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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neuroauditory toxicity of artemisinin combination therapies-have safety concerns been addressed?
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Although artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are widely viewed as safe drugs with a wide therapeutic dose range, concerns about neuroauditory safety of artemisinins arose during their development. A decade ago, reviews of human data suggested a potential neuro-ototoxic effect, but the validity of these findings was questioned. With 5-10 years of programmatic use, emerging artemisinin-tolerant falciparum malaria in southeast Asia, and the first calls to consider an increased dose of artemisinins, we review neuroauditory safety data on ACTs to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Fifteen studies reported a neurological or auditory assessment. The large heterogeneity of neuro-ototoxic end points and assessment methodologies and the descriptive nature of assessments hampered a formal meta-analysis and definitive conclusions, but they highlight the persistent lack of data from young children. This subgroup is potentially most vulnerable to any neuroauditory toxicity because of their development stage, increased malaria susceptibility, and repeated ACT exposure in settings lacking robust safety monitoring.
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Placental infections with histologically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum are associated with adverse birth outcomes in India: a cross-sectional study.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Few studies have assessed placental malaria infections from low transmission areas by histopathology to define their impact and underlying mechanisms.
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Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important.
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Optimizing the programmatic deployment of the anti-malarials artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine using pharmacological modelling.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Successful programmatic use of anti-malarials faces challenges that are not covered by standard drug development processes. The development of appropriate pragmatic dosing regimens for low-resource settings or community-based use is not formally regulated, even though these may alter factors which can substantially affect individual patient and population level outcome, such as drug exposure, patient adherence and the spread of drug resistance and can affect a drug's reputation and its eventual therapeutic lifespan.
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Effect of malaria transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) and circumsporozoite (CSP) in western Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Although several studies have investigated the impact of reduced malaria transmission due to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the patterns of morbidity and mortality, there is limited information on their effect on parasite diversity.
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Effect of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) on antimalarial drug resistance in western Kenya.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Despite the clear public health benefit of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), the impact of malaria transmission-reduction by vector control on the spread of drug resistance is not well understood. In the present study, the effect of sustained transmission reduction by ITNs on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum gene mutations associated with resistance to the antimalarial drugs sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) in children under the age of five years was investigated during an ITN trial in Asembo area, western Kenya. During the ITN trial, the national first line antimalarial treatment changed from CQ to SP. Smear-positive samples collected from cross sectional surveys prior to ITN introduction (baseline, n?=?250) and five years post-ITN intervention (year 5 survey, n?=?242) were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at dhfr-51, 59, 108, 164 and dhps-437, 540 (SP resistance), and pfcrt-76 and pfmdr1-86 (CQ resistance). The association between the drug resistance mutations and epidemiological variables was evaluated. There were significant increases in the prevalence of SP dhps mutations and the dhfr/dhps quintuple mutant, and a significant reduction in the proportion of mixed infections detected at dhfr-51, 59 and dhps-437, 540 SNPs from baseline to the year 5 survey. There was no change in the high prevalence of pfcrt-76 and pfmdr1-86 mutations. Multivariable regression analysis further showed that current antifolate use and year of survey were significantly associated with more SP drug resistance mutations. These results suggest that increased antifolate drug use due to drug policy change likely led to the high prevalence of SP mutations 5 years post-ITN intervention and reduced transmission had no apparent effect on the existing high prevalence of CQ mutations. There is no evidence from the current study that sustained transmission reduction by ITNs reduces the prevalence of genes associated with malaria drug resistance.
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Uncertainties in the measurement of blood glucose in paediatric intensive care: implications for clinical trials of tight glycaemic control.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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In preparation for a tight glycaemic control (TGC) clinical trial we assessed the agreement between methods used to measure blood glucose in critically ill children.
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Azithromycin for treating uncomplicated malaria.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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To prevent the development of drug resistance, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating malaria with combination therapy. Azithromycin, an antibiotic with antimalarial properties, may be a useful additional option for antimalarial therapy.
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Rapid scale-up of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets through integration into the national immunization program during child health week in Togo, 2004.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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In December 2004, Togo was the first country to conduct a nationwide free insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution as part of its National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted one and nine months post-campaign as part of a multidisciplinary evaluation of the nationwide distribution of ITNs to children 9-59 months of age to evaluate ITN ownership, equity, and use. Our results demonstrated that at one month post-campaign, 93.1% of all eligible children received an ITN. Household ITN ownership and equity increased significantly post-campaign. Nine months post-campaign, 78.6% of households with a child eligible to participate in the campaign retained at least one campaign net. Use by eligible children was 43.5% at one month post-campaign (during the dry season) and 52.9% at nine months post-campaign (during the rainy season). Household ownership of at least one ITN increased from 8.0% pre-campaign to 62.5% one month post-campaign. Together, these findings demonstrate that in this setting, increased household ITN ownership, equity, and retention can be achieved on a national scale through free ITN distribution during an integrated campaign.
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Impact of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets on childhood malaria morbidity: the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign.
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Effects of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on parasite genetics population structure: I. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by microsatellite markers in western Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) reduce malaria transmission and are an important prevention tool. However, there are still information gaps on how the reduction in malaria transmission by ITNs affects parasite genetics population structure. This study examined the relationship between transmission reduction from ITN use and the population genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in an area of high ITN coverage in western Kenya.
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Polymorphisms in genes of interleukin 12 and its receptors and their association with protection against severe malarial anaemia in children in western Kenya.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Malarial anaemia is characterized by destruction of malaria infected red blood cells and suppression of erythropoiesis. Interleukin 12 (IL12) significantly boosts erythropoietic responses in murine models of malarial anaemia and decreased IL12 levels are associated with severe malarial anaemia (SMA) in children. Based on the biological relevance of IL12 in malaria anaemia, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL12 and its receptors and SMA was examined.
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Estimating regional centile curves from mixed data sources and countries.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Regional or national growth distributions can provide vital information on the health status of populations. In most resource poor countries, however, the required anthropometric data from purpose-designed growth surveys are not readily available. We propose a practical method for estimating regional (multi-country) age-conditional weight distributions based on existing survey data from different countries. We developed a two-step method by which one is able to model data with widely different age ranges and sample sizes. The method produces references both at the country level and at the regional (multi-country) level. The first step models country-specific centile curves by Box-Cox t and Box-Cox power exponential distributions implemented in generalized additive model for location, scale and shape through a common model. Individual countries may vary in location and spread. The second step defines the regional reference from a finite mixture of the country distributions, weighted by population size. To demonstrate the method we fitted the weight-for-age distribution of 12 countries in South East Asia and the Western Pacific, based on 273 270 observations. We modeled both the raw body weight and the corresponding Z score, and obtained a good fit between the final models and the original data for both solutions. We briefly discuss an application of the generated regional references to obtain appropriate, region specific, age-based dosing regimens of drugs used in the tropics. The method is an affordable and efficient strategy to estimate regional growth distributions where the standard costly alternatives are not an option.
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Malaria in infants below six months of age: retrospective surveillance of hospital admission records in Blantyre, Malawi.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Information on the burden of malaria in early infancy is scarce. Young infants are relatively protected against clinical malaria during the first six months of life due to the presence of maternal antibodies and foetal haemoglobin, and have received relatively little attention with respect to research and treatment guidelines. The World Health Organization provides treatment guidelines for children from six months onwards, without specific treatment guidelines for the younger infants. A number of recent reports however suggest that the burden in this young age group may be underestimated.
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Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality and quantity of drug safety reports as new medicines are scaled-up.
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Rolling Malaria Indicator Surveys (rMIS): a potential district-level malaria monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tool for program managers.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Novel malaria monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tools are urgently needed to complement the current "gold standard" Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS). Rapid up scaling of malaria control efforts is resulting in substantial reductions in malaria burden across sub-Saharan Africa. As transmission goes down, timely, accurate, sub-national, and district level burden estimates are needed to guide increasingly targeted control efforts in remaining hotspot areas. To test a novel district level M&E tool, we have conducted a continuous ("rolling") MIS (rMIS) since May 2010 covering 50 villages in Chikhwawa district in southern Malawi, essentially adapting an existing cross-sectional evaluation tool into a continuous monitoring tool. Here, we report on our experience after completing the first full year of monthly data collection focusing on the methods, operational aspects, and estimated costs of rMIS in a programmatic setting. The potential applicability of this promising M&E approach for district-level program managers and control efforts is discussed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.