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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Grading system for the selection of patients with congenital aural atresia for active middle ear implants.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Active middle ear implants (aMEI) are being increasingly used for hearing restoration in congenital aural atresia. The existing gradings used for CT findings do not meet the requirements for these implants. Some items are expendable, whereas other important imaging factors are missing. We aimed to create a new grading system that could describe the extent of the malformation and predict the viability and challenges of implanting an aMEI.
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The prognostic value of tumor necrosis in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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This retrospective study investigated the outcome of patients with brain metastases after radiosurgery with special emphasis on prognostic impact of visible intratumoral necrosis on survival and local control.
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A novel synthetic smoothened antagonist transiently inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts in a mouse model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is over-activated in several solid tumors where it plays a central role in cell growth, stroma recruitment and tumor progression. In the Hh signaling pathway, the Smoothened (SMO) receptor comprises a primary drug target with experimental small molecule SMO antagonists currently being evaluated in clinical trials.
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Hedgehog antagonist cyclopamine isomerizes to less potent forms when acidified.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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The effect of acid treatment of cyclopamine, a natural antagonist of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and a potential anti-cancer drug, has been studied. Previous reports have shown that under acidic conditions, as in the stomach, cyclopamine is less effective. Also, it has been stated that cyclopamine converts to veratramine, which has side effects such as hemolysis. In this study, we examined in detail the influence of acidification on structure and activity of cyclopamine. We found that of acidified cyclopamine converts to two previously unreported isomers, which we have called cyclopamine (S) and cyclopamine (X). These have likely gone undetected because cyclopamine is often analyzed with fast and hence lower resolving chromatographic methods. Compared to natural cyclopamine, these cyclopamine isomers have a significantly reduced effect on the ciliary transport of the Hh receptor smoothened, and reduced inhibition on the Hedgehog signaling pathway. The side effects of these isomers are unknown. Our findings can partly explain a reduced efficiency of cyclopamine in a gastric environment, and may help with the rational design of more pH independent cyclopamine analogues.
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Phomenins and fatty acids from Alternaria infectoria.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Taxa of the Alternaria infectoria species group are the predominant Alternaria spp. found in cereals in Northern Europe. While several pyrones have been isolated from A. infectoria and described as taxonomical markers for species identification, information about the bioactivity of metabolites from the fungus is missing. Bioassay-guided fractionation of rice culture extracts from several strains of A. infectoria linked the observed toxicity of the extracts in MRC-5 cells to free fatty acids, i.e. linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. The fungus also produced a cytotoxic pyrone, which upon isolation and NMR spectroscopic analysis was identified as a mixture of phomenins A and B (approximately 10:1), which have not previously been isolated from an Alternaria species.
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Structural studies on minor enniatins from Fusarium sp. VI 03441: novel N-methyl-threonine containing enniatins.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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A strain of a yet unidentified Fusarium sp. produced in addition to enniatins A1, B and B1 a number of minor enniatins. The strain formed a well supported clade with strains identified as Fusarium acuminatum (Gibberella acuminata) in phylogenetic analyses using the TEF-1alpha gene sequences. Two of the minor enniatins were easily recognised as hydroxylated species on the basis of their fragment ion spectra. The hydroxylation could be traced to one of the amino acid moieties using multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry. Different approaches for acetylation of the isolated compounds and complete hydrolysis supported the elucidation of the amino acid moiety as 3-hydroxy-2-methylamino-butyric acid, which is equivalent with N-methyl-threonine. The primary structures of the two enniatins were tentatively determined to be cyclo[Hiv-N-Me-Val-Hiv-N-Me-Val-Hiv-N-Me-Thr] and cyclo[Hiv-N-Me-Leu-Hiv-N-Me-Val-Hiv-N-Me-Thr]. The two depsipeptides represent new analogues and were named enniatin P1 and P2, respectively.
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Biophysical modeling of brain tumor progression: from unconditionally stable explicit time integration to an inverse problem with parabolic PDE constraints for model calibration.
Med Phys
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A novel unconditionally stable, explicit numerical method is introduced to the field of modeling brain cancer progression on a tissue level together with an inverse problem (IP) based on optimal control theory that allows for automated model calibration with respect to observations in clinical imaging data.
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Demyelination reduces brain parenchymal stiffness quantified in vivo by magnetic resonance elastography.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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The detection of pathological tissue alterations by manual palpation is a simple but essential diagnostic tool, which has been applied by physicians since the beginnings of medicine. Recently, the virtual "palpation" of the brain has become feasible using magnetic resonance elastography, which quantifies biomechanical properties of the brain parenchyma by analyzing the propagation of externally elicited shear waves. However, the precise molecular and cellular patterns underlying changes of viscoelasticity measured by magnetic resonance elastography have not been investigated up to date. We assessed changes of viscoelasticity in a murine model of multiple sclerosis, inducing reversible demyelination by feeding the copper chelator cuprizone, and correlated our results with detailed histological analyses, comprising myelination, extracellular matrix alterations, immune cell infiltration and axonal damage. We show firstly that the magnitude of the complex shear modulus decreases with progressive demyelination and global extracellular matrix degradation, secondly that the loss modulus decreases faster than the dynamic modulus during the destruction of the corpus callosum, and finally that those processes are reversible after remyelination.
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Progression of chronic subdural haematomas in an infant boy after abusive head trauma.
Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol.
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Abusive head trauma is a serious form of child abuse that can lead to severe neuropsychological sequelae or death in infants. In questionable cases, without a confession from the caregivers and ambiguous clinical information, evidence for the diagnosis of abusive head trauma is often based on typical patterns that have been observed in neuro-imaging. This study shows the progressive evolution of multifocal chronic subdural haematomas, including re-bleedings, in a case of abusive head trauma in an infant boy who was documented with repeated magnetic resonance imaging. The chronic subdural haematomas occurred during closely monitored in-patient rehabilitative care, and repeated maltreatment did not appear to be likely. Due to excessive growth, neurosurgical intervention with endoscopic craniotomy, evacuation of the subdural haematomas and temporal external cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed with a favourable recovery. This study discusses the current pathophysiological knowledge concerning the development and clinical course of chronic subdural haematomas and draws relevant conclusions for the clinical practice and psychosocial management of caring for victims of abusive head trauma.
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Preserving and using germplasm and dissociated embryonic cells for conserving Caribbean and Pacific coral.
PLoS ONE
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Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented degradation due to human activities, and protecting specific reef habitats may not stop this decline, because the most serious threats are global (i.e., climate change), not local. However, ex situ preservation practices can provide safeguards for coral reef conservation. Specifically, modern advances in cryobiology and genome banking could secure existing species and genetic diversity until genotypes can be introduced into rehabilitated habitats. We assessed the feasibility of recovering viable sperm and embryonic cells post-thaw from two coral species, Acropora palmata and Fungia scutaria that have diffferent evolutionary histories, ecological niches and reproductive strategies. In vitro fertilization (IVF) of conspecific eggs using fresh (control) spermatozoa revealed high levels of fertilization (>90% in A. palmata; >84% in F. scutaria; P>0.05) that were unaffected by tested sperm concentrations. A solution of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at cooling rates of 20 to 30°C/min most successfully cryopreserved both A. palmata and F. scutaria spermatozoa and allowed producing developing larvae in vitro. IVF success under these conditions was 65% in A. palmata and 53% in F. scutaria on particular nights; however, on subsequent nights, the same process resulted in little or no IVF success. Thus, the window for optimal freezing of high quality spermatozoa was short (?5 h for one night each spawning cycle). Additionally, cryopreserved F. scutaria embryonic cells had?50% post-thaw viability as measured by intact membranes. Thus, despite some differences between species, coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells are viable after low temperature (-196°C) storage, preservation and thawing. Based on these results, we have begun systematically banking coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells on a large-scale as a support approach for preserving existing bio- and genetic diversity found in reef systems.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.