The aim of this study is to examine the potential factors associated with both smoking participation and the level of cigarette consumption in Turkey from a gender perspective, the understanding of which are crucial to the formulation and implementation of anti-smoking policies.
Breast cancer is an extremely important issue that threats womens health; it is the most common illness that leads to death in women, worldwide. The purpose of this descriptive-comparative study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and beliefs women attending mammography units have regarding breast cancer and early diagnosis.
The human Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of combined hereditary deaf-blindness. USH is genetically heterogeneous with at least 11 chromosomal loci assigned to 3 clinical types, USH1-3. We have previously demonstrated that all USH1 and 2 proteins in the eye and the inner ear are organized into protein networks by scaffold proteins. This has contributed essentially to our current understanding of the function of USH proteins and explains why defects in proteins of different families cause very similar phenotypes. We have previously shown that the USH1G protein SANS (scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and SAM domain) contributes to the periciliary protein network in retinal photoreceptor cells. This study aimed to further elucidate the role of SANS by identifying novel interaction partners. In yeast two-hybrid screens of retinal cDNA libraries we identified 30 novel putative interacting proteins binding to the central domain of SANS (CENT). We confirmed the direct binding of the phosphodiesterase 4D interacting protein (PDE4DIP), a Golgi associated protein synonymously named myomegalin, to the CENT domain of SANS by independent assays. Correlative immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses showed a co-localization of SANS and myomegalin in mammalian photoreceptor cells in close association with microtubules. Based on the present results we propose a role of the SANS-myomegalin complex in microtubule-dependent inner segment cargo transport towards the ciliary base of photoreceptor cells.
Phagocytosis is a complex process that involves membranelipid remodeling and the attraction and retention of key effector proteins. Phagosome phenotype depends on the type of receptor engaged and can be influenced by extracellular signals. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that induces the alternative activation of macrophages (M?s) upon prolonged exposure, triggering a different cell phenotype that has an altered phagocytic capacity. In contrast, the direct effects of IL-4 during phagocytosis remain unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of short-term IL-4 exposure (1 hour) during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized yeast particles by M?s. By time-lapse confocal microscopy of GFP-tagged lipid-sensing probes, we show that IL-4 increases the negative charge of the phagosomal membrane by prolonging the presence of the negatively charged second messenger PI(3,4,5)P3. Biochemical assays reveal an enhanced PI3K/Akt activity upon phagocytosis in the presence of IL-4. Blocking the specific class I PI3K after the onset of phagocytosis completely abrogates the IL-4-induced changes in lipid remodeling and concomitant membrane charge. Finally, we show that IL-4 direct signaling leads to a significantly prolonged retention profile of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Rab5 to the phagosomal membrane in a PI3K-dependent manner. This protracted early phagosome phenotype suggests an altered maturation, which is supported by the delayed phagosome acidification measured in the presence of IL-4. Our findings reveal that molecular differences in IL-4 levels, in the extracellular microenvironment, influence the coordination of lipid remodeling and protein recruitment, which determine phagosome phenotype and, eventually, fate. Endosomal and phagosomal membranes provide topological constraints to signaling molecules. Therefore, changes in the phagosome phenotype modulated by extracellular factors may represent an additional mechanism that regulates the outcome of phagocytosis and could have significant impact on the net biochemical output of a cell.
In this study, the aim was to examine the effects of caring burdens of family caregivers of cancer patients on their quality of life in the east of Turkey. Data were collected at the Chemotherapy unit of Yakutiye Research Hospital of Ataturk University. Participants were 18 years old and older. The sample included 190 family caregivers who were living in the same flats with the patients during caregiving. Data were collected using a questionnaire that included socio-demographic questions for family caregivers and the Burden Interview, and the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) Scale. SPSS version 14.0 was used to analyse the data. Descriptive statistics were computed for demographic variables of family caregivers. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the care burden and quality of life, linear logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the effect care burdens have on the quality of life, and logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the effect descriptive characteristics and care-related properties have on the quality of life. The score mean of the burden interview of caregivers was 36.6 ± 11.2; and their score mean of CQOLC was 81.4 ± 17.3. This study concluded that there was a negative relationship between caring burdens and the quality of life (p<0.001); descriptive characteristics, caring-related properties, and caring burden variables were all significant predictors of the quality of life. It is recommended that caregivers are given support by being offered training about providing care.
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