoVE Video
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and function of endosomes in plant cells.
J. Cell. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endosomes are a heterogeneous collection of organelles that function in the sorting and delivery of internalized material from the cell surface and the transport of materials from the Golgi to the lysosome or vacuole. Plant endosomes have some unique features, with an organization distinct from that of yeast or animal cells. Two clearly defined endosomal compartments have been studied in plant cells, the trans-Golgi network (equivalent to the early endosome) and the multivesicular body (equivalent to the late endosome), with additional endosome types (recycling endosome, late prevacuolar compartment) also a possibility. A model has been proposed in which the trans-Golgi network matures into a multivesicular body, which then fuses with the vacuole to release its cargo. In addition to basic trafficking functions, endosomes in plant cells are known to function in maintenance of cell polarity by polar localization of hormone transporters and in signaling pathways after internalization of ligand-bound receptors. These signaling functions are exemplified by the BRI1 brassinosteroid hormone receptor and by receptors for pathogen elicitors that activate defense responses. After endocytosis of these receptors from the plasma membrane, endosomes act as a signaling platform, thus playing an essential role in plant growth, development and defense responses. Here we describe the key features of plant endosomes and their differences from those of other organisms and discuss the role of these organelles in cell polarity and signaling pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy: pathways for self-eating in plant cells.
Annu Rev Plant Biol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to survive when in unfavorable environments. Autophagy is a macromolecule degradation pathway that recycles damaged or unwanted cell materials upon encountering stress conditions or during specific developmental processes. Over the past decade, our molecular and physiological understanding of plant autophagy has greatly increased. Most of the essential machinery required for autophagy seems to be conserved from yeast to plants. Plant autophagy has been shown to function in various stress responses, pathogen defense, and senescence. Some of its potential upstream regulators have also been identified. Here, we describe recent advances in our understanding of autophagy in plants, discuss areas of controversy, and highlight potential future directions in autophagy research.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.