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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Infarct volume prediction using apparent diffusion coefficient maps during middle cerebral artery occlusion and soon after reperfusion in the rat.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rodents causes brain infarctions of variable sizes that depend on multiple factors, particularly in models of ischemia/reperfusion. This is a major problem for infarct volume comparisons between different experimental groups since unavoidable variability can induce biases in the results and imposes the use of large number of subjects. MRI can help to minimize these difficulties by ensuring that the severity of ischemia is comparable between groups. Furthermore, several studies showed that infarct volumes can be predicted with MRI data obtained soon after ischemia onset. However, such predictive studies require multiparametric MRI acquisitions that cannot be routinely performed, and data processing using complex algorithms that are often not available. The aim here was to provide a simplified method for infarct volume prediction using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data in a model of transient MCAO in rats. ADC images were obtained before, during MCAO and after 60 min of reperfusion. Probability histograms were generated using ADC data obtained either during MCAO, after reperfusion, or both combined. The results were compared to real infarct volumes, i.e.T2 maps obtained at day 7. Assessment of the performance of the estimations showed better results combining ADC data obtained during occlusion and at reperfusion. Therefore, ADC data alone can provide sufficient information for a reasonable prediction of infarct volume if the MRI information is obtained both during the occlusion and soon after reperfusion. This approach can be used to check whether drug administration after MRI acquisition can change infarct volume prediction.
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Including Anatomical and Functional Information in MC Simulation of PET and SPECT Brain Studies. Brain-VISET: A Voxel-Based Iterative Method.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.
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In vivo evaluation of the dopaminergic neurotransmission system using [(123) I]FP-CIT SPECT in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent model of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been used to evaluate the nigrostriatal pathway. The aim of this work was to explore the relationship between the degree of 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration and [(123) I]FP-CIT binding using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Fourteen rats received a 6-OHDA injection (4 or 8?µg) into the left medial forebrain bundle. After 3?weeks, magnetic resonance imaging and scans with a small-animal SPECT system were performed. Finally, the nigrostriatal lesion was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed two levels of dopaminergic degeneration. Lesions induced by 6-OHDA diminished the ipsilateral [(123) I]FP-CIT binding by 61 and 76%, respectively. The decrease in tracer uptake between control and lesioned animals was statistically significant, as was the difference between the two 6-OHDA lesioned groups. Results concluded that [(123) I]FP-CIT SPECT is a useful technique to discriminate the degree of dopaminergic degeneration in a rat model of PD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction.
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Integration of advanced 3D SPECT modeling into the open-source STIR framework.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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The Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction (STIR, http://stir.sourceforge.net) package is an open source object-oriented library implemented in C++. Although its modular design is suitable for reconstructing data from several modalities, it currently only supports Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. In this work, the authors present results for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging.
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Chronic intermittent hypoxia preserves bone density in a mouse model of sleep apnea.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Very recent clinical research has investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may modulate bone homeostasis but the few data available are conflicting. Here we report novel data obtained in a mouse study specifically designed to determine whether chronic intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA modifies bone mineral density (BMD). Normal male and female mice and orchidectomized mice (N=10 each group) were subjected to a pattern of high-frequency intermittent hypoxia (20s at 5% and 40s at 21%, 60 cycles/h) for 6h/day. Identical groups breathing room air (normoxia) were the controls. After 32 days of intermittent hypoxia/normoxia the trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the peripheral femora were measured by micro-CT scanning. When compared with normoxia (two-way ANOVA), intermittent hypoxia did not significantly modify BMD in the three animal groups tested. Data in this study suggest that the type of intermittent hypoxia characterizing OSA, applied as a single challenge, preserves bone homeostasis.
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FocusDET, a new toolbox for SISCOM analysis. Evaluation of the registration accuracy using Monte Carlo simulation.
Neuroinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Subtraction of Ictal SPECT Co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) is an imaging technique used to localize the epileptogenic focus in patients with intractable partial epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of registration algorithms involved in SISCOM analysis using FocusDET, a new user-friendly application. To this end, Monte Carlo simulation was employed to generate realistic SPECT studies. Simulated sinograms were reconstructed by using the Filtered BackProjection (FBP) algorithm and an Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) reconstruction method that included compensation for all degradations. Registration errors in SPECT-SPECT and SPECT-MRI registration were evaluated by comparing the theoretical and actual transforms. Patient studies with well-localized epilepsy were also included in the registration assessment. Global registration errors including SPECT-SPECT and SPECT-MRI registration errors were less than 1.2 mm on average, exceeding the voxel size (3.32 mm) of SPECT studies in no case. Although images reconstructed using OSEM led to lower registration errors than images reconstructed with FBP, differences after using OSEM or FBP in reconstruction were less than 0.2 mm on average. This indicates that correction for degradations does not play a major role in the SISCOM process, thereby facilitating the application of the methodology in centers where OSEM is not implemented with correction of all degradations. These findings together with those obtained by clinicians from patients via MRI, interictal and ictal SPECT and video-EEG, show that FocusDET is a robust application for performing SISCOM analysis in clinical practice.
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Serial dopamine transporter imaging of nigrostriatal function in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study.
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Serial dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies shows progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction. Because idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) can precede the classic symptoms of PD and other synucleinopathies, we postulated that serial DAT imaging in patients with IRBD could be used to detect decline in striatal tracer uptake, indicating progressive nigrostriatal cell degeneration.
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Subclinical nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation in the cerebellar subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C).
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Nigrostriatal involvement is considered an additional feature in the new consensus criteria for the diagnosis of the cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-C). However, so far, only a few studies, which include a relative small number of patients, give support to this criterion. Our objective was to assess nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation in patients with MSA-C without parkinsonism by use of dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT SPECT). Thirteen patients that fulfilled criteria for possible or probable MSA-C and presented no parkinsonian signs, and 12 age-matched healthy controls underwent ((123)I-2-?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane ([(123)I]FP-CIT) SPECT. Patients were also evaluated through the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean duration of the cerebellar syndrome was 3.8 ± 1.7 years. DAT SPECT showed a significant decrease of striatal [(123)I]FP-CIT uptake ratios in patients (p < 0.001). Radiotracer uptake reduction was 21% in the entire striatum, 19% in putamen, and 24% in caudate nuclei. Striatal binding ratios were within the normal range in 3 patients. We did not find correlation between striatal uptake and disease duration, age of patients, UMSARS-II score, and pontine diameter. [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT shows that most but not all MSA-C patients without parkinsonism have subclinical nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation which is not related to disease duration, cerebellar dysfunction, or pontine atrophy.
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Differential brain glucose metabolic patterns in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia with and without auditory verbal hallucinations.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Previous reports on neural activity patterns associated with AVHs are inconsistent, arguably owing to the lack of an adequate control group (i.e., patients with similar characteristics but without AVHs) and neglect of the potential confounding effects of medication.
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Geometrical and Monte Carlo projectors in 3D PET reconstruction.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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In the present work, the authors compare geometrical and Monte Carlo projectors in detail. The geometrical projectors considered were the conventional geometrical Siddon ray-tracer (S-RT) and the orthogonal distance-based ray-tracer (OD-RT), based on computing the orthogonal distance from the center of image voxel to the line-of-response. A comparison of these geometrical projectors was performed using different point spread function (PSF) models. The Monte Carlo-based method under consideration involves an extensive model of the system response matrix based on Monte Carlo simulations and is computed off-line and stored on disk.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.