Abstract Infliximab (IFX) is widely used in ulcerative colitis and in Crohn's disease treatment. Both diseases are characterised by increased oxidative stress, which may affect albumin oxidation. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of IFX on colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in rats was evaluated by measuring the Disease Activity Index, biochemical parameters, serum albumin oxidation and colonic mucosa oxidation. Rats with colitis showed an increase in oxidised serum albumin levels and in the oxidation of colon mucous cells. Both decreased after IFX treatment. This suggests that oxidised albumin could be a useful biomarker for monitoring inflammatory bowel disease.
Mother-to-child (MTC) hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission has been mainly studied in Asia. The geographical origins of women and HBV genotypes differ in Europe. The aims were to determine the rate and risk factors of MTC HBV transmission from women with high HBV DNA loads in a maternity hospital in Paris, France.
Although long-term treatment is a core aspect of the management of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD), most clinical recommendations are based on results from short-term studies or adult data. In order to guide clinical practice, we review the efficacy and safety profile of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and other pharmacological strategies for the long-term treatment of BD in pediatric patients.
In the recent years, a large number of potential biomarkers for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been described. One of the important biomarkers is Surfactant Protein D (SPD) since serum SPD levels have been associated with lung function or health status in patients with severe COPD. Several interesting evidences of the protein and gene polymorphisms have been described. The present review highlights the current literature, recent patents and, future prospects of this important collection.
The presence of lipid alterations in lipid rafts from the frontal cortex in late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been recently demonstrated. Here, we have isolated and analyzed the lipid composition of lipid rafts from different brain areas from control and AD subjects at initial neuropathologic stages. We have observed that frontal cortex lipid rafts are profoundly altered in AD brains from the earliest stages of AD, namely AD I/II. These changes in the lipid matrix of lipid rafts affected both lipid classes and fatty acids and were also detected in the entorhinal cortex, but not in the cerebellum from the same subjects. Paralleling these changes, lipid rafts from AD frontal and entorhinal cortices displayed higher anisotropy for environment-sensitive probes, indicating that lipid changes in AD lipid rafts increased membrane order and viscosity in these domains. The pathophysiological consequences of these alterations in the development and progression of AD were strengthened by the significant, and specific, accumulation of ?-secretase within the lipid rafts of AD subjects even at the earliest stages. Our results provide a mechanistic connection between lipid alterations in these microdomains and amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein.
Recent evidence points to overlapping decreases in cortical thickness and gyrification in the frontal lobe of patients with adult-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms, but it is not clear if these findings generalize to patients with a disease onset during adolescence and what may be the mechanisms underlying a decrease in gyrification.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a syndrome that involves at least three disorders dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity and/or hypertension. MetS has been associated with several chronic diseases in the adulthood; however, in the recent years, the syndrome was redefined in children. Girls with early menarche and asthma, and children with MetS and asthma that reach adulthood appear to have higher risk to develop severe or difficult to control asthma and a higher probability to suffer cardiovascular diseases. It has been proposed that patients with MetS and endocrinological disorders should be considered a different entity in which pharmacologic treatment should be adjusted according to the individual. Recent patents on the field have addressed new issues on how endocrine control should be managed along with asthma therapeutics. In the near future, new approaches should decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated to these types of patients.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Mother-To-Child-Transmission (MTCT) and prevention by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) have been extensively studied. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women and prevention by antiretroviral therapy with dual activity have been poorly studied. The aim of the study was to assess HBV MTCT from HIV/HBV co-infected women in a developed country with a large access to cART.
The human cerebral cortex appears to shrink during adolescence. To delineate the dynamic morphological changes involved in this process, 52 healthy male and female adolescents (11-17 years old) were neuroimaged twice using magnetic resonance imaging, approximately 2 years apart. Using a novel morphometric analysis procedure combining the FreeSurfer and BrainVisa image software suites, we quantified global and lobar change in cortical thickness, outer surface area, the gyrification index, the average Euclidean distance between opposing sides of the white matter surface (gyral white matter thickness), the convex ("exposed") part of the outer cortical surface (hull surface area), sulcal length, depth, and width. We found that the cortical surface flattens during adolescence. Flattening was strongest in the frontal and occipital cortices, in which significant sulcal widening and decreased sulcal depth co-occurred. Globally, sulcal widening was associated with cortical thinning and, for the frontal cortex, with loss of surface area. For the other cortical lobes, thinning was related to gyral white matter expansion. The overall flattening of the macrostructural three-dimensional architecture of the human cortex during adolescence thus involves changes in gray matter and effects of the maturation of white matter.
Longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in adult patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been associated with poor clinical and social outcomes. We aimed to estimate the influence of DUP on outcome at 2-year follow-up in subjects with an early-onset (less than 18years of age) FEP of less than 6months duration. A total of 80 subjects (31.3% females, mean age 16.0±1.8years) were enrolled in the study. The influence of DUP on outcome was estimated using multiple regression models (two linear models for influence of DUP on the C-GAF at 2years and C-GAF change through the follow-up period, and a logistic model for influence of DUP on 41 PANSS remission at 2 years in schizophrenia patients (n=47)). Mean DUP was 65.3±54.7days. Median DUP was 49.5days. For the whole sample (n=80), DUP was the only variable significantly related to C-GAF score at 2-year follow-up (Beta=-0.13, p<0.01), while DUP and premorbid adjustment (Beta=-0.01, p<0.01; and Beta=-0.09, p=0.04, respectively) were the only variables significantly related to C-GAF change. In schizophrenia patients, DUP predicted both C-GAF score at 2years and C-GAF change, while in patients with affective psychosis (n=22), DUP was unrelated to outcome. Lower baseline C-GAF score (OR=0.91, p<0.01) and shorter DUP (OR=0.98, p=<0.01) were the only variables that significantly predicted clinical remission in schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, longer DUP was associated with lower C-GAF at 2years, less increase in C-GAF, and lower rates of clinical remission in early-onset FEP. Our findings support the importance of early detection programs, which help shorten DUP.
Hepatoblastoma is a primary liver cancer that affects children, due to the sensitivity of this tumor to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this paper we show that azathioprine (AZA) is capable of inhibiting IGF1-mediated signaling cascade in HepG2 cells. The efficiency of AZA on inhibition of proliferation differs in the evaluated cell lines as follows: HepG2 (an experimental model of hepatoblastoma)>Hep3B (derived from a hepatocellular carcinoma)>HuH6 (derived from a hepatoblastoma)>HuH7 (derived from a hepatocellular carcinoma)=Chang Liver cells (a non-malignant cellular model). The effect of AZA in HepG2 cells has been proven to derive from activation of Ras/ERK/TSC2, leading to activation of mTOR/p70S6K in a sustained manner. p70S6K phosphorylates IRS-1 in serine 307 which leads to the uncoupling between IRS-1 and p85 (the regulatory subunit of PI3K) and therefore causing the lack of response of HepG2 to IGF-1. As a consequence, proliferation induced by IGF-1 is inhibited by AZA and autophagy increases leading to senescence of HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that AZA induces the autophagic process in HepG2 activating senescence, and driving to deceleration of cell cycle but not to apoptosis. However, when simultaneous to AZA treatment the autophagy was inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and the degradation of regulatory proteins of cell cycle (e.g. Rb, E2F, and cyclin D1) provoked apoptosis. In conclusion, AZA induces resistance in hepatoblastoma cells to IGF-1, which leads to autophagy activation, and causes apoptosis when it is combined with bafilomycin A1. We are presenting here a novel mechanism of action of azathioprine, which could be useful in treatment of IGF-1 dependent tumors, especially in its combination with other drugs.
This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 12.52 ± 2.86 years). Significant differences were found between patients with ASD and controls for the domains of: depressive disorder, anxiety separation disorder, agoraphobia and specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In patients without a comorbid disorder, we found a profile of subclinical disturbances that suggest high risk for comorbid psychiatric conditions derived from the presence of subthreshold symptomatology.
Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP).
High rates of psychopathology and worse performance in cognitive areas have been described in high risk (HR) first degree relatives of subjects with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine clinical and neuropsychological characteristics in two different groups of first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia - one of siblings (HRs), and one of offspring (HRo) - and compare them with healthy controls (HC).
Beta adrenergic receptors are very important in respiratory medicine. Traditionally, the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by beta2-agonists is commonly used for giving bronchodilation in chronic airflow obstruction However; the wide distribution of these receptors in cells and tissues other than airway smooth muscle suggests that beta agonists should offer other beneficial effects in respiratory disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of these receptors in the modulation of endocrine and immune system that affect respiratory function and may decrease therapy effectiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New patented compound and uses have provided new insights in future therapeutics of respiratory diseases in which genetic, endocrine and immune response should be considered.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease characterized mainly by pulmonary airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particles or gasses. New different pharmacological approaches to decrease inflammation of the airways and consequently disease progression and increase airway obstruction reversibility have been developed.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease characterized mainly by pulmonary airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. New different pharmacological approaches to decrease inflammation of the airways and consequently disease progression and increase airway obstruction reversibility have been developed. In the present article, we review the new patents on phosphoinositide 3 kinase and NF?b inhibitors for future therapies.
Nemaline myopathy (NEM) is one of the most common congenital myopathies. A unique subtype, NEM6, maps to chromosome 15q21-q23 in two pedigrees, but the causative gene has not been determined. We conducted clinical examination and myopathological studies in a new NEM family. Genotyping and gene screening were accomplished by searching known and 18 new candidate genes. The disease started in childhood by affecting proximal and distal muscles and causing slowness of movements. Muscle biopsies showed numerous nemaline rods and core-like formations. Suggestive linkage to chromosome 15q22-q23 was established. Genes known to be mutated in NEM or core-rod myopathy were screened and excluded. No pathogenic mutations were identified in other candidate genes. The disease in this Spanish family was classified as NEM6. It is phenotypically similar and probably allelic to the two previously reported NEM6 pedigrees. Further studies of these families will lead to the identification of the NEM6 gene.
The goal of the study is to determine the extent of structural brain abnormalities in a multicenter sample of children and adolescents with a recent-onset first episode of psychosis (FEP), compared with a sample of healthy controls. Total brain and lobar volumes and those of gray matter (GM), white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 92 patients with a FEP and in 94 controls, matched for age, gender, and years of education. Male patients (n = 64) showed several significant differences when compared with controls (n = 61). GM volume in male patients was reduced in the whole brain and in frontal and parietal lobes compared with controls. Total CSF volume and frontal, temporal, and right parietal CSF volumes were also increased in male patients. Within patients, those with a further diagnosis of "schizophrenia" or "other psychosis" showed a pattern similar to the group of all patients relative to controls. However, bipolar patients showed fewer differences relative to controls. In female patients, only the schizophrenia group showed differences relative to controls, in frontal CSF. GM deficit in male patients with a first episode correlated with negative symptoms. Our study suggests that at least part of the GM deficit in children and adolescent-onset schizophrenia and in other psychosis occurs before onset of the first positive symptoms and that, contrary to what has been shown in children-onset schizophrenia, frontal GM deficits are probably present from the first appearance of positive symptoms in children and adolescents.
Genetic and environmental factors are both involved in the aetiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess if positive and negative environmental factors, together with psychotic family antecedents, are associated with the recent development of psychosis. We also investigated the interactions between family history of psychosis and positive and negative family environment. The sample comprised 110 children and adolescents, who had suffered a first psychotic episode and 98 healthy controls. All subjects were interviewed about their socioeconomic status, family history of psychosis and family environment (Family Environment Scale, FES). Early onset psychosis was significantly associated with a family history of psychosis. Family environment was perceived as more negative and less positive among patients than among controls. A negative family environment increased the risk of psychosis independently of the family history of psychosis. However, there was a significant protective effect of a positive family environment for persons with a family history of psychosis. This effect was not seen in subjects without a family history of psychosis. Therefore, our results support the importance of considering both family history of psychosis and family environment in the early stages of psychosis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate discontinuation of quetiapine treatment in adolescents (12-18 years) in a 6-month naturalistic follow-up study and to assess the influence of distinct demographic and clinical factors on quetiapine discontinuation.
Thalidomide and its immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs) analogues CC-5013 (Revlimid, Lenalidomide) and CC-4047 (Actimid, Pomalidomide) have been used as anti-inflammatory and anticancerous drugs in the recent years. Thalidomide and IMiDs inhibit the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukins (IL) 1-beta, 6, 12, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). They also costimulate primary human T, NKT and NK lymphocytes inducing their proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the compounds are anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic. Thalidomide analogues have been used as inhibitors of alpha glucosidase and could be potential drugs for diabetes treatment. In this review, we explore the current trend of the different structures, the new patents, and the possible new applications in different pathologies.
Insulin receptor substrate-4 (IRS-4) transmits signals from the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR) to the PI3K/AKT and the ERK1/2 pathways. IRS-4 expression increases dramatically after partial hepatectomy and plays an important role in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cell line proliferation/differentiation. In human hepatocarcinoma, IRS-4 overexpression has been associated with tumor development. Herein, we describe the mechanism whereby IRS-4 depletion induced by RNA interference (siRNA) sensitizes HepG2 cells to treatment with actinomycin D (Act D) and combined treatment with Act D plus tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Similar results have been obtained in HuH 7 and Chang cell lines. Act D therapy drove the cells to a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic program involving cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation, PARP fragmentation and DNA laddering. TNF-alpha amplifies the effect of Act D on HepG2 cell apoptosis increasing c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, IkappaB-alpha proteolysis and glutathione depletion. IRS-4 depleted cells that were treated with Act D showed an increase in cytochrome c release and procaspase 3 and PARP proteolysis with respect to control cells. The mechanism involved in IRS-4 action is independent of Akt, IkappaB kinase and JNK. IRS-4 down regulation, however, decreased gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase content and cell glutathione level in the presence of Act D plus TNF-alpha. These results suggest that IRS-4 protects HepG2 cells from oxidative stress induced by drug treatment.
Adolescents with first-episode psychosis have increased severity of neurological soft signs when compared with controls, but it is unclear whether increased severity of neurological soft signs is an expression of specific structural brain deficits.
The primary purpose of this study was to compare changes in cognition in early-onset psychosis after 6-months treatment with quetiapine or olanzapine. This is a randomized, single-blind, 6-month study in 50 adolescents with a diagnosis of early-onset psychosis. Patients were randomized to quetiapine (n = 24) or olanzapine (n =26). A thorough neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after 6-month treatment. Out of the total sample included in the study, 32 patients completed at least 6-months treatment with the assigned medication (quetiapine, n =16; olanzapine, n = 16). No changes were observed in cognitive performance after 6-month treatment with quetiapine or olanzapine. Although some trends toward cognitive improvement were observed for the olanzapine group after 6-month treatment, neither group showed statistically significant gains. Furthermore, there was no evidence of any differential efficacy of olanzapine or quetiapine on cognitive improvement in this sample of adolescents with psychosis.
Acute bronchodilator responsiveness is an area of discussion in COPD. No information exists regarding this aspect of the disease from an unselected COPD population. We assessed acute bronchodilator responsiveness and factors influencing it in subjects with and without airway obstruction in an epidemiologic sample.
Recently, a third subset of Th17 cells has been described. This T helper subset induces the release of chemokines and growth factors and causes neutrophil accumulation in several mammalian organs. Pharmacological intervention blocking Th17 generation as well as IL-17 signaling might prove useful in a variety of diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Crohns disease, cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, psoriatic disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we describe the patents that address a potential pharmacological use of promoting or targeting IL-17.
Recurrent exacerbations are common in COPD patients. Limited information exists regarding exacerbation frequency in COPD patients from epidemiologic studies. We examined the frequency of self-reported exacerbations and the factors influencing exacerbation frequency among COPD patients in a population-based study conducted in Latin America.
Psychosis is associated with volumetric decreases of cortical structures. Whether these volumetric decreases imply abnormalities in cortical thickness, surface, or cortical folding is not clear. Due to differences in cytoarchitecture, cortical gyri and sulci might be differentially affected by psychosis. Therefore, we examined differences in gyral and sulcal cortical thickness, surface, folding, and volume between a minimally treated male adolescent population with early-onset first-episode psychosis (EOP) and a healthy control group, with surface-based morphometry.
Little is known about the changes that take place in the adolescent brain over the first few years following the onset of psychosis. The present longitudinal study builds on an earlier cross-sectional report demonstrating brain abnormalities in adolescent-onset psychosis patients with a recent-onset first episode of psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were obtained at baseline and 2 years later from 21 adolescents with psychosis and 34 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and years of education. Whole-brain volumes and gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes were measured at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. In the frontal lobe, the rate of GM volume loss was significantly higher in male patients (2.9% and 2.0%, respectively, for left and right) than in controls (1.2% and 0.7%, respectively, for left and right). In the left frontal lobe, male patients showed a significantly higher rate of CSF volume increase than controls (8.6% vs 6.4%). These differences in rates of volume change were observed in male and female patients, although only males showed significant time x diagnosis interactions. This negative finding in females should be interpreted with caution as the study was underpowered to detect change in women due to limited sample size. An exploratory analysis revealed that schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia psychotic disorders showed similar volume change patterns relative to controls. Change in clinical status was not correlated with longitudinal brain changes. Our results support progression of frontal lobe changes in males with adolescent-onset psychosis.
COPD is a highly prevalent disease but underdiagnosed, undertreated and possibly under-recognized by patients. Limited information exists regarding patients perception of COPD severity. We compared patients general health status perception, degree of breathlessness and physical activity limitation with the severity of their respiratory condition measured by airway obstruction, in a population-based sample.
Protein aggregate myopathies, including myofibrillar myopathies and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), are characterized by abnormal protein aggregates composed of various muscular and ectopic proteins. Previous studies have shown the crucial role ofdysregulated transcription factors such as neuron-restrictive silencerfactor in the expression of aberrant proteins in myotilinopathies. Here, we assessed possible aberrant expression of TAR DNA-bindingprotein 43 (TDP-43), another factor involved in transcription regulation. TDP-43-immunoreactive intracytoplasmic inclusions were seen in all cases examined of myotilinopathy, desminopathy, and sIBM, and in 1 case of inclusion body myositis with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal degeneration (IBMPFD). TAR DNA-binding protein 43 colocalized with myotilin and valosin in myotilinopathies and IBMPFD, respectively, but only occasionally colocalized with ubiquitin in myotilinopathies, desminopathies, sIBM, and IBMPFD; this indicates that accumulated TDP-43 is largely not ubiquitinated. Moreover, phosphorylated TDP-43 at Ser403/404 and Ser409/410 accumulated in the cytoplasm of vulnerable fibers but did not always colocalize with nonphosphorylated TDP-43. Cytoplasmic deposition was accompanied by decreased TDP-43 localization in the nuclei of affected fibers. These findings indicate that TDP-43 not only is another protein accumulated in myofibrillar myopathies, sIBM, and IBMPFD but also likely has a role through altered microRNA processing in the abnormal protein production, modification, and accumulation in protein aggregate myopathies.
There are reports of significant association between obstetric complications (OC) and childhood psychosis. Authors conducted a case-control study of 102 children and adolescents with a first episode psychosis (FEP) and 94 healthy controls (HC), using the obstetric complications scale (OCS) and their medical records, to examine the risk of FPE. Patients were recruited from child and adolescent psychiatry units at six university hospitals and controls from publicly-funded schools of similar characteristics and from the same geographic areas. A logistic regression was performed to quantify the risk of psychosis in childhood and adolescence, based on OC, adjusting for potential confounding factors like socio economic status (SES) and family psychiatric history (FPH). OC appeared more frequently in the records of patients. Significant differences between patients and controls were found in Prenatal OC (15.7% vs. 5.3%, P < 0.05) and among them, bleeding in pregnancy showed the greatest difference between groups (12.7% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.01). In the logistic regression, bleeding in pregnancy showed a crude odds ratio (OR) of 6.7 (95%CI = 1.4-30.6) and 5.1 (CI 95% = 1.0-24.9) adjusted for SES and FPH. Therefore, bleeding in pregnancy is a likely risk factor for early-onset psychosis.
One of the gene polymorphisms often studied in asthmatic patients is the ?2 adrenergic receptor (ADR?2). Even though in the Venezuelan Mestizo population there is a high incidence of asthma, there are no direct reports of ADR?2 gene polymorphism, and treatment response. The aim of this study was to assess, in this population, the gene frequency of ADR?2 polymorphisms at codons 16 Arg/Gly and 27 Gln/Glu, allergen sensitization, and its relationship to bronchodilator response.
Thiopurines (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine), are drugs useful in the treatment of leukemia, autoimmune diseases, as well as in organ transplantation. After many years of use is still not well understood their mode of action. Recently, several groups have found that thiopurines can activate autophagy by different mechanisms. Autophagy is a process of auto-digestion. After an infection, radiation, injury, oxidative stress, or after drug treatment, the cellular organelles may be damaged. In those cases the damaged structures are recognized by the cell, isolated in a double-membrane vacuole and finally degraded in autolysosomes. The digestion gives rise to biosynthetic precursors needed to regenerate partially destroyed structures, so as to produce the energy essential in the anabolic process. During fasting, the protein aggregates, lipid droplets and glycogen deposits are degraded by this pathway for releasing nutrients to the blood. Therefore this process is of vital importance in the maintaining of cellular functions and in the systemic homeostasis of whole organism. The therapy with thiopurines leads to adverse effects such as myelosuppression and hepatotoxicity whose mechanism is not well understood today. Autophagy is also involved in liver degeneration induced by drugs, alcohol or viruses. Therefore, seems to be very attractive know whether the autophagy induced by thiopurines is the cause of the hepatotoxicity associated with these drugs, or rather, autophagy is a compensatory response that protects the liver against the deleterious effects of the thiopurines. Our results and previous data suggest that autophagy is beneficial for the liver because protects it against the deleterious effects of thiopurines.
Little information exists regarding the epidemiology of the chronic bronchitis phenotype in unselected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) populations. We examined the prevalence of the chronic bronchitis phenotype in COPD and non-COPD subjects from the PLATINO study, and investigated how it is associated with important outcomes. Post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.70 was used to define COPD. Chronic bronchitis was defined as phlegm on most days, at least 3 months per year for ? 2 yrs. We also analysed another definition: cough and phlegm on most days, at least 3 months per year for ? 2 yrs. Spirometry was performed in 5,314 subjects (759 with and 4,554 without COPD). The proportion of subjects with and without COPD with chronic bronchitis defined as phlegm on most days, at least 3 months per year for ? 2 yrs was 14.4 and 6.2%, respectively. Using the other definition the prevalence was lower: 7.4% with and 2.5% without COPD. Among subjects with COPD, those with chronic bronchitis had worse lung function and general health status, and had more respiratory symptoms, physical activity limitation and exacerbations. Our study helps to understand the prevalence of the chronic bronchitis phenotype in an unselected COPD population at a particular time-point and suggests that chronic bronchitis in COPD is possibly associated with worse outcomes.
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