Blood-cell-free circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential accessible biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we analyzed the serum levels of 377 miRNAs in a discovery set of 10 idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients, 10 PD patients carriers of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (LRRK2 PD), and 10 controls by using real-time quantitative PCR-based TaqMan MicroRNA arrays. We detected candidate differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further tested in a first validation set consisting of 20 IPD, 20 LRRK2 PD, and 20 control samples. We found four statistically significant miRNAs that were downregulated in either LRRK2 or IPD (miR-29a, miR-29c, miR-19a, and miR-19b). Subsequently, we validated these findings in a third set of samples consisting of 65 IPD and 65 controls and confirmed the association of downregulated levels of miR-29c, miR-29a, and miR-19b in IPD. Differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to target genes belonging to pathways related to ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, MAPK, Wnt, mTOR, adipocytokine, and neuron projection. Results from our exploratory study indicate that downregulated levels of specific circulating serum miRNAs are associated with PD and suggest their potential use as noninvasive biomarkers for PD. Future studies should further confirm the association of these miRNAs with PD.
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and LRRK2-associated PD (LRRK2-PD) might be expected to differ clinically since the neuropathological substrate of LRRK2-PD is heterogeneous. The range and severity of extra-nigral nonmotor features associated with LRRK2 mutations is also not well-defined.
We postulated that idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) represents the prodromal phase of a Lewy body disorder and that, with sufficient follow-up, most cases would eventually be diagnosed with a clinical defined Lewy body disorder, such as Parkinsons disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Circadian rhythm interactions of hemostatic factors can modify tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) effects. We assess the relationship of the time frame of intravenous tPA administration with the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We studied 135 consecutive patients with AIS and transcranial duplex documented middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion treated with intravenous tPA. Complete recanalization was defined as total improvement on thrombolysis in brain ischemia (TIBI) grades 2?h after tPA infusion. Clinical response was evaluated by the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We determined plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in 33 patients with available plasma samples before treatment. Our results are follows: 92 (68.1%) patients were treated in the diurnal (9:00-21:00) and 43 (31.8%) in the nocturnal period (21:00-9:00). Complete recanalization was recorded in 52/135 (38.5%) patients. Both the rate of complete recanalization (45.6% vs. 23.2%; p?=?.01) and good clinical outcome (64.1% vs. 44.2%; p?=?.02) were significantly higher in the group of diurnal tPA administration compared with those treated in the nocturnal period. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of diurnal tPA treatment for complete MCA recanalization was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-5.52; p?=?.045). Diurnal tPA infusion significantly improved the overall distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale, as compared with nocturnal treatment (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.16-4.64 by ordinal regression analysis). Low PAI-1 levels were associated with complete recanalization but did not significantly differ between the two time frames. In conclusion, diurnal administration of tPA is associated with complete MCA recanalization and better functional outcome at 90 days in patients with AIS.
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