Toxoplasma gondii is the protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent zoonoses worldwide. T. gondii infects humans through the ingestion of meat containing bradyzoites or through soil, food or water contaminated with oocysts. Soil contamination with oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, but has rarely been quantified directly. In this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii over an area of 2.25km(2) in a rural area of eastern France. The frequency and spatial distribution of T. gondii in soil was analyzed in relation with the factors that could influence the pattern of contamination: cats' frequency and spatial distribution and land use. According to a stratified random sampling Scheme 243 soil samples were collected. The detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed using a recent sensitive method based on concentration and quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates at each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 29.2% of samples. Soil contamination decreased with increasing distance from the core areas of cat home ranges (households and farms). However, it remained high at the periphery of the study site, beyond the boundaries of the largest cat home ranges, and was not related to land use. This pattern of contamination strongly supports the role of inhabited areas which concentrate cat populations as sources of risk for oocyst-induced infection for both humans and animals. Moreover, soil contamination was not restricted to areas of high cat density suggesting a large spatial scale of environmental contamination, which could result from T. gondii oocysts dissemination through rain washing or other mechanisms.
Toxoplasmosis is characterized by a complex epidemiology. The risk of infection for humans depends on their contact with infective oocysts in a contaminated environment and on the amount of tissue cysts located within consumed meat. Unfortunately, the prevalence of tissue cysts is largely unknown for game species. Although herbivorous game species are a source of infection for humans, the level of infection found in wildlife can also be used to estimate environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and analyze its temporal dynamics in one population of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), one of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), and two of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in France, surveyed during a period of 6 to 28 years. Taking into account individual risk factors, we specifically analyzed the relationship between T. gondii prevalence and meteorological conditions that may influence oocyst survival. Serum samples from 101 chamois, 143 mouflons, and 1155 roe deer were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, or both. Using MAT with a threshold of 1:6, seroprevalence was 14.7% in mouflon, 16.8% in chamois, and 43.7% in roe deer. In mouflon and roe deer, seroprevalence was positively correlated with age and/or body mass, in accordance with the hypothesis that antibodies have long-term persistence. In roe deer, seropositivity differed between the two populations and changed linearly over time between 1983 and 2010, increasing by a factor 1.75 every 10 years. Moreover, in this species, the highest prevalences were found during dry and cold years or during warm and moist years, depending on the population. Our results suggest that the risk for people to acquire infection through game meat increases over time, but with high variability according to the population of origin and meteorological conditions of the year.
The industrially applied filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has received substantial interest due to its highly efficient synthesis apparatus of cellulytic enzymes. However, the production of heterologous enzymes in T. reesei still remains low mainly due to lack of tools for genetic engineering.
SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is largely present in rural areas but its spatial distribution in this environment remains poorly known. In particular, it is unclear if areas of high density of cats, the only hosts excreting Toxoplasma gondii, constitute foci of high prevalence. To improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of T. gondii in rural areas, we performed a serological survey in rodents from two villages in France. We trapped 710 rodents including commensal rats and meadow or forest voles and mice. The presence of T. gondii was examined using PCR, mice inoculation and modified agglutination test for antibodies (MAT). We conducted multivariate and discriminant analyses to identify biological, ecological or spatial variables that could explain T. gondii serology in rodents. We then used a logistic regression to assess the relative influence of each explanatory variable. Overall seroprevalence was 4·1%. Commensal-rats were more infected (12·5%) than non-commensal species (3·7%). However, the major determinant of the risk of infection was the distance to the nearest farm (OR = 0·75 for 100 m), which explained the risk in all species or non-commensal species only. We contrast the role of species characteristics and that of the local environment, and discuss the risk of environmental contamination for humans.
Foodborne infections are of public health importance and deeply impact the global economy. Consumption of bivalve mollusks generates risk for humans because these filtering aquatic invertebrates often concentrate microbial pathogens from their environment. Among them, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma are major parasites of humans and animals that may retain their infectivity in raw or undercooked mollusks. This review aims to detail current and future tools and methods for ascertaining the load and potential infectivity of these parasites in marine bivalve mollusks, including sampling strategies, parasite extraction procedures, and their characterization by using microscopy and/or molecular techniques. Method standardization should lead to better risk assessment of mollusks as a source of these major environmental parasitic pathogens and to the development of safety regulations, similar to those existing for bacterial and viral pathogens encountered in the same mollusk species.
Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-R(SDZ) and ME-49-R(SDZ), by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied.
Environmental characteristics in water and sediments of two contrasted coastal Mediterranean lagoons, Bages-Sigean and Canet-St Nazaire, were measured over a three season survey. The urban pollution (treatment plant discharges) is very important in Canet-St Nazaire lagoon reflecting untreated sewages, while in Bages-Sigean, the northern part appears more impacted due to larger anthropogenic inputs. Dissolved Cd concentrations are on the whole similar in both lagoons, whereas Cu concentrations are by far higher in lagoon Canet-St Nazaire. Cu concentrations appear to be highly dependent on dissolved organic carbon whereas salinity seems to control Cd variations. Concerning the sediments, the confined northern part of lagoon Bages-Sigean shows organic carbon and total nitrogen enrichment whereas lipid concentrations are much higher in the Canet-St Nazaire lagoon. Cu complexation seems to be strongly related to organic matter as evidenced by the two significant positive relationships, on one hand between Cu and organic carbon, and on the other hand, between Cu and lipids. On the contrary, Cd concentrations appear to be mainly controlled by carbonates. PCBs and PBDEs were detected only in sediments and show relatively low concentrations compared to similar lagoon environments. Regarding the sediment quality guidelines, Cd, Cu and PCBs in both lagoons did not exceed any Probable Effect Concentration (PEC).
The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are pathogens that are resistant to a number of environmental factors and pose significant risks to public health worldwide. Their environmental transmission is closely governed by the physicochemical properties of their cysts (Giardia) and oocysts (Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma), allowing their transport, retention, and survival for months in water, soil, vegetables, and mollusks, which are the main reservoirs for human infection. Importantly, the cyst/oocyst wall plays a key role in that regard by exhibiting a complex polymeric coverage that determines the charge and hydrophobic characteristics of parasites surfaces. Interaction forces between parasites and other environmental particles may be, in a first approximation, evaluated following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal stability. However, due to the molecular topography and nano- to microstructure of the cyst/oocyst surface, non-DVLO hydrophobic forces together with additional steric attractive and/or repulsive forces may play a pivotal role in controlling the parasite behavior when the organism is subjected to various external conditions. Here, we review several parameters that enhance or hinder the adhesion of parasites to other particles and surfaces and address the role of fast-emerging techniques for mapping the cyst/oocyst surface, e.g., by measuring its topology and the generated interaction forces at the nano- to microscale. We discuss why characterizing these interactions could be a crucial step for managing the environmental matrices at risk of microbial pollution.
Retroviral vectors have been used for several decades for the transfer of therapeutic genes to various cells or organs including the liver. Initial studies aimed at treating inherited liver deficiencies were carried out with murine oncoretroviral vectors either delivered directly to the organ or using an ex vivo strategy that entailed harvest of the hepatocytes, transduction during a culture phase and further reinfusion to the patient. However, although a clinical trial was performed in the early 1990s, a complete cure of animal models of metabolic diseases was rarely achieved. The advent of lentiviral vectors derived from HIV1 profoundly changed the field and this vector type now appears to be of the most attractive for liver directed gene therapy. Indeed, lentiviral vectors do not require complete cell division to transduce the target cells. There are however still bottlenecks that limit the clinical development of gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In the present review we will specifically focus on specific aspects such as the risk of insertional mutagenesis, the potential requirement of cell cycle activation to enhance transduction and the major issue of an immune response directed against the transgene as well as some specific aspects of ex vivo gene transfer. Finally we will briefly consider the future developments of these vectors made possible by the availability of new techniques in cell and molecular biology.
Toxoplasmosis is a world-wide infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Oocysts disseminated in the environment by infected cats provide a major source of infection for humans and intermediate hosts. The level of soil contamination and the dynamics of this contamination are mostly unknown due to the lack of sensitivity of detection method. Our aim was to improve the detection of T. gondii oocysts in soil samples by comparing three extraction protocols (A, B and C) on unsporulated and sporulated oocysts of different strains and ages, and by testing the effect of sporulation and soil characteristics on oocyst recovery using the most efficient method. The oocyst recovery obtained using protocol C, in which the flotation solution was placed under the sample solution after the dispersion step, was at least ten-fold higher than protocols A and B, in which the sample was just filtered before flotation. The efficiency of protocol C, tested on five artificial soil matrices and four natural soils inoculated with oocysts, was lowest in soils with high proportions of sand. We recommend the protocol C for field investigations, and we advise that results should be interpreted with caution, considering the effect of soil characteristics, especially sand content, on oocyst recovery.
Monitoring of Toxoplasma infection in animals destined for human consumption is a great challenge for human toxoplasmosis prevention. This study aimed to compare results obtained from a naturally infected population of sheep using different tests and targeting an original matrix: meat samples and muscle fluids collected at the slaughterhouse. A commercial ELISA test was performed on diaphragm fluids from 419 ovine carcasses collected at the slaughterhouse. A MAT (modified agglutination test) was performed on heart fluids obtained from the same animals. In addition, all hearts were bioassayed in mice. Serological test agreement, the relative sensitivity of ELISA MAT and mouse bioassay as well as a correlation between titres and parasite isolation probability were statistically evaluated. The overall agreement (kappa coefficient=0.64) of ELISA on diaphragm fluids and MAT on heart fluids is substantial and subsequently both tests can be used for epidemiological studies. Relative sensitivity was higher for MAT performed on cardiac fluids (90%) than ELISA on diaphragm fluid (61%). For both serological tests, relative sensitivity is lower in lambs younger than 12 months. Relative sensitivity of mouse inoculation was 42%. A significant correlation was obtained between increasing MAT titres and probability to isolate live parasite from the heart. When the fluid titre was higher than 1:16, parasites were isolated in 65% of cases. When it was lower, isolation failed in 95% of the cases. According to our results, cardiac fluids appear to be a relevant matrix for toxoplasmosis survey in meat.
Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galtons eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.
The evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from geographical environments other than Europe and North America revealed the existence of atypical strains that are not included in the three archetypal clonal lineages (lineages I, II, and III). GRA6 and GRA7 are polymorphic genes that have been used for the genotyping of Toxoplasma. The coding regions of GRA6 and GRA7 from 49 nonarchetypal strains were sequenced and compared with the sequences of type I, II, and III reference strains. Eighteen and 10 different amino acid sequences were found for GRA6 and GRA7, respectively. The polymorphisms found between the different sequences were analyzed, with the objective of defining peptides to be used for the serotyping of Toxoplasma infections. Two peptides specific for clonal lineages I and III (peptides GRA7I and GRA7III, respectively) were selected from the GRA7 locus. Three peptides specific for some atypical strains (peptides Am6, Af6, and Am7) were selected from both the GRA6 and the GRA7 loci. Serum samples from humans infected with Toxoplasma strains of known genotypes were serotyped with the selected peptides. Peptide GRA7III seems to be a good candidate for the serotyping of infections caused by type III strains. Peptide GRA7I had a very low sensitivity. Peptides Am6 and Af6 had low specificities, since they reacted with serum samples from patients infected with strains belonging to the three archetypal lineages. Although peptide Am7 was specific, it had low sensitivity.
In vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery to adult liver results in sustained expression of the transgene. However, it has been suggested that AAV delivery to the newborn liver may result in transient expression. In the present study, we analysed transgene expression after AAV8 delivery of a therapeutic or a marker gene to newborn rat liver.
Consumption of sheep meat presents a risk of human contamination by Toxoplasma gondii. A nationwide study was conducted in France to evaluate the prevalence of Toxoplasma in fresh ovine meat. A sampling procedure was established to guarantee the representativity of consumption. As is the case for meat consumed, half of the samples were from France and half were imported from other countries. Animals were selected according to their age, as lamb (<12months) represents 90% of the meat consumed. Available data for French samples allowed the selection of 16 districts distributed in seven areas according to their density of production. Diaphragms and hearts from 433 sheep were collected. Diaphragms were collected from 398 imported carcasses. Fluids from hearts and diaphragms were tested serologically. All hearts were bioassayed in mice and parasite isolates were genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Prevalence estimates were calculated, taking into account uneven distribution of production and age. For French meat, the effect of area, age and their interactions was evaluated. The overall estimate of Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 17.7% (11.6-31.5%) for lambs and 89% (73.5-100%) for adults (P<0.0001). No significant difference was observed between imported and French meat. In France, seroprevalence in lambs showed an increasing North-western to Southern gradient. The proportion of French carcasses carrying live parasites according to bioassay results was estimated at 5.4% (3-7.5%) (45 genotype II; one genotype III). This study offers an accurate drawing of the toxoplasmosis pattern amongst sheep consumed in France and a model for a zoonosis hazard control survey.
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily is one of the largest protein families with representatives in all kingdoms of life. Members of this superfamily are involved in a wide variety of transport processes with substrates ranging from small ions to relatively large polypeptides and polysaccharides, but also in cellular processes such as DNA repair, translation or regulation of gene expression. For many years, the role of ABC proteins was mainly investigated for their implication in drug resistance. However, recent studies focused rather on their physiological functions for the parasite. In this review, we present an overview of ABC proteins in major protozoan parasites including Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba species. We will also discuss the role of characterized ABC transporters in the biology of the parasite and in drug resistance.
Metabolic inherited liver diseases are attractive targets for gene therapy. Recombinant lentiviruses are very powerful viral vectors able to infect nonmitotic cells. We wanted to develop a new surgical approach to improve gene transfer in adult liver using low viral doses.
We report the genotyping analysis of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in samples collected from 88 immunocompromised patients, along with clinical and epidemiological data. Most of these samples were collected in France during the current decade by the Toxoplasma Biological Resource Center. Lack of specific anti-Toxoplasma treatment, pulmonary toxoplasmosis, and involvement of multiple organs were the 3 main risk factors associated with death for this patient group. Genotyping results with 6 microsatellite markers showed that type II isolates were predominant among patients who acquired toxoplasmic infection in Europe. Non-type II isolates included 13 different genotypes and were mainly collected from patients who acquired toxoplasmosis outside Europe. Type III was the second most common genotype recovered from patients, whereas type I was rare in our population. Three nonarchetypal genotypes were repeatedly recovered from different patients who acquired the infection in sub-Saharan Africa (genotypes Africa 1 and Africa 2) and in the French West Indies (genotype Caribbean 1). The distribution of genotypes (type II vs. non-type II) was not significantly different when patients were stratified by underlying cause of immunosuppression, site of infection, or outcome. We conclude that in immunocompromised patients, host factors are much more involved than parasite factors in patients resistance or susceptibility to toxoplasmosis.
When hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver regeneration proceeds from the division of non parenchymal hepatocyte progenitors. Oval cells and Small Hepatocyte-like Progenitor Cells (SHPCs) represent the two most studied examples of such epithelial cells with putative stem cell capacity. In the present study we wished to compare the origin of SHPCs proliferating after retrorsine administration to the one of oval cells observed after 2-Acetyl-Amino fluorene (2-AAF) treatment.
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent an important family of membrane proteins involved in drug resistance and other biological activities. The present study reports on the characterization of a P-glycoprotein (Pgp), TgABC.B1, in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The protein encoded by the TgABC.B1 gene displays the typical (TMD-NBD)2 structural organization of the "full" ABC transporter and shows significant identity and similarity with two apicomplexan Pgps; Pgh1 in Plasmodium falciparum and CpABC3 in Cryptosporidium parvum. The TgABC.B1 gene is a single copy gene transcribed into a full-length mRNA of 4.3kb and expressed as a protein of approximately 150kDa, which cellular localization revealed a membrane-associated labelling in tachyzoites. The TgABC.B1 gene is constitutively expressed in the three major T. gondii genotypes but demonstrated a higher expression in virulent type I, at both transcriptional and translational levels. Further characterization of this Pgp-like protein will increase our knowledge of the membrane transport system in this parasite and could result in the identification of a new therapeutic target in Toxoplasma.
Precise control of transgene expression in a tissue-specific and temporally regulated manner is desirable for many basic and applied investigations gene therapy applications. This is important to regulate dose of transgene products and minimize unwanted effects. Previously described methods have employed tissue specific promoters, miRNA-based transgene silencing or tetR-KRAB-mediated suppression of transgene promoters. To improve on versatility of transgene expression control, we have developed expression systems that use combinations of a tetR-KRAB artificial transgene-repressor, endogenous miRNA silencing machinery and tissue specific promoters. Precise control of transgene expression was demonstrated in liver-, macrophage- and muscle-derived cells. Efficiency was also demonstrated in vivo in murine muscle. This multicomponent and modular regulatory system provides a robust and easily adaptable method for achieving regulated transgene expression in different tissue types. The improved precision of regulation will be useful for many gene therapy applications requiring specific spatiotemporal transgene regulation.
Assessing implicit learning in the continuous pursuit-tracking task usually concerns a repeated segment of target displacements masked by two random segments, as referred to as Pews paradigm. Evidence for segment learning in this paradigm is scanty and contrasts with robust sequence learning in discrete tracking tasks. The present study investigates this issue with two experiments in which participants (N = 56) performed a continuous tracking task. Contrary to Pews paradigm, participants were presented with a training sequence that was continuously cycled during 14 blocks of practice, but Block 12 in which a transfer sequence was introduced. Results demonstrate sequence learning in several conditions except in the condition that was obviously the most similar to previous studies failing to induce segment learning. Specifically, it is shown here that a target moving too slowly combined with variable time at which target reversal occurs prevents sequence learning. In addition, data from a post-experimental recognition test indicate that sequence learning was associated with explicit perceptual knowledge about the repetitive structure. We propose that learning repetition in a continuous tracking task is conditional on its capacity to (1) allow participants to detect the repeated regularities and (2) restrict feedback-based tracking strategies.
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting humans and animals. Wild boars Sus scrofa are a potential source of human infection and an appropriate biological model for analyzing T. gondii dynamics in the environment. Here, we aimed to identify environmental factors explaining the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in French wild boar populations. Considering 938 individuals sampled from 377 communes, overall seroprevalence was 23% (95% confidence interval: [22-24]). Using a Poisson regression, we found that the number of seropositive wild boars detected per commune was positively associated with the presence of European wildcats (Felis silvestris) and moderate winter temperatures.
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts spread in the environment are an important source of toxoplasmosis for humans and animal species. Although the life expectancy of oocysts has been studied through the infectivity of inoculated soil samples, the survival dynamics of oocysts in the environment are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to quantify oocyst viability in soil over time under two rain conditions. Oocysts were placed in 54 sentinel chambers containing soil and 18 sealed water tubes, all settled in two containers filled with soil. Containers were watered to simulate rain levels of arid and wet climates and kept at stable temperature for 21.5 months. At nine sampling dates during this period, we sampled six chambers and two water tubes. Three methods were used to measure oocyst viability: microscopic counting, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and mouse inoculation. In parallel, oocysts were kept refrigerated during the same period to analyze their detectability over time. Microscopic counting, qPCR, and mouse inoculation all showed decreasing values over time and highly significant differences between the decreases under dry and damp conditions. The proportion of oocysts surviving after 100 days was estimated to be 7.4% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 5.1, 10.8) under dry conditions and 43.7% (5% CI = 35.6, 53.5) under damp conditions. The detectability of oocysts by qPCR over time decreased by 0.5 cycle threshold per 100 days. Finally, a strong correlation between qPCR results and the dose infecting 50% of mice was found; thus, qPCR results may be used as an estimate of the infectivity of soil samples.
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