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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
EGFR as a potential therapeutic target for a subset of muscle-invasive bladder cancers presenting a basal-like phenotype.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (MIBC) constitutes a heterogeneous group of tumors with a poor outcome. Molecular stratification of MIBC may identify clinically relevant tumor subgroups and help to provide effective targeted therapies. From seven series of large-scale transcriptomic data (383 tumors), we identified an MIBC subgroup accounting for 23.5% of MIBC, associated with shorter survival and displaying a basal-like phenotype, as shown by the expression of epithelial basal cell markers. Basal-like tumors presented an activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway linked to frequent EGFR gains and activation of an EGFR autocrine loop. We used a 40-gene expression classifier derived from human tumors to identify human bladder cancer cell lines and a chemically induced mouse model of bladder cancer corresponding to human basal-like bladder cancer. We showed, in both models, that tumor cells were sensitive to anti-EGFR therapy. Our findings provide preclinical proof of concept that anti-EGFR therapy can be used to target a subset of particularly aggressive MIBC tumors expressing basal cell markers and provide diagnostic tools for identifying these tumors.
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Predicting the risk of harboring high-grade disease for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer scored as Gleason ? 6 on biopsy cores.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Biopsy and final pathological Gleason score (GS) are inconstantly correlated with each other. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a predictive score to screen patients diagnosed with a biopsy GS ? 6 prostate cancer (PCa) at risk of GS upgrading.
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Prediction of recurrence of non muscle-invasive bladder cancer by means of a protein signature identified by antibody microarray analyses.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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About 70% of newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer are low-stage, low-grade, non muscle-invasive. Standard treatment is transurethral resection. About 60% of the tumors will recur, however, and in part progress to become invasive. Therefore, surveillance cystoscopy is performed after resection. However, in the USA and Europe alone, about 54 000 new patients per year undergo repeated cystoscopies over several years, who do not experience recurrence. Analysing in a pilot study resected tumors from patients with (n = 19) and without local recurrence (n = 6) after a period of 5 years by means of an antibody microarray that targeted 724 cancer-related proteins, we identified 255 proteins with significantly differential abundance. Most are involved in the regulation and execution of apoptosis and cell proliferation. A multivariate classifier was constructed based on 20 proteins. It facilitates the prediction of recurrence with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 100%. As a measure of overall accuracy, the area under the curve value was found to be 91%. After validation in additional sample cohorts with a similarly long follow-up, such a signature could support decision making about the stringency of surveillance or even different treatment options.
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Long-term impact of positive surgical margins on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: Ten years of follow-up.
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Abstract Objective. Positive surgical margins (PSMs) in men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer are associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. This study evaluated the long-term (>10 year) impact of PSMs on biochemical recurrence after RP in adjuvant treatment-naïve pT2-pT4 N0 men and determined predictors of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure. Material and methods. The institutional registry of 1276 patients who underwent RP at Henri Mondor Hospital from 1988 to 2001 was reviewed, identifying 403 patients with regular follow-up at the time of analysis. The study included 108 patients with PSMs who did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy before PSA relapse. Median follow-up was 12.2 years. PSA failure was defined by a PSA rising by more than 0.2 ng/ml and biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse clinicopathological variables associated with biochemical recurrence. Results. Biochemical recurrence 10 years after RP was 33.5% for patients regardless of the margin status. The 10-year biochemical RFS was 73% in men with negative margins compared to 49% in the case of PSM (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, margin status was a significantly predictive for PSA failure (hazard ratio 1.46, p = 0.04). After stratification by pathological stage, margin status was significantly predictive for biochemical RFS in pT2 (p < 0.001) and pT3a (p < 0.001), whereas the impact of PSM did not reach significance in pT3b (p = 0.16). Conclusions. After 10-year follow-up, PSMs remain an independent risk factor of biochemical RFS after RP with less relevant impact in pT3b disease. Randomized prospective trials are needed to determine the place of adjuvant versus delayed radiotherapy.
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Patient selection and pathological outcomes using currently available active surveillance criteria.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To establish the rate of higher risk criteria in various definitions of an active surveillance population.
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Acute bacterial prostatitis after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: Epidemiological, bacteria and treatment patterns from a 4-year prospective study.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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To evaluate the incidence, and clinical and bacterial features of iatrogenic prostatitis within 1 month after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer.
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PI3K/AKT pathway activation in bladder carcinogenesis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The PI3K/AKT pathway is considered to play a major role in bladder carcinogenesis, but its relationships with other molecular alterations observed in bladder cancer remain unknown. We investigated PI3K/AKT pathway activation in a series of human bladder urothelial carcinomas (UC) according to PTEN expression, PTEN deletions and FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS and TP53 gene mutations. The series included 6 normal bladder urothelial samples and 129 UC (Ta n = 25, T1 n = 34, T2-T3-T4 n = 70). Expression of phospho-AKT (pAKT), phospho-S6-Ribosomal Protein (pS6) (one downstream effector of PI3K/AKT pathway) and PTEN was evaluated by reverse phase protein Array. Expression of miR-21, miR-19a and miR-222, known to regulate PTEN expression, was also evaluated. pAKT expression levels were higher in tumors than in normal urothelium (p < 0.01), regardless of stage and showed a weak and positive correlation with pS6 (Spearman coefficient RS = 0.26; p = 0.002). No association was observed between pAKT or pS6 expression and the gene mutations studied. PTEN expression was decreased in PTEN-deleted tumors, and in T1 (p = 0.0089) and T2-T3-T4 (p < 0.001) tumors compared to Ta tumors; it was also negatively correlated with miR-19a (RS = -0.50; p = 0.0088) and miR-222 (RS = -0.48; p = 0.0132), but not miR-21 (RS = -0.27; p = 0.18) expression. pAKT and PTEN expressions were not negatively correlated, and, on the opposite, a positive and moderate correlation was observed in Ta (RS = 0.54; p = 0.0056) and T1 (RS = 0.56; p = 0.0006) tumors. Our study suggests that PI3K/AKT pathway activation occurs in the entire spectrum of bladder UC regardless of stage or known most frequent molecular alterations, and independently of low PTEN expression.
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Evaluation of combined oncologic and functional outcomes after robotic-assisted laparoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy: trifecta rate of achieving continence, potency and cancer control.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Outcomes of continence, erectile function, and oncologic control are well-described in isolation especially for the retropubic open approach. However, only few series have yet reported combined results after radical prostatectomy. To determine the proportion of men who are continent, potent, and cancer-free (trifecta rate) 2 years after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP).
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Contemporary pathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of prostate cancers missed by 6- and 12-core biopsy and diagnosed with a 21-core biopsy protocol.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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To assess the pathological and the oncologic outcomes of the prostate cancer (PCa) missed by 6- and 12-core biopsy protocols by using a reference 21-core scheme.
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Mid-term oncological control after laparoscopic radical cystectomy in men: a single-centre experience.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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• To assess the mid-term (3 years of follow-up) oncological control of laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) for high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer in a well studied male population.
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A novel epigenetic phenotype associated with the most aggressive pathway of bladder tumor progression.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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Epigenetic silencing can extend to whole chromosomal regions in cancer. There have been few genome-wide studies exploring its involvement in tumorigenesis.
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Low pretreatment total testosterone (< 3 ng/mL) predicts extraprostatic disease in prostatectomy specimens from patients with preoperative localized prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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• To investigate the relationship between pretreatment testosterone levels and pathological specimen characteristics, by prospectively examining serum androgen concentrations in a well-studied cohort of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer.
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Robot-assisted laparoscopic sacral colpopexy: initial experience in a high-volume laparoscopic reference center.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
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To describe the surgical technique of robot-assisted sacral colpopexy (RASCP) and to assess its feasibility and safety in a high-volume laparoscopic center.
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Impact of the primary Gleason pattern on biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy: a single-center cohort of 1,248 patients with Gleason 7 tumors.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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We aimed to evaluate the impact of the primary Gleason pattern on biochemical recurrence-free survival (RFS) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in a single-center cohort of patients with Gleason 7 tumors.
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The role of tumor-free status in repeat resection before intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for high grade Ta, T1 and CIS bladder cancer.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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We evaluated the outcome of repeat transurethral bladder tumor resection for high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer before induction and maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin.
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Evaluation of combined oncological and functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy: trifecta rate of achieving continence, potency and cancer control--a literature review.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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The first objective of radical prostatectomy is cancer control. However, the success of RP should be also measured by the long-term morbidity outcomes and by the maintenance of quality of life. We performed a review of the literature for combined results of continence, erectile function, and cancer control after radical prostatectomy. Since 2003 and the first report of "trifecta," only 7 series have yet reported such combined results (trifecta rate range: 20%-76%). The preoperative risk (DAmico) predicted for quality of life outcomes and biochemical recurrence is an aggregate endpoint, the trifecta.
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Intrafascial nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy with a laparoscopic robot-assisted extraperitoneal approach: early oncological and functional results.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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We investigated whether an intrafascial approach to prostatectomy would provide significantly improved outcomes compared with retropubic and laparoscopic approaches. We performed 50 radical prostatectomies with an intrafascial, nerve-sparing, laparoscopic, robot-assisted extraperitoneal approach.
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Robot-assisted extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: experience in a high-volume laparoscopy reference centre.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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To describe our current procedure of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP), and to assess the effect of the learning curve on perioperative data, early oncological outcomes and functional results, as RALP has increasingly become a treatment option for men with localized prostate cancer.
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Oncologic outcome after extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: midterm follow-up of 1115 procedures.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Although the first laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was performed in 1997, few midterm oncologic data have been published for the extraperitoneal procedure.
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Pathological findings and prostate specific antigen outcomes after radical prostatectomy in men eligible for active surveillance--does the risk of misclassification vary according to biopsy criteria?
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2009
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We compared the pathological findings and prostate specific antigen outcome after radical prostatectomy in men eligible for active surveillance according to 3 biopsy inclusion criteria.
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Is robot assistance affecting operating room time compared with pure retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy?
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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To compare operating room times between retroperitoneal robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) and pure retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP).
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The role of biopsy core number in selecting prostate cancer patients for active surveillance.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Studies offer wide variations in inclusion criteria for active surveillance (AS) in prostate cancer (PCa), but the role of the biopsy core number has not been thoroughly assessed.
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Prognostic significance of microscopic bladder neck invasion in prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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To assess the prognostic significance of microscopic bladder neck invasion (BNI+) after radical prostatectomy (RP).
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Extensive biopsies and transurethral prostate resection in men with previous negative biopsies and high or increasing prostate specific antigen.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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We determined the diagnostic role of an extensive biopsy protocol associated with transurethral prostate resection in patients with persistently increased or increasing prostate specific antigen without evidence of prostate cancer after 2 or more extended negative sets of biopsies.
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High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atypical small acinar proliferation on initial 21-core extended biopsy scheme: incidence and implications for patient care and surveillance.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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To evaluate the incidence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) in an initial 21-core extended biopsy scheme and to determine the prostate cancer detection rate in the repeated biopsy.
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A meta-analysis of the relationship between FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer.
PLoS ONE
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TP53 and FGFR3 mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancers. FGFR3 mutations are most frequent in low-grade low-stage tumours, whereas TP53 mutations are most frequent in high-grade high-stage tumours. Several studies have reported FGFR3 and TP53 mutations to be mutually exclusive events, whereas others have reported them to be independent. We carried out a meta-analysis of published findings for FGFR3 and TP53 mutations in bladder cancer (535 tumours, 6 publications) and additional unpublished data for 382 tumours. TP53 and FGFR3 mutations were not independent events for all tumours considered together (OR?=?0.25 [0.18-0.37], p?=?0.0001) or for pT1 tumours alone (OR?=?0.47 [0.28-0.79], p?=?0.0009). However, if the analysis was restricted to pTa tumours or to muscle-invasive tumours alone, FGFR3 and TP53 mutations were independent events (OR?=?0.56 [0.23-1.36] (p?=?0.12) and OR?=?0.99 [0.37-2.7] (p?=?0.35), respectively). After stratification of the tumours by stage and grade, no dependence was detected in the five tumour groups considered (pTaG1 and pTaG2 together, pTaG3, pT1G2, pT1G3, pT2-4). These differences in findings can be attributed to the putative existence of two different pathways of tumour progression in bladder cancer: the CIS pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are rare, and the Ta pathway, in which FGFR3 mutations are frequent. TP53 mutations occur at the earliest stage of the CIS pathway, whereas they occur would much later in the Ta pathway, at the T1G3 or muscle-invasive stage.
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Comparisons of the perioperative, functional, and oncologic outcomes after robot-assisted versus pure extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
Eur. Urol.
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In spite of the increasing use of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP) worldwide, no level 1 evidence-based benefit favouring RALP versus pure laparoscopic approaches has been demonstrated in extraperitoneal laparoscopic procedures.
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External validation of extranodal extension and lymph node density as predictors of survival in node-positive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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Prognostic factors in pathologic node-positive patients after radical cystectomy are debated. Extranodal extension (ENE) and lymph node density (LND) are strong predictors of survival. The aim of this study was to assess factors predictive of survival and to evaluate the prognostic significance of the tumor, node, metastasis staging system (TNM) nodal classification in a retrospective cohort of node-positive bladder cancers after radical cystectomy.
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Analysis of outcomes after radical prostatectomy in patients eligible for active surveillance (PRIAS).
BJU Int.
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To identify the risk of failure of active surveillance (AS) in men who had the Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) criteria and had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP), by studying as primary endpoints the risk of unfavourable disease in RP specimens (stage >T2 and/or Gleason score >6) and of biochemical progression after RP.
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A switch from GnRH agonist to GnRH antagonist in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients leads to a low response rate on PSA.
World J Urol
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At the time of castration resistance, it is recommended to realize hormonal manipulations before chemotherapy. We evaluated the impact of a switch from GnRH agonist to antagonist in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer on PSA and testosterone levels at 3 months.
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Anastomotic stricture after minimally invasive radical prostatectomy: what should be expected from the Van Velthoven single-knot running suture?
J. Endourol.
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Patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) who are treated by radical prostatectomy (RP) have a good overall survival rate. Their quality of life, however, can deteriorate because of the incidence of bladder neck contracture (BNC). Our aim was to evaluate the incidence and the risk factors of BNC after minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) with a single-knot running suture also known as the Van Velthoven technique (VVT).
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CDKN2A homozygous deletion is associated with muscle invasion in FGFR3-mutated urothelial bladder carcinoma.
J. Pathol.
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The gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) is frequently inactivated by deletion in bladder carcinoma. However, its role in bladder tumourigenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of CDKN2A deletion in urothelial carcinogenesis, as a function of FGFR3 mutation status, a marker for one of the two pathways of bladder tumour progression, the Ta pathway. We studied 288 bladder carcinomas: 177 non-muscle-invasive (123 Ta, 54 T1) and 111 muscle-invasive (T2-4) tumours. CDKN2A copy number was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and FGFR3 mutations by SNaPshot analysis. FGFR3 mutation was detected in 124 tumours (43.1%) and CDKN2A homozygous deletion in 56 tumours (19.4%). CDKN2A homozygous deletion was significantly more frequent in FGFR3-mutated tumours than in wild-type FGFR3 tumours (p = 0.0015). This event was associated with muscle-invasive tumours within the FGFR3-mutated subgroup (p < 0.0001) but not in wild-type FGFR3 tumours. Similar findings were obtained for an independent series of 101 bladder carcinomas. The impact of CDKN2A deletions on recurrence-free and progression-free survival was then analysed in 89 patients with non-muscle-invasive FGFR3-mutated tumours. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that CDKN2A losses (hemizygous and homozygous) were associated with progression (p = 0.0002), but not with recurrence, in these tumours. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified CDKN2A loss as a predictor of progression independent of stage and grade. These findings highlight the crucial role of CDKN2A loss in the progression of non-muscle-invasive FGFR3-mutated bladder carcinomas and provide a potentially useful clinical marker for adapting the treatment of such tumours, which account for about 50% of cases at initial clinical presentation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.