Psychiatric disorders (and their high rates of prevalence) in primary care have been widely analyzed, but the problem of underdiagnosis remains unresolved. This becomes increasingly more important in rural health centres in the face of lack of epidemiological data from these centres. The aim of this study is focused on the relationship between general health, psychiatric symptomatology and personality characteristics in the context of an adequate diagnosis.
Physical exercise and massage are regarded as key factors in regulating tendon structure. However, information on the mechanism through which massage influences the structure and biology of a tendon is scarce. In this study, we attempted to define the impact of these two activities on rat tendons by using morphological and molecular techniques, determining the expression of VEGF-A, FGF-2, and CD34 in the tendons of rats subjected to 10 weeks of physical exercise (running) with massage of varied duration. The group of rats that was trained and massaged during the entire study was characterized by the highest expression of these markers, compared to the rats subjected to massage before training and to the control group subjected to physical exercises only. The greatest significant differences, compared to the control, were noted in the expression of all the studied markers at mRNA level, and in the case of VEGF-A, at protein level, in the third and fifth weeks of the experiment. The results of this study could point to the synergistic impact of simultaneous massage and physical exercise on the expression of angiogenesis markers in rat tendons.
Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further analyses of these issues are justified, especially because none of the studies published in peer-reviewed journals so far meet the criteria for cohort or case-control studies.
Patients with at least one chronic disease requiring regular contact with their GP, additional tests and systematic use of medicines constitute one of the challenges for the future of primary medical care. To date, no studies have been published describing the most important factors in increasing the quality of care for the chronically ill.
Splenectomy significantly increases the risk of severe invasive infections caused by capsular bacteria, such as sepsis and meningitis. Immunizations before and after splenectomy reduce the risk and are routinely recommended. Little is known about compliance with actual immunization guidelines in Poland. The aim of this study was to analyze the vaccination rate and the knowledge of splenectomized patients concerning immunizations in Poland. We applied a questionnaire to survey 85 adult patients (F/M 49/36) splenectomized in 2009-2010 and analyzed the patients medical files and immunization certificates. Patients were also questioned over the phone. We found that the patients were most commonly immunized against Streptococcus pneumoniae (17/85, 20 %), less often against Haemophilus influenzae b (8/85, 9.4 %), and rarely against Niesseria meningitidis C (3/85, 3.5 %). In contrast, hepatitis B immunization coverage rate was as high as 67 % (57/85). The majority of respondents (59/85, 69.4 %) regarded information about the recommended immunizations as insufficient and rated their doctors reasoning as inconsistent, a smaller number (20/85, 23.5 %) confirmed they received sound information before splenectomy. Both surgeons and primary care physicians did not offer immunizations to the majority of patients (59/85, 69.4 %); as a result, only 30.6 % of patients (26/85) were immunized against any capsular bacteria before splenectomy. In conclusion, the majority of splenectomized patients are not immunized despite current guidelines and do show an inadequate level of knowledge concerning the consequences of splenectomy. It is important that both surgeons and primary care doctors give patients clear instructions about immunizations and antibiotics recommended before and after their splenectomy.
The aim of the experiment was to determine if possible changes in connective tissue induced by massage could have a positive effect justifing the use of massage in all post-traumatic connective tissue conditions, e.g. tendon injuries. The investigations were performed in a group of 18 Buffalo rats. The rats were divided into two groups (experimental and control). To standardize the massage procedure, it was performed with an algometer probe of 0.5 cm2 with constant pressure force of 1 kG (9,81 N). To analyse the number and diameter of collagen fibrils, two electron micrographs were performed for each rat of the collected segments of tendons of rat tail lateral extensor muscle. After image digitalization and calibration, the measurements were carried out using iTEM 5.0 software. The number of fibrils, their diameter and area were measured in a cross-sectional area. An increase of the number of collagen fibrils was observed in the tendons of massaged animals compared to the control group. Our study demonstrated that massage may cause a beneficial effect on metabolic activity of tendons fibroblasts and, in consequence, may be applied for more effective use of massage for the prevention of tendon injury as well as after the injury has occurred. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2013, Vol. 51, No. 1, 103-106).
The purpose of our case presentation was to reveal effectiveness of medical massage in the therapy for obturator nerve dysfunction as a complication of hip joint alloplasty. DESIGN: Medical massage was carried out in a 58-year-old man after hip joint alloplasty. The aim was to normalize tension of muscle-ligament-fascia apparatus within pelvic girdle and reconstruct correct structural conditions in the course of obturator nerve. METHODS: The methodology included correct positioning and medical massage with individually designed procedures. FINDINGS: Full normalization of muscular tone and subsidence of pain complaints were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Massage has a positive influence on subsidence of pain complaints; however, effectiveness of the procedure depends on an appropriate methodology. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The presented massage procedure is an effective therapy in obturator nerve dysfunction as complication after alloplasty and it can be one of elements of complex improvement after surgical joint procedures within the scope of nursing rehabilitation.
Elite athletes have a higher prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than the general population. The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is not fully elucidated. Increasing evidence suggests that airway inflammation plays a major role in the immunopathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The aim of our review is to discuss existing evidence and to present a new, modified inflammatory hypothesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Exercise alters the number and function of circulating immune cells. Episodes of upper respiratory symptoms in elite athletes do not follow the usual seasonal patterns. Moreover, they have an unusual short-term duration, which suggests a non-infectious etiology. If the pro-inflammatory response to exercise has the potential to induce symptoms that mimic respiratory tract infection, it definitely up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the airways. We can conclude that exercise up-regulates airway cytokine expression in a way that favors inflammation and allergic reactions in bronchi and lowers the threshold for bronchoconstriction to different stimuli like cool, dry air, allergens, and pollutants.
We retrospectively studied confirmed cases of influenza obligatorily reported to health authorities in central Poland during the 2009/2010 season. Each case was traced and examined with a questionnaire. The samples were tested for influenza A and B by RT-PCR. A total of 561 cases of influenza, including 185 in children under 14 years old, were detected. Four hundred and eighty four people were hospitalized, including 142 children under 14. Thirty two patients died, all with pre-existing risk factors. The most common complications were pneumonia, cardiac arrest, septic shock, circulatory insufficiency, multi-organ failure and myocarditis. The majority of patients (388/484) were treated with oseltamivir. Fifty three patients were mechanically ventilated, 52 patients were given oxygen. Only 11 out of the 561 patients were immunized against seasonal influenza. In conclusion, pandemic influenza affects all age groups, but it is more common in younger patients. Pandemic influenza is becoming an emerging health risk for the Polish population.
The purpose of this study was to analyze psychosexual needs of nursing care home residents in Poland. The authors attempted to answer the question how do residents satisfy their psychosexual needs? This survey-based study was performed with respect to the residents right to privacy and intimacy. The residents were also informed that they could withdraw from the study at any stage. The history was taken from 85 subjects (60% women, 40% men). The mean age was 74.2±11.2. The most important psychosexual needs included: conversation, tenderness, emotional closeness (empathy, understanding), sexual contacts and physical closeness. As the most important elements of the relationship, respondents mentioned mutual respect and conviction that they can rely on their partners. Most respondents felt sexual tension occasionally, others once a week or less frequently. They relieved sexual tension through intimate contacts with their long-term partners, watching erotic films, masturbation, walking and diverting attention to other activities. Every fourth respondent was satisfied with his/her sexual life. The majority of seniors repeated stereotypes about sexuality of the elderly. Almost 71% claimed that sex in elderly people was taboo, 64% said that sex was for young people only, and 51% thought that sex was not important in life. Old age makes little difference to psychosexual needs. Most seniors need closeness manifesting as tenderness and conversations. Many old people are sexually active. Thus, it is worth considering whether people living in cohabitation should not have the possibility of staying together in nursing care home.
The purpose of this study was to determine quality of life (QoL) and acceptance of illness in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The study involved 315 adult patients of the mean age of 63.9±15.7 years. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Short Form and the Acceptance of Illness Scale were used. The mean score for QoL was 2.0±1.3. The highest scores were obtained in the Social Relationship Domain (13.9±2.7) and the lowest in the Environmental Domain (10.5±2.2). The strongest correlations within QoL domains were noted between Physical and Psychological Domains: r=0.611 (p<0.001), Psychological and Social Domains: r=0.605 (p<0.001). The overall degree of illness acceptance was low (26.0±7.8). The strongest correlations were observed between illness acceptance and Physical: r=0.591 (p<0.001) and Psychological Domains: r=0.450 (p<0.001). We conclude that illness acceptance can be augmented by improving the patients clinical state and by the provision of psychological support and QoL by improving the Psychological and Environmental Domains.
The purpose of the study was to determine health-related behaviors, profile of health locus of control (HLC), and to assess the relationships between these constructs among patients suffering from chronic somatic diseases.
It was stated explicitly that smoking was increasing the risk of the death about 25-40% because of cardiovascular diseases, about 30-40% because of malignant tumors and is causing about 70% of deaths from illness of the respiratory system (no cancerous). It was also proved that basic means increasing the effectiveness of taken attempts to limit the smoking were useful and easy to apply by every doctor independently of the medical specialty. An anonymous questionnaire containing questions on the subject of the realization of problems connected with the tobacco addiction in the route of medical studies was carried amongst 6th year students of the Medical Department of Wroclaw Medical University in the academic year 2008/2009. 210 students took part in the study. 62% of examined came from the provincial capital, the 11.4% from the town with the population above 100 hundred of inhabitants, 22.4% of towns with the population below 100 hundred of inhabitants and 3.8% of students--from country centers. Only 78% of students is claiming that problems concerning nicotinism were being brought up on the university. 56.7% of examined is judging that he is able to give an anti-smoking advice to a patient. The correct answer in the question about the Fagerströma test and describing physical addiction gave 47% of students, only 39.5% examined--in the question about the assessment of motivation test (the Schneider scale), and 37.2% of students responded to the question what is consists in minimum anti-tobacco intervention. An insufficient frequency of bringing up the problem of smoking on medical studies is visible harmfulness, a consequence is a lowering knowledge amongst students. Little over 3 of students is confirming students that problems concerning the nicotinism were being brought up during studies (mainly during classes in the field of internal medicine), however every sixth of examined students is declaring the knowledge in the case of the patient addicted to the nicotine and every fourth has the knowledge. The preparing graduates of the Medical Faculty for the participation in realization of basic schedules of the promotion of the health and the diseases prevention is developing unusually pessimistically towards above data, the fight against the nicotine addiction is filling one of the essential positions, independently on the medical specialty.
Minimal anti-tobacco intervention (MIA) is an efficient and inexpensive method of smoking cessation intervention. The ability for practical use of MIA could be acquired by a majority of physicians-practitioners in Poland and other European Union countries. The objective of the work was to establish a practical knowledge in the scope of anti-tobacco strategies of senior students of the Medical Faculty of the Medical University of Bialystok after six-year education. We also assessed the prevalence of tobacco smoking among students of Medical Faculty. The percentage of tobacco smokers between the last course students of Medical Faculty average at 15% of women and 29% of men. Only 3 of all woman and half of men think they could effectively help in smoking cessation, but most of the assessed students have not acquired sufficient knowledge for an anti-tobacco intervention as well as they dont know practical tools like Fagerstöm Test for Nicotine Dependence or Schneiders Smoker Complaint Scale.
Smoking tobacco in our society is the primary risk factor in the emergence of many diseases, including cardiovascular and cancer, elevating the risk of mortality before 65 years of age. Very important is the fact that this is a removable, which can be completely eliminated. The smoker health could be in better conditions and also other people from his environment. A man who is messed up is the sick man who, while having the motivation to stop smoking, need a comprehensive and specialized medical treatment. Respondents nursing and midwifery students in Opole PMWSZ most important in providing advice to patients students choose family doctors (34.1%) and internists (17.9%). According to the respondents, patients who, despite a strong motivation to stop smoking can not, should find help in specialized anti-tobacco clinic (27.8%), substance abuse treatment clinic (16.5%), and psychological counseling (11.4%). Half of the surveyed students (51.35%) declared the ability to advice patients, while only 18.7% of respondents correctly answered the question what is the minimum intervention of tobacco control, 56% of respondents claimed that it is information to the patient of the consequences of smoking. Important in reducing the health effects of smoking is to prepare health workers to diagnose the problem of addiction and comprehensive professional treatment.
Prevention of tobacco smoking amongst youths and young adult could limit deaths because of illness tobacco related to 2050. The assessment of the level of smoking was the aim of examinations amongst medical students. An anonymous questionnaire containing questions on the subject of tobacco smoking was carried amongst 6th year students of the Medical Department of Wroclaw Medical University in the academic year 2008/2009. Two hundreds then students took part in the study. 62% of examined came from the provincial capital, the 11.4% from the town with the population above 100 hundred of inhabitants, 22.4% of towns with the population below 100 hundred of inhabitants and 3.8% of students--from country centers. 14.8 % respondents admitted to smoking cigarettes, 75.2% were non-smoking persons, 10% were smokers but ceased smoking cigarettes in the sequence of a few last years. Amongst smokers--the most (59% of students and 71% of students) is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The most students (56% of women and 60% of men) began smoking in the secondary school. In studied group 67.6% (142) examined is claiming that the anti-tobacco advice should give family doctors, and 43% thinks that a patient which isnt able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation should be seen by a family doctor. The percentage of smokers amongst medical students didnt take turns in the sequence of two last years, however amongst smokers--biggest percentage is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The students most often begin smoking in the secondary school. The straight majority of the medical students is paying attention, that family doctors should take up giving the anti-tobacco advice and helping patients which isnt able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation. The ones smoking the small number of cigarettes and which began smoking in the secondary school are predominating amongst smokers. Overbalancing percentage of examined is located anti-tobacco therapy into competence of a family doctor.
Smoking is the most widespread addiction and for years is a basic addiction hazard among youngsters. The beginning of nicotine addiction is occult, during time runs as habit and biological nicotine addiction. The health consequences are seen after time. Children have their first contact with cigarettes in their own families and the problem of smoking is the consequence of following adults example. The risk of smoking addiction rises because of negative influence of background and because of the need of being approved among men of the same age. The objective of the study was the analysis of spreading of smoking among students of PMWSZ in Opole during years 2006-2009.688 students of nursery and obstetrics faculty were investigated. Among them 175 (25.4%) were smokers and 513 (74.6%) were non-smokers. More than half of smokers (61.2%) started smoking in secondary grammar school. 110 (62.9%) of them tried to overcome their addiction. These failed attempts confirm the necessity of multi-aspect anti-nicotine help given by health professionals: doctors, psychologists, addiction therapeutics and pedagogues.
Implementing the National Health Program assumed in Poland for the years 2007 2015, family doctors in their everyday work try to contribute to reducing the popularity of tobacco smoking as well as reducing and changing the structure of alcohol consumption, whose aim is to reduce the negative health effects caused by those substances . Non smoking personnel and prohibition of smoking in health care centres are the basis for effective anti-tobacco counsel. The same dependence occurs in the case of alcohol abuse. The aim of the work was to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of alcohol abuse among students of the 6th year of the Faculty of Medicine of UMB (Medical University of Bia?ystok), as well as to analyze the structure of drinking and smoking among the prospective doctors. The study material was collected by means of anonymous surveys carried out before classes belonging to the family medicine subject block. The obtained data showed that the students had only superficial knowledge of the negative health effects of alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking. 26% of female students and 12% of male students smoke regularly. The results of the shortened Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), so-called AUDIT-C, showed that 50% of prospective female doctors and 61.1% of prospective male doctors drink alcohol in a risky way.
To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse.
The quality of life has three main characteristics: it always refers to the living conditions of an individual; it is measured both with subjective and objective indicators; and it is a multidimensional concept.
The study was to assess psychosexual functioning of women after breast cancer treatment, since this problem is very rarely discussed in Polish professional literature.
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