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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identifying the distinct features of geometric structures for hole trapping to generate radicals on rutile TiO2(110) in photooxidation using density functional theory calculations with hybrid functional.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Using density functional theory calculations with HSE 06 functional, we obtained the structures of spin-polarized radicals on rutile TiO2(110), which is crucial to understand the photooxidation at the atomic level, and further calculate the thermodynamic stabilities of these radicals. By analyzing the results, we identify the structural features for hole trapping in the system, and reveal the mutual effects among the geometric structures, the energy levels of trapped hole states and their hole trapping capacities. Furthermore, the results from HSE 06 functional are compared to those from DFT + U and the stability trend of radicals against the number of slabs is tested. The effect of trapped holes on two important steps of the oxygen evolution reaction, i.e. water dissociation and the oxygen removal, is investigated and discussed.
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A New Exploration for Gallbladder Polyps: Gallbladder Polypectomy by Endolap Technique.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.
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Single Nanowire Electrode Electrochemistry of Silicon Anode by in Situ Atomic Force Microscopy: Solid Electrolyte Interphase Growth and Mechanical Properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted great attention as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) on account of their high capacity and improved cyclability compared with bulk silicon. The interface behavior, especially the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), plays a significant role in the performance and stability of the electrodes. We report herein an in situ single nanowire atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to investigate the interface electrochemistry of silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrode. The morphology and Young's modulus of the individual SiNW anode surface during the SEI growth were quantitatively tracked. Three distinct stages of the SEI formation on the SiNW anode were observed. On the basis of the potential-dependent morphology and Young's modulus evolution of SEI, a mixture-packing structural model was proposed for the SEI film on SiNW anode.
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Facet dependent SEI formation on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode identified by in situ single particle atomic force microscopy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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A facile protocol is developed for the direct observation and characterization of a single particle electrode during the lithium ion battery operation by using in situ AFM. The SEI formation on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 particle cathode surface is found to be highly related to the exposed planes.
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Formulation, characterization, and in vitro/vivo studies of aclacinomycin A-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to prepare aclacinomycin A (ACM)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Methods: SLNs were prepared using an emulsion evaporation-solidification method, and characterized in accordance with the morphological examination, particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency, drug-loading, and in vitro release. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were employed to evaluate the in vivo of SLNs. Results: The SLNs were spherical in shape, uniform in size, and appropriate for administration via intravenous injection. The drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading of prepared SLNs were 96.4%?±?4.6%, 86.7%?±?2.3%, and 4.8%?±?0.7% (n?=?3), respectively, and the mean diameter was 68.2?±?5.6?nm from three batches. The SLNs were produced with stable physical properties and demonstrated significantly sustained release. The pharmacokinetic behavior of ACM was greatly improved by lyophilized injection of SLN with sustained drug release and high bioavailability. In addition, the results obtained from tissue distribution showed that ACM-SLNs were hepatic targeting in vivo. Conclusions: The present work demonstrated the feasibility of liver-targeted delivery of ACM utilizing SLNs.
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Low-intensity focused ultrasound mediated localized drug delivery for liver tumors in rabbits.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Objective: To explore the antitumor effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) mediated localized drug delivery of adriamycin-microbubble-PLGA nanoparticle complexes on rabbits VX2 liver tumor. Methods: ADM-NMCs were prepared by covalent linking of ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-NPs) to the shell of the microbubbles. A fixed water bag filled with microbubbles was subjected to LIFU and non-focused ultrasound respectively, and the ultrasound images of which were recorded before and after ultrasonication. A total of 54 VX2 liver tumor-burdened rabbits were divided into six groups randomly, including control, ADM-NPs combined with LIFU, microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NPs and microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU and ADM-NMCs combined with Non-FUS. The tumor volume and volume inhibition rate (VIR) of tumor progression were calculated and compared. Apoptotic cells were labeled by terminal deoxyuridine nick end. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The median survival time of the animals were recorded and compared. Results: ADM-NMCs were successfully prepared with an average diameter of 1721?nm. The highest VIR and apoptotic index (AI) were found in the group of ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU while the lowest proliferating index (PI) was simultaneously observed in this group. The median survival time of the rabbits in the ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU group was the longest (71days) among all groups. Conclusions: ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU could inhibit the rabbits VX2 liver tumor progress by delaying the tumor proliferation and accelerating apoptosis, which presents a novel process for liver tumor targeting chemotherapy.
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Signal-on electrochemical immunoassay for APE1 using ionic liquid doped Au nanoparticle/graphene as a nanocarrier and alkaline phosphatase as enhancer.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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In this paper, the Au nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets (AuNPs/Gr) were prepared as nanocarriers using ionic liquid (IL) as linker reagent. Then the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the ferrocene tagged detection antibodies (Fc-Ab2) were loaded on the IL doped AuNPs/Gr as a trace label for ultrasensitive measurements of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), which is a multifunctional protein in the DNA base excision repair pathway relating to various types of cancer. Several labeling protocols were investigated for the determination of the APE1 protein concentration and improved analytical features were obtained with the proposed carriers of IL doped AuNPs/Gr which were labeled with Fc-Ab2 and ALP (ALP/Fc-Ab2/AuNPs/IL/Gr). The reason may be that the IL doped AuNPs/Gr carriers (AuNPs/IL/Gr) could not only enhance the immobilized amount of ALP and Fc-Ab2, but also promote the electron transfer rate. Thus, through the specific recognition of antigen-antibody, numerous ALP/Fc-Ab2/AuNPs/IL/Gr, which are captured onto every single immunocomplex, could further catalyze the ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-p) reaction to amplify the electrochemical signal. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the AuNPs/IL/Gr nanocomposites revealed the formation of a functionalized surface network structure. The resulting immunosensor exhibited a linear response to APE1 in the concentration range of 0.1-80 pg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.04 pg mL(-1), indicating potential applications in clinical diagnostics.
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Highly enantioselective reaction of 2-oxindoles with (3-indolyl)methanols by cooperative Catalysis of a Lewis acid and organocatalyst.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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An efficient cooperative biscinchona alkaloid and Lewis acid catalytic system was developed in the enantioselective ?-alkylation of 2-oxindoles with (3-indolyl)(phenyl)methanols to provide (2-oxindole)-linker-indole derivatives in good yields (70-83%) with high enantioselectivities (81%-92%).
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Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes.
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Optical bandpass/notch filter with independent tuning of wavelength and bandwidth based on a blazed diffraction grating.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We propose a multifunctional optical filter based on a blazed diffraction grating. The optical filter can function as a bandpass filter or a notch filter. A theoretical model of the filter is built for analysis. Both bandwidth and wavelength of the filter can be independently and continuously tuned. In the experimental demonstration, the wavelength can be linearly tuned within the entire C-band and partial L-band. The bandwidths of the filter can be tuned from 1.3 to 6.4 nm (-3 dB bandwidth) and from 2.4 to 11.3 nm (-10 dB bandwidth) for bandpass function and from 6.9 to 11.9 nm (-3 dB bandwidth) and from 5.1 to 8.8 nm (-10 dB bandwidth) for band-stop function, respectively. The extinction ratio of more than 35 dB is achieved.
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New development of inhibitors targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in personalized treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common pathological type of lung cancer, divided into squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Despite better techniques of surgery and improvement in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy, the median survival of advanced NSCLC is only 8-10 months. With increased understanding of molecular alternations in NSCLC, considerable efforts have focused on the development of personalized molecular-targeted therapies. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates tumor development, growth, and proliferation of NSCLC. Various novel inhibitors targeting this pathway have been identified in preclinical studies or clinical trials. Some genetic alternations may be considered sensitive or resistant biomarkers to these inhibitors. Sometimes, upregulation of RTK and the downstream PI3K pathway or upregulation of the ERK pathway by compensatory feedback reactivation in response to these inhibitors also lead to drug resistance. Therefore, combination therapy of these inhibitors and other targeted inhibitors such as EGFR-TKI or MEK inhibitors according to genetic status and categories of inhibitors is required to enhance the efficacy of these inhibitors. Here, we reviewed the genetic status of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in NSCLC and the novel inhibitors targeting this pathway in preclinical or clinical studies, exploring the possible genetic alternations related to different inhibitors and the means to enhance the antitumor effect in NSCLC.
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A simulator for percutaneous hepatic microwave thermal ablation under ultrasound guidance.
Int J Hyperthermia
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to provide a simulation therapy environment for microwave thermal ablation (MWA) under the guidance of ultrasound, and to present an inexpensive and portable simulator built on real patient-based pre-operative computed tomography (CT) data. We established an experimental simulation system for teaching MWA and present the results of a preliminary evaluation of the simulator's realism and utility for training. The system comprises physical elements of an electromagnetic tracking device and an abdominal phantom, and software elements providing three-dimensional (3D) image processing tools, real-time navigation functions and objective evaluation function module. Details of the novel aspects of this system are presented, including a portable electromagnetic tracking device, adoption of real patient-based pre-operative CT data of liver, operation simulation of MWA, and recording and playback of the operation simulation. Patients with liver cancer were selected for evaluation of the clinical application value of the experimental simulation system. A total of 50 consultant interventional radiologists and 20 specialist registrars in radiology rated the simulator's hardware reality and overall ergonomics. Results show that the simulator system we describe can be used as a training tool for MWA. It enables training with real patient cases prior to surgery, and it can provide a realistic simulation of the actual procedure.
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Probing planar defects in nanoparticle superlattices by 3D small-angle electron diffraction tomography and real space imaging.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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We demonstrate how the acquisition and processing of 3D electron diffraction data can be extended to characterize structural features on the mesoscale, and show how lattice distortions in superlattices of self-assembled spherical Pd nanoparticles can be quantified by three-dimensional small-angle electron diffraction tomography (3D SA-EDT). Transmission electron microscopy real space imaging and 3D SA-EDT reveal a high density of stacking faults that was related to a competition between fcc and hcp arrangements during assembly. Information on the orientation of the stacking faults was used to make analogies between planar defects in the superlattices and Shockley partial dislocations in metallic systems.
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ViRBase: a resource for virus-host ncRNA-associated interactions.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Increasing evidence reveals that diverse non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play critically important roles in viral infection. Viruses can use diverse ncRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression to establish a host environment conducive to the completion of the viral life cycle. Many host cellular ncRNAs can also directly or indirectly influence viral replication and even target virus genomes. ViRBase (http://www.rna-society.org/virbase) aims to provide the scientific community with a resource for efficient browsing and visualization of virus-host ncRNA-associated interactions and interaction networks in viral infection. The current version of ViRBase documents more than 12 000 viral and cellular ncRNA-associated virus-virus, virus-host, host-virus and host-host interactions involving more than 460 non-redundant ncRNAs and 4400 protein-coding genes from between more than 60 viruses and 20 hosts. Users can query, browse and manipulate these virus-host ncRNA-associated interactions. ViRBase will be of help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular virus-host ncRNA-associated interaction networks in viral infection.
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[Optimization of synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To optimize the synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid.
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Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).
Scand. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (?, ?, ?, and ?), and one reverse ? remnant fragment. The Ig? locus contains only a single C? gene, 4 J? segments and 48 V? segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Ig? locus contains 4 C? genes, but only C? 3 and C? 4 each preceded by a J? gene segment. A total of 49 V? segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and ? sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the chinese hamster ? gene despite more potential germline encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes.
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[Ultraviolet spectroscopic study on the fine structures in the solar polar hole].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Fine structures in the south solar polar coronal hole were observed by N IV line of SOHO/SUMER spectrograph. The scales of the fine structures range spatially range from 1 arcsec to several arcsecs, temporally from 1 min to several minutes, and parts of them are in strip shape along the slit direction. The line-of-sight velocity of them is up to tens of km x s(-1) with red and blue shift intercrossed occasionally, which appear periodically as long as 100 minutes in some regions. Part of the fine structures can be clearly observed at the Ne V III line with higher formation temperature in the same spectral window. The time and location of some fine structures with high velocity in the Ne V III spectrum are almost the same as that in N IV spectrum, but they are extended and diffused in the Ne V III spectrum. Some fine structures have non-Gaussian profiles with the line-of-sight Doppler velocities up to 150 km x s(-1) in the N IV blue/red wings, which is similar with the explosive events in the transition region. In the past, explosive events are small-scale dynamic phenomena often observed in the quiet-sun (QS) region, while their properties in coronal holes (CHs) remain unclear. Here, we find the EE-like events with strong dynamics in the south solar polar coronal hole by N IV line of SOHO/SUMER spectrograph.
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Anti-hepatitis B virus activities and absolute configurations of sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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During the process exploring anti-viral compounds from Phyllanthus species, eight new highly oxygenated bisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycoside phyllaemblicins G1-G8 () were isolated from Phyllanthus emblica, along with three known compounds, phyllaemblicin F (), phyllaemblic acid () and glochicoccin D (). Phyllaemblicin G2 (), bearing a tricyclo [3.1.1.1] oxygen bridge ring system, is an unusual sesquiterpenoid glycoside, while phyllaemblicins G6-G8 () are dimeric sesquiterpenoid glycosides with two norbisabolane units connecting through a disaccharide. All the structures were elucidated by the extensive analysis of HRMS and NMR data. The relative configuration of phyllaemblicin G2 was constructed based on heteronuclear coupling constants measurement, and the absolute configurations for all new compounds were established by calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) using time dependent density functional theory. The sesquiterpenoid glycoside dimers displayed potential anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities, especially for the new compound with IC50 of 8.53 ± 0.97 and 5.68 ± 1.75 ?M towards the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV excreted antigen (HBeAg) secretion, respectively.
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Microvascular Thrombosis, Fibrinolysis, Ischemic Injury, and Death After Cerebral Thromboembolism Are Affected by Levels of Circulating ?2-Antiplasmin.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Ischemic stroke is primarily attributable to thrombotic vascular occlusion. Elevated ?2-antiplasmin (a2AP) levels correlate with increased stroke risk, but whether a2AP contributes to the pathogenesis of stroke is unknown. We examined how a2AP affects thrombosis, ischemic brain injury, and survival after experimental cerebral thromboembolism.
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New phenylpropanoid-substituted flavan-3-ols from Pu-er ripe tea.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Pu-er ripe tea is a special microbial post-fermented tea made from Pu-er raw tea, a kind of green tea produced from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica. It is one of the most consumed teas in the past two decades in China, due to its special flavor, taste, and beneficial effects. This work aimed to obtain diverse catechin structures from Pu-er ripe tea, which led to the isolation of four new phenylpropanoid-substituted flavan-3-ols, puerins C-F (1-4), together with four known flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin (5), (-)-epicatechin (6), (+/-)-gallocatechin (7), and (-)-epigallocatechin (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, mass and CD spectra. Compounds 1-4, which could be formed in the post-fermentative process of Pu-er tea, were isolated for the first time from tea and Theaceae plant.
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Decreased circulating levels of oxytocin in obesity and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Context and Objective: Oxytocin can affect energy homeostasis and has interesting potential as a metabolic disease therapeutic. We detected serum oxytocin levels in obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects and investigated the relationships between serum oxytocin levels and glycolipid metabolism, insulin resistance, pancreatic ?-cell function and inflammation. Patients and Methods: A total of 176 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 88 patients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes(T2DM) and 88 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT). NGT and T2DM groups were divided into normal weight(NW) and obese(OB) subgroups separately. We analysed the concentrations of oxytocin by ELISA. OGTT, HbA1c, blood lipids and highly sensitive C-reactive protein(hs-CRP) were also detected. Insulin resistance and pancreas ? cell function were assessed by homeostasis model assessment(HOMA-IR, HOMA-?). Results: Serum oxytocin levels were lower in T2DM group than in NGT group (P<0.01). The levels of serum oxytocin in subjects with obesity were also lower than those in subjects with NW (P<0.01). Serum oxytocin levels were negatively correlated with BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, FINS, 2hINS, TC, TG, LDL-C, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP, while positively correlated with HOMA-?(P<0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that 2hPG, BMI and TC were associated with serum oxytocin levels(P<0.05). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that serum oxytocin was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes(P<0.01). Conclusions: Serum oxytocin levels were decreased in subjects with type 2 diabetes as well as in obesity.
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Effects of hypothermia combined with neural stem cell transplantation on recovery of neurological function in rats with spinal cord injury.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The microenvironment of the injured spinal cord is hypothesized to be involved in driving the differentiation and survival of engrafted neural stem cells (NSCs). Hypothermia is known to improve the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord in a number of ways. To investigate the effect of NSC transplantation in combination with hypothermia on the recovery of rat spinal cord injury, 60 Sprague?Dawley female rats were used to establish a spinal cord hemisection model. They were divided randomly into three groups: A, spinal cord injury group; B, NSC transplantation group; and C, NSC transplantation + hypothermia group. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post?injury, the motor function of all animals was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie and Besnaham locomotor scoring system and the inclined plane test. At 4 weeks post?transplantation, histological analysis and immunocytochemistry were performed. At 8 weeks post?transplantation, horseradish peroxidase nerve tracing and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to observe axonal regeneration. The outcome of hind limb motor function recovery in group C significantly surpassed that in group B at 4 weeks post?injury (P<0.05). Recovery was also observed in group A, but to a lesser degree. For the pathological sections no neural axonal were observed in group A. A few axon?like structures were observed in group B and more in group C. Horseradish peroxidase?labeled neurofibers and bromodeoxyuridine?positive cells were observed in the spinal cords of group C. Fewer of these cells were found in group B and fewer still in group A. The differences among the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Using transmission electron microscopy, newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were observed in the central transverse plane in groups B and C, although these nerve fibers were not evident in group A. In conclusion, NSC transplantation promoted the recovery of hind limb function in rats, and combination treatment with hypothermia produced synergistic effects.
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Prediction of protein structure classes with flexible neural tree.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Prediction of protein structural classes is of great significance to better understand protein folding patterns. An array of methods has been proposed to predict these structures based on sequences. However, the accuracy is strongly affected by the homology of sequences. In the present study, the features based on correlation coefficient of sequence and amino acid composition are extracted. Flexible neutral tree is employed as the classification model. To examine the performance of this method, four benchmark datasets are selected. Altogether, the results show that a higher prediction accuracy of alpha/beta can be achieved by the method compared to others.
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[Intestinal pathological changes of Kunming mice infected by Cryptosporidium and the therapeutic efficacy of spiramycin on infected mice].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To observe the symptom, disease course of Crytosporidium-infected mice, and the therapeutic effect of spiramycin on infected mice.
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Modified Classification and Repair of Perineal Soft Tissue Injuries Associated with Open Pelvic Fractures.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Background?This study describes a modified classification and management protocol for perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures. Methods?A total of 11 patients with perineal soft tissue injuries associated with open pelvic fractures were studied retrospectively. The patients were classified into three types based on the area of defect: type A (urogenital zone), type B (anal zone), and type C (both urogenital and anal zones). Each type included the following subclasses: A1 (without urethra injuries), A2 (with urethra injuries), B1 (without anorectal injuries), B2 (with anorectal injuries), C1 (with types A1 and B1), C2 (with types A2 and B1), C3 (with types A1 and B2), and C4 (with types A2 and B2). The management protocol was planned according to the individual classifications. Protocol A1 (for type A1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol A2 (for type A2) involved the same protocol combined with urine diversion. Protocol B1 (for type B1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol B2 (for type B2) involved the same management combined with fecal diversion. Protocol C involved the correspondent protocol used for each subtype of type C. Results?Out of the 11 patients, there were 5, 3, and 3 cases of types A, B, and C, respectively. One patient died due to sepsis, and the wounds of the remaining patients healed well. No anal incontinence had occurred. Conclusions?Perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures can be classified into three types, and the management protocol can be planned according to the classification.
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CCR5 Blockade Promotes M2 Macrophage Activation and Improves Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered to be primarily associated with loss of motor function and leads to activate diverse cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system to attempt to repair the damaged spinal cord tissue. Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5), a major co-receptor for macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency viruses, is expressed on the surface of monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, activated T cells, and NK cells. Recent papers have indicated the important role of CCR5 in SCI, but the mechanism is still unknown. In our current study, CCR5 blockade displayed increased myelin sparring and enhanced SC repair process. The number of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, Ly6G(+) neutrophils and CD11b(+) macrophages were all significantly lower in the anti-CCR5 group than that in the control group after SCI. The IL-4 and IL-13 levels in anti-CCR5 group were markedly higher than that in control group after SCI. Correspondingly, the anti-CCR5-treated group showed increased numbers of Arg1- or CD206-expressing macrophages compared with the control IgG group. Furthermore, CCR5 blockade promoted PPAR? activation, and the increased numbers of M2 macrophages induced by CCR5 blockade were both reversed with additional PPAR? antagonist treatment. In conclusion, our present work provides evidence to support the concept that CCR5 blockade promotes M2 macrophage activation and improves locomotor recovery after SCI in mice.
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Association of CYP17A1 gene -34T/C polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in Han Chinese population.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of the cytochrome P450 17? (CYP17A1) gene -34T/C polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese population. Methods: Three-hundred eighteen patients with PCOS and 306 controls were recruited and the CYP17A1 -34T/C polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Furthermore, the relationship of CYP17A1 -34T/C polymorphism and clinical feature parameters of PCOS patients was also analyzed. Results: The prevalence rates of CYP17A1 genotype TT, TC and CC were 49.69%, 43.71% and 6.6% in the case group and those were 44.77%, 46.08% and 9.15% in the control group. The frequencies of CYP17A1 T and C alleles were 71.54% and 28.46% in the case group, and those were 67.81% and 32.19% in the control group. Neither the genotypic nor the allelic distribution was significantly different between the cases and controls. However, the PCOS patients with the genotype of CC had significantly higher total testosterone levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) than those with the genotype of TT or TC. Conclusions: The CYP17A1 gene -34T/C polymorphism might not be directly correlated with the PCOS, but might influence PCOS via the association of testosterone level and the HOMA-IR.
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Species-associated differences in the inhibition of propofol glucuronidation by magnolol.
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Magnolol, a major active constituent in herbal medicine, potently inhibits propofol glucuronidation in human liver microsomes, with inhibition constants in the nanomolar range. This study was conducted to investigate magnolol-induced inhibition of propofol glucuronidation in liver microsomes from Swiss-Hauschka mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, Chinese Bama pigs, and cynomolgus macaques. Results indicated that magnolol (10 ?M) inhibited propofol glucuronidation in liver microsomes from Bama pigs and cynomolgus macaques but not in those from mice or rats. Data from liver microsomes from Bama pigs indicated a competitive inhibition mechanism, with a Ki of 1.7 ?M. In contrast to that of pig liver microsomes, the inhibition of microsomes from cynomolgus macaques followed a noncompetitive mechanism, with a Ki of 3.4 ?M. In summary, this study indicates that magnolol-induced inhibition of propofol glucuronidation varies substantially among species, and the Ki values determined by using liver microsomes from various experimental animal species far exceed that for human liver microsomes. The inhibition of propofol glucuronidation by magnolol in liver microsomes from all animal species tested was significantly lower than the inhibition previously demonstrated in human liver microsomes. Hepatic microsomes from Swiss-Hauschka mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, Chinese Bama pigs, and cynomolgus macaques are not effective models of the inhibition of glucuronidation induced by magnolol in humans.
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New Insights into Morphology of High Performance BHJ Photovoltaics Revealed by High Resolution AFM.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Direct imaging of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin film morphology in polymer-based solar cells is essential to understand device function and optimize efficiency. The morphology of the BHJ active layer consists of bicontinuous domains of the donor and acceptor materials, having characteristic length scales of several tens of nanometers, that reduces charge recombination, enhances charge separation, and enables electron and hole transport to their respective electrodes. Direct imaging of the morphology from the molecular to macroscopic level, though, is lacking. Though transmission electron tomography provides a 3D, real-space image of the morphology, quantifying the structure is not possible. Here we used high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping and nanomechanical modes to investigate the BHJ active layer morphology that, when combined with Ar(+) etching, provided unique insights with unparalleled spatial resolution. PCBM was seen to form a network that interpenetrated into the fibrillar network of the hole-conducting polymer, both being imbedded in a mixture of the two components. The free surface was found to be enriched with polymer crystals having a "face-on" orientation and the morphology at the anode interface was markedly different.
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Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
Mol. Genet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia.
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Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.
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A class-information-based penalized matrix decomposition for identifying plants core genes responding to abiotic stresses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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In terms of making genes expression data more interpretable and comprehensible, there exists a significant superiority on sparse methods. Many sparse methods, such as penalized matrix decomposition (PMD) and sparse principal component analysis (SPCA), have been applied to extract plants core genes. Supervised algorithms, especially the support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) method, always have good performance in gene selection. In this paper, we draw into class information via the total scatter matrix and put forward a class-information-based penalized matrix decomposition (CIPMD) method to improve the gene identification performance of PMD-based method. Firstly, the total scatter matrix is obtained based on different samples of the gene expression data. Secondly, a new data matrix is constructed by decomposing the total scatter matrix. Thirdly, the new data matrix is decomposed by PMD to obtain the sparse eigensamples. Finally, the core genes are identified according to the nonzero entries in eigensamples. The results on simulation data show that CIPMD method can reach higher identification accuracies than the conventional gene identification methods. Moreover, the results on real gene expression data demonstrate that CIPMD method can identify more core genes closely related to the abiotic stresses than the other methods.
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Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained atmospheric pressure glow discharge generates enhanced electricity in a microbial fuel cell.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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A Clostridium beijerinckii mutant M13 was derived from C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 by atmospheric pressure glow discharge. C. beijerinckii M13 generated a maximum output power density of 79.2 mW m(-2) and a maximum output voltage of 230 mV in a microbial fuel cell containing 1 g glucose l(-1) as carbon source and 0.15 g methyl viologen l(-1) as an electron carrier.
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[Evaluation of anal function and quality of life after transanal endoscopic microsurgery].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To evaluate the impact of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) on postoperative anal function and quality of life in patients with benign rectal tumor and early rectal cancer.
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Down-regulation of WWOX is associated with poor prognosis in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after Curative Resection.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Down-regulation of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has been reported to be involved in tumorigenesis in several neoplasms. This study sought to investigate the expression and role of WWOX in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) METHODS: WWOX expression was measured by qRT-PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The role of WWOX in proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, gene expression regulation and tumorigenesis was assessed by WWOX re-expression using lentivirus. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was performed to evaluate the methylation status of the WWOX gene regulatory region. A DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), was used to activate the endogenous WWOX gene in ICC cells both in vitro and in vivo.
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Pyrene-Based Quantitative Detection of the 5-Formylcytosine Loci Symmetry in the CpG Duplex Content during TET-Dependent Demethylation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Methylcytosine (5mC) is mostly symmetrically distributed in CpG sites. Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins are the key enzymes involved in active DNA demethylation through stepwise oxidation of 5mC. However, oxidation pathways of TET enzymes in the symmetrically methylated CpG context are still elusive. Employing the unique fluorescence properties of pyrene group, we designed and synthesized a sensitive fluorescence-based probe not only to target 5-formylcytosine (5fC) sites, but also to distinguish symmetric from asymmetric 5fC sites in the double stranded DNA context during TET-dependent 5mC oxidation process. Using this novel probe, we revealed dominant levels of symmetric 5fC among total 5fC sites during in vitro TET-dependent 5mC oxidation and novel mechanistic insights into the TET-dependent 5mC oxidation in the mCpG context.
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Multiple DNA architectures with the participation of inorganic metal ions.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Here we develop a synthetic protocol for assembling DNA with participating metal ions into multiple shapes. DNA molecules first form coordination complexes with metal ions and these coordination complexes become nucleation sites for primary crystals of metal inorganic salt, and then elementary units of space-filling architectures based on specific geometry form, and finally elementary units assemble into variously larger multiple architectures according to different spatial configurations. We anticipate that our strategy for self-assembling various custom architectures is applicable to most biomolecules possessing donor atoms that can form coordination complexes with metal ions. These multiple architectures provide a general platform for the engineering and assembly of advanced materials possessing features on the micrometer scale and having novel activity.
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Optoelectronic and Self-assembly Properties of Porphyrin Derivatives with Click Chemistry Modification.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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A series of functionalized porphyrin molecules containing electron-rich alkynes, synthesized by means of the Sonogashira coupling reaction were further modified by reacting the ethynyl groups with click reagent through a formal [2+2] click reaction. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of the porphyrin derivatives were studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. We show that the optoelectronic properties are affected by the click reagent groups and central metal ions. The functionalized porphyrin molecules show strong charge-transfer (CT) bands in the visible region (near-IR region) and potent redox activities. Through a phase-exchange self-assembly method, the highly organized morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The functionalized porphyrin molecules represent an interesting set of candidates for optoelectronic device components. The effect of the metal ions or click reagent groups on the self-assembly properties were also studied by the UV/Vis spectroscopic titration experiments.
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Tissue-specific mechanical and geometrical control of cell viability and actin cytoskeleton alignment.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Different tissues have specific mechanical properties and cells of different geometries, such as elongated muscle cells and polygonal endothelial cells, which are precisely regulated during embryo development. However, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are not clear. Here, we built an in vitro model to mimic the cellular microenvironment of muscle by combining both mechanical stretch and geometrical control. We found that mechanical stretch was a key factor that determined the optimal geometry of myoblast C2C12 cells under stretch, whereas vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts had no such dependency. We presented the first experimental evidence that can explain why myoblasts are destined to take the elongated geometry so as to survive and maintain parallel actin filaments along the stretching direction. The study is not only meaningful for the research on myogenesis but also has potential application in regenerative medicine.
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Two new species and a new synonym in the Pardosa nebulosa-group (Lycosidae: Pardosa) from China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The Pardosa nebulosa-group consists of at least 66 species, including 14 species recorded from the South China. In this paper, we describe two new species of this group, P. tuberosa sp. nov. and P. parathompsoni sp. nov. from Yunnan Province of China. Also, P. shuangjiangensis Yin et al., 1997 is newly synonymised with P. pusiola (Thorell, 1891), based on the examination of specimens mainly from Yunnan. Detailed figures and photos of genitalia, photos of habitus of these three species and SEM photos of male bulb of P. pusiola are given. 
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Comparative study on "long-dan", "qin-jiao" and their adulterants by HPLC analysis.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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"Long-Dan" and "Qin-Jiao" are two important TCM herbs since ancient times in China. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the dried roots and rhizomes of four species from the genus Gentiana, e.g. Gentiana manshurica, G. scabra, G. triflora and G. rigescens, are recorded under the name of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma ("Long-Dan" in Chinese), while the other four species from the same genus including G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea and G. duhurica are recorded and used as the raw materials of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix ("Qin-Jiao" in Chinese). On the basis of the establishment of a validated HPLC-UV method for quantifying simultaneously, five iridoid glycosides, e.g. loganic acid (1), swertiamarinin (2), gentiopicroside (3), sweroside (4) and 2'-(o,m-dihydroxybenzyl)sweroside (5) have been used successfully as chemical markers for the comparison of the species used as "Long-Dan", "Qin-Jiao" and their adulterants in the present study. The results suggested that four iridoid glycosides 1-4 commonly existed in both "Long-Dan" and "Qin-Jiao", while 2'-(o,m-dihydroxybenzyl)sweroside (5) also existed as one of the major components in "Dian-Long-Dan" species. Moreover, the contents of compounds 1-5 were various in different "Long-Dan" and "Qin-Jiao" species. Herein, we profiled and compared three "Long-Dan" species, four "Qin-Jiao" species and five adulterants by applying multivariate statistical techniques to their HPLC data sets to establish the differences and/or similarities.
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[Expression of brainderived neurotrophic factor in urine of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia complicated overactive bladder symptoms].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To investigate the expression of urinary brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and its correlation with the severity of OAB symptoms.
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Effects of Tirofiban on Platelet Activation and Endothelial Function in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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This pilot study examined, for the first time, the effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, on platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with ST-segment-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 119 STEMI patients were randomized into either tirofiban group (n = 72, intracoronary injection of 10 ?g/kg tirofiban prior to PCI, followed by intravenous infusion at 0.15 ?g/kg min) or a control group (n = 47), which did not receive tirofiban. Periprocedural administration of tirofiban was associated with significantly reduced levels of platelet activation (lower levels of CD62P and PAC-1) and endothelial dysfunction (reduced levels of endothelial microparticles, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) 48 h after PCI. At 10 days after PCI, patients in the tirofiban group had a higher incidence of complete STR (78.7 vs. 65.0 %) and higher left ventricular ejection fractions (47.8 vs. 44.2) compared to those in the control group. The clinical outcomes between two groups did not differ significantly two weeks after treatment. The results demonstrated that periprocedural administration of tirofiban is associated with significantly attenuated platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. This may have contributed to the improved myocardial reperfusion and preservation of left ventricular systolic function in these patients.
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Virus-host mucosal interactions during early SIV rectal transmission.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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To deepen our understanding of early rectal transmission of HIV-1, we studied virus-host interactions in the rectal mucosa using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-Indian rhesus macaque model and mRNA deep sequencing. We found that rectal mucosa actively responded to SIV as early as 3 days post-rectal inoculation (dpi) and mobilized more robust responses at 6 and 10 dpi. Our results suggest that the failure of the host to contain virus replication at the portal of entry is attributable to both a high-level expression of lymphocyte chemoattractant, proinflammatory and immune activation genes, which can recruit and activate viral susceptible target cells into mucosa; and a high-level expression of SIV accessory genes, which are known to be able to counter and evade host restriction factors and innate immune responses. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of rectal transmission.
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A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined with External Fixator.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups.
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Predictive value of APE1, BRCA1, ERCC1 and TUBB3 expression in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first-line platinum-paclitaxel chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Drug resistance is not only one of the major obstacles to treatment but also a poor prognosis in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of APE1, BRCA1, ERCC1 and TUBB3 in advanced NSCLC patients who received platinum-paclitaxel treatment.
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Predictors of diabetes foot complications among patients with diabetes in Saudi Arabia.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To identify risk factors and clinical biomarkers of prevalent diabetes foot complications, including foot ulcers, gangrene and amputations among patients with diabetes in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
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Identifying the role of microRNAs in spinal cord injury.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is medically and socioeconomically debilitating, and effective treatments are lacking. The elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SCI is essential for developing effective treatments for SCI. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules (18-24 nucleotides long) that regulate gene expression by interacting with specific target sequences. Recent studies suggest that miRNAs can act as post-transcriptional regulators to inhibit mRNA translation. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that the altered expression of miRNAs has an effect on critical processes of SCI physiopathology, including astrogliosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and neuroplasticity. Therefore, the study of miRNAs may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of SCI. Current studies have also provided potential therapeutic clinical applications that involve targeting mRNAs to treat SCI. This review summarizes the biogenesis and function of miRNAs and the roles of miRNAs in SCI. We also discuss the potential therapeutic applications of miRNA-based interventions for SCI.
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Controllable atmospheric pressure growth of mono-layer, bi-layer and tri-layer graphene.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Here we report a three-step growth method for high-quality mono-layer, bi-layer and tri-layer graphene with coverage ~90% at atmospheric pressure. The growth temperature and gas flow rate have been found to be the key factors. This method would be of great importance for the large scale production of graphene with defined thickness.
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India ink incorporated multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets for photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality imaging and photoacoustic effect based tumor therapy.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The in vivo applications of gas-core microbubbles have been limited by gas diffusion, rapid body clearance, and poor vascular permeability. To overcome these limitations, using a modified three-step emulsion process, we have developed a first-of-its-kind India ink incorporated optically-triggerable phase-transition perfluorocarbon nanodroplets (INDs) that can provide not only three types of contrast mechanisms-conventional/thermoelastic photoacoustic, phase-transition/nonlinear photoacoustic, and ultrasound imaging contrasts, but also a new avenue for photoacoustic effect mediated tumor therapy. Upon pulsed laser illumination above a relatively low energy threshold, liquid-gas phase transition of the INDs has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, offering excellent contrasts for photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging. With further increased laser energy, the nanodroplets have been shown to be capable of destructing cancer cells in vivo, presumably due to the photoacoustic effect induced shock-wave generation from the carbon particles of the incorporated India ink. The demonstrated results suggest that the developed multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets have a great potential for many theranostic biomedical applications, including photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality molecular imaging and targeted, localized cancer therapy.
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Strand-specific (asymmetric) contribution of phosphodiester linkages on RNA polymerase II transcriptional efficiency and fidelity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Nonenzymatic RNA polymerization in early life is likely to introduce backbone heterogeneity with a mixture of 2'-5' and 3'-5' linkages. On the other hand, modern nucleic acids are dominantly composed of 3'-5' linkages. RNA polymerase II (pol II) is a key modern enzyme responsible for synthesizing 3'-5'-linked RNA with high fidelity. It is not clear how modern enzymes, such as pol II, selectively recognize 3'-5' linkages over 2'-5' linkages of nucleic acids. In this work, we systematically investigated how phosphodiester linkages of nucleic acids govern pol II transcriptional efficiency and fidelity. Through dissecting the impacts of 2'-5' linkage mutants in the pol II catalytic site, we revealed that the presence of 2'-5' linkage in RNA primer only modestly reduces pol II transcriptional efficiency without affecting pol II transcriptional fidelity. In sharp contrast, the presence of 2'-5' linkage in DNA template leads to dramatic decreases in both transcriptional efficiency and fidelity. These distinct effects reveal that pol II has an asymmetric (strand-specific) recognition of phosphodiester linkage. Our results provided important insights into pol II transcriptional fidelity, suggesting essential contributions of phosphodiester linkage to pol II transcription. Finally, our results also provided important understanding on the molecular basis of nucleic acid recognition and genetic information transfer during molecular evolution. We suggest that the asymmetric recognition of phosphodiester linkage by modern nucleic acid enzymes likely stems from the distinct evolutionary pressures of template and primer strand in genetic information transfer during molecular evolution.
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Association between retinol-binding protein 4 and polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Studies have examined the association between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results have been inconsistent. To investigate the association between RBP4 and PCOS, we performed a meta-analysis. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched to identify all of the studies that examined the relationship between circulating RBP4 levels and PCOS. Standard mean difference (SMD) values and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated and pooled using meta-analysis methodology. A total of seven studies were involved in the meta-analysis, which included a total of 636 subjects (260 controls and 376 patients with PCOS). The RBP4 level was higher in PCOS patients than in non-PCOS patients (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.69, [0.20, 1.18], P=0.006). However, the RBP4 level was not higher in nonobese PCOS patients than in nonobese controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.38, [-0.21, 0.98], P=0.20). The effect size revealed that the RBP4 level was higher in overweight or obese PCOS patients than weight-matched controls (fixed effects MD (95% CI)=7.95, [5.96, 9.93], P<0.05). In the subgroup analysis by region, the RBP4 level was higher in PCOS patients in Asia than controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.85, [0.54, 1.15], P<0.05), but not in European PCOS patients compared with controls (random effects MD (95% CI)=0.34, [-1.12, 1.80], P=0.65). This subgroup analysis also showed that nonobese PCOS patients have higher RBP4 levels than controls in Asia. Our meta-analysis results indicated that RBP4 might be a useful tool for identifying PCOS women.
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DUSP28 contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the p38 MAPK signaling.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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DUSP28, a member of the atypical dual?specificity phosphatase (DUSP) family, is a candidate tumor?related gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) selected by genome?wide approach, but its pathological role in HCC has not been elucidated. Here, we report for the first time that DUSP28 is involved in HCC progression. Quantitative real?time PCR and semi?quantitative RT?PCR showed notably elevated expression of DUSP28 in HCC specimens compared to that in corresponding adjacent non?tumor liver. DUSP28 overexpression promoted HCC cell proliferation, colony formation and soft agar colony formation in vitro while DUSP28 knockdown resulted in the opposite effects. Furthermore, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that DUSP28 could lead to an increased population of cancer cells in S phase, with a concomitant decrease of cells in G1 phase. Investigation of the mechanism revealed that DUSP28 could activate the p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Taken together, these data demonstrate that DUSP28 plays a significant role in HCC progression and may be a feasible molecular target for anti?cancer therapy.
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Mechanically modulated dewetting by atomic force microscope for micro- and nano- droplet array fabrication.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Organizing a material into well-defined patterns during the dewetting process provides an attractive micro-/nano-fabrication method without using a conventional lithographic process, and hence, offers potential applications in organic electronics, optics systems, and memory devices. We report here how the mechanical modification of polymer surface by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) can be used to guide thin film dewetting evolution and break the intrinsic spatial correlation of spontaneous instability. An AFM is used to implement the mechanical modification of progressively narrow grids to investigate the influence of pattern size on the modulation of ultrathin polystyrene films dewetting evolution. For films with different initial thicknesses, when grid size is close to or below the characteristic wavelength of instability, the spinodal dewetting is suppressed, and film rupture is restricted to the cutting trench. We will show in this paper it is possible to generate only one droplet per gridded area on a thin film subsequent to nucleation dominated dewetting on a non-patterned substrate. Furthermore, when the grid periodicity exceeds the spinodal length, the number of droplets in predefined areas gradually approaches that associated with unconfined dewetting.
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Cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by licochalcone B in isolated rat hearts.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major cause of heart injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum up/down rate of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt(max)) were documented by a physiological recorder. Myocardial infarct size was estimated macroscopically using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) release to assess the degree of cardiac injury. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analyzed to determine the inflammation status of the myocardial tissue. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis analysis was performed using the In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit, POD. Accordingly, licochalcone B pretreatment improved the heart rate (HR), increased LVDP, and decreased CK and LDH levels in coronary flow. SOD level and GSH/GSSG ratio increased, whereas the levels of MDA, TNF-?, and CRP and activities of IL-8 and IL-6 decreased in licochalcone B-treated groups. The infarct size and cell apoptosis in hearts from licochalcone B-treated group were lower than those in hearts from the I/R control group. Therefore, the cardioprotective effects of licochalcone B may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities.
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Never in mitosis gene A-related kinase 6 promotes cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma via cyclin B modulation.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Never in mitosis gene A-related kinase (Nek) 6 is a recently identified Nek that is required for mitotic cell cycle progression; however, the role and mechanism of Nek6 activity during hepatocarcinogenesis is not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles and internal mechanism of Nek6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. In the present study, Nek6 was found to be overexpressed in HCC samples and cell lines by florescent real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Furthermore, it was evidenced to contribute to oncogenesis and progression. The ectopic overexpression of Nek6 promoted cell proliferation and colony formation, whereas gene silencing of Nek6 inhibited these phenotypes, as documented in Huh7, PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B and HepG2 HCC cell lines. Mechanistic analyses indicated that Nek6 regulates the transcription of cyclin B through cdc2 activation, and promotes the accumulation of G0/G1-phase cells. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggested that Nek6 contributes to the oncogenic potential of HCC, and may present as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.
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Bilayer Molecular Assembly at a Solid/Liquid Interface as Triggered by a Mild Electric Field.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The construction of a spatially defined assembly of molecular building blocks, especially in the vertical direction, presents a great challenge for surface molecular engineering. Herein, we demonstrate that an electric field applied between an STM tip and a substrate triggered the formation of a bilayer structure at the solid-liquid interface. In contrast to the typical high electric-field strength (10(9) V?m(-1) ) used to induce structural transitions in supramolecular assemblies, a mild electric field (10(5) V?m(-1) ) triggered the formation of a bilayer structure of a polar molecule on top of a nanoporous network of trimesic acid on graphite. The bilayer structure was transformed into a monolayer kagome structure by changing the polarity of the electric field. This tailored formation and large-scale phase transformation of a molecular assembly in the perpendicular dimension by a mild electric field opens perspectives for the manipulation of surface molecular nanoarchitectures.
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Long-term urodynamic evaluation of laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder for bladder cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The long-term urodynamics of laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder for bladder cancer remain unclear in the clinical setting. The present prospective observational study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012 to evaluate the 6-month and 12-month follow-up data of urodynamic changes of bladder cancer patients who were initially treated by laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder. A total of 53 eligible patients were included, and all patients were followed up for at least 12 months, with a median time of 18 months. During the follow-up period, no patients reported difficulty urinating, and the daily frequency of urination and the urine output were gradually improved with time. Dynamic urodynamic examinations showed that the maximum flow rate (11.4±1.1 vs. 7.3±1.4 ml/sec; P<0.001), residual urine content (22.8±10.5 vs. 40.7±12.7 ml; P<0.001), maximum bladder capacity (373.8±62.2 vs. 229.7±56.3 ml; P<0.001) and maximum bladder pressure during filling (35.8±6.7 vs. 26.4±7.0 cm H2O; P<0.001) at 12 months were all improved significantly compared with that at 6 months after the initial surgical treatment. However, there were no significant differences in maximum bladder pressure during voiding (75.7±24.7 vs. 73.1±24.7 cm H2O; P=0.618) and bladder compliance (26.9±13 vs. 27.4±13.1 cm H2O; P=0.848) at 12 and 6 months after initial surgical treatment. In conclusion, the urodynamics of this orthotopic ileal neobladder gradually improve, and its long-term urine storage and voiding functions are acceptable.
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Levels of acylation stimulating protein and the complement component 3 precursor are associated with the occurrence and development of coronary heart disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and complement component 3 (C3) are associated with the occurrence and development of coronary heart disease (CHD). The participants of the study were divided into three groups, including the healthy control (n=42), metabolic syndrome (MS, n=56) and CHD (n=62) groups. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the ASP concentrations, while an immunoturbidimetric assay was employed to determine the C3 concentrations. In addition, coronary angiography was performed to determine the severity of coronary artery disease in the CHD group. The CHD group was divided into three subgroups, according to the final Gensini score of coronary artery stenosis for each patient (mild, ?20 points; moderate, 21-40 points; severe, >40 points). Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to analyze the protein and mRNA expression levels of C3 in the CHD subgroups and the healthy control group. The concentrations of ASP and C3 in the CHD group were found to be significantly higher compared with the control and MS groups. In addition, the levels of ASP and C3 in the mild and moderate CHD subgroups were significantly higher compared with the healthy controls or mild CHD patients. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of C3 in the moderate and severe CHD patients were found to be significantly higher compared with the healthy individuals and the mild CHD patients. The quantitative RT-PCR results revealed that the mRNA expression levels of C3 in the moderate and severe CHD patients were significantly higher compared with the healthy control group and the mild CHD patients. Furthermore, the mean levels of C3 transcripts in the severe CHD patients were found to be higher compared with the moderate CHD subgroup (P<0.05). Therefore, ASP and C3 were found to be associated with the occurrence and development of CHD; thus, may be used as novel indexes for CHD.
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The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress independent of DNA double-strand break repair.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are the two major kinases involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and are required for cellular resistance to ionizing radiation. Whereas ATM is the key upstream kinase for DSB signaling, DNA-PKcs is primarily involved in DSB repair through the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) mechanism. In addition to DSB repair, ATM has been shown to be involved in the oxidative stress response and could be activated directly in vitro on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. However, the role of DNA-PKcs in cellular response to oxidative stress is not clear. We hypothesize that DNA-PKcs may participate in the regulation of ATM activation in response to oxidative stress, and that this regulatory role is independent of its role in DNA double-strand break repair. Our findings reveal that H2O2 induces hyperactivation of ATM signaling in DNA-PKcs-deficient, but not Ligase 4-deficient cells, suggesting an NHEJ-independent role for DNA-PKcs. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs deficiency leads to the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and to a decrease in cellular survival against H2O2. For the first time, our results reveal that DNA-PKcs plays a noncanonical role in the cellular response to oxidative stress, which is independent from its role in NHEJ. In addition, DNA-PKcs is a critical regulator of the oxidative stress response and contributes to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Our findings reveal that DNA-PKcs is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and suppression of ROS buildup independently of its function in DSB repair.
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Role and mechanisms of microRNA?503 in drug resistance reversal in HepG2/ADM human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure. In order to investigate the effects and mechanisms of microRNA?503 (miR?503) in the reversal of Adriamycin® (ADM) resistance in the drug?resistant HepG2/ADM hepatocellular cancer cell line, an ADM?resistant HepG2/ADM cell line was established using continuous drug exposure. HepG2/ADM cells overexpressing miR?503 were further established. HepG2/ADM cells overexpressing miR?503 demonstrated an enhanced sensitivity to ADM. Furthermore, miR?503 overexpression was found to increase intracellular rhodamine?123 levels and the rate of apoptosis, block the cell cycle at G0/G1?phase and significantly decrease intracellular superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. The expression of a number drug resistance?related proteins, including multidrug resistance 1, multi drug resistance?associated protein 1, DNA excision repair protein ERCC?1, survivin and B?cell lymphoma 2, was significantly downregulated by miR?503 overexpression, as indicated by western blotting and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. By contrast, levels of RhoE were increased. In addition, the phosphorylation of Akt was decreased and expression of cyclin?dependent kinase 1 was decreased by miR?503 overexpression. Furthermore, the secretion of transforming growth factor??, interleukin (IL)?6 and IL?8 was downregulated, and the transcriptional activities of nuclear factor ??light?chain?enhancer of activated B cells and activating protein?1 were significantly reduced. In conclusion, miR?503 was observed to reverse ADM resistance in HepG2/ADM cells by inhibiting drug efflux, downregulating the expression of drug resistance?related proteins, blocking the cell cycle and promoting cell apoptosis.
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Degradation of diclofenac by ultrasonic irradiation: kinetic studies and degradation pathways.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug found in various water bodies, posing threats to human health. In this research, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation at 585kHz on the degradation of DCF were studied under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions. First, the dechlorination efficiencies under the air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen saturated conditions were calculated to be 67%, 60%, 53% and 59%. Second, there was full mineralization of nitrogen during DCF degradation under the air, oxygen, and argon saturated conditions, but no mineralization of nitrogen under the nitrogen-saturated condition. Different from nitrogen, only partial mineralization of carbon occurred under the four gas-saturated conditions. Third, OH scavengers were added to derive the rate constants in the three reaction zones: cavitation bubble, supercritical interface, and bulk solution. Comparison of the constants indicated that DCF degradation was not limited to the bulk solution as conventionally assumed. Oxidation in the supercritical interface played a dominant role under the air and oxygen saturated conditions, while OH reactions in the cavitation bubble and/or bulk solution were dominant under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions. After the addition of H2O2, reactions in the cavitation bubble and bulk solution kept their dominant roles under the nitrogen and argon saturated conditions, while reaction in the supercritical interface decreased under the air and oxygen saturated conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was used to derive the by-products and propose the main pathways of DCF degradation by ultrasonic irradiation.
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Ligation of ICAM-1 on human aortic valve interstitial cells induces the osteogenic response: A critical role of the Notch1-NF-?B pathway in BMP-2 expression.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic inflammatory condition and affects a large number of elderly people. Aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) occupy an important role in valvular calcification and CAVD progression. While pro-inflammatory mechanisms are capable of inducing the osteogenic responses in AVICs, the molecular interaction between pro-inflammatory and pro-osteogenic mechanisms remains poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a role in mediating pro-osteogenic factor expression in human AVICs. AVICs were isolated from normal human aortic valves and cultured in M199 medium. Treatment with leukocyte function-associated factor-1 (LFA-1, an ICAM-1 ligand) up-regulated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and resulted in increased alkaline phosphatase activity and formation of calcification nodules. Pre-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.05?g/ml) increased ICAM-1 levels on cell surfaces and exaggerated the pro-osteogenic response to LFA-1, and neutralization of ICAM-1 suppressed this response. Further, ligation of ICAM-1 by antibody cross-linking also up-regulated BMP-2 expression. Interestingly, LFA-1 elicited Notch1 cleavage and NF-?B activation. Inhibition of NF-?B markedly reduced LFA-1-induced BMP-2 expression, and inhibition of Notch1 cleavage with a ?-secretase inhibitor suppressed LFA-1-induced NF-?B activation and BMP-2 expression. Ligation of ICAM-1 on human AVICs activates the Notch1 pathway. Notch1 up-regulates BMP-2 expression in human AVICs through activation of NF-?B. The results demonstrate a novel role of ICAM-1 in translating a pro-inflammatory signal into a pro-osteogenic response in human AVICs and suggest that ICAM-1 on the surfaces of AVICs contributes to the mechanism of aortic valve calcification.
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Highly Oxygenated Limonoids and Lignans from Phyllanthus flexuosus.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Two new highly oxygenated limonoids, flexuosoids A (1) and B (2), and three new arylnaphthalene lignan glycosides, phyllanthusmins D-F (3-5), were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus flexuosus, in addition to three known lignans, phyllanthusmin C, arabelline, and (+)-diasyringaresinol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Compounds 1 and 2, two new decaoxygenated limonoids with a C-19/29 lactol bridge and heptaoxygenated substituents at C-1, C-2, C-3, C-7, C-11, C-17, and C-30, represent the second example of limonoids in the Euphorbiaceae family. Most of the isolates were tested for their antifeedant, anti-herpes simplex virus 1, and cytotoxic activities. The new limonoids 1 and 2 showed promising antifeedant activity against the beet army worm (Spodoptera exigua) with EC50 values of 25.1 and 17.3 ?g/cm(2), respectively. In addition, both of them displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the ECA109 human esophagus cancer cell line, along with the known lignan glycoside, phyllanthusmin C, with the IC50 values of 11.5 (1), 8.5 (2), and 7.8 (phyllanthusmin C) ?M, respectively.
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Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Improves the Neurofunctional Recovery of Rats Following Traumatic Brain Injury via an Increase in Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells.
Transl Stroke Res
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Previous studies show that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, which is a process associated with improved recovery in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) plays a protective role following stroke. Thus, it was hypothesized that rhEPO would enhance recovery following brain injury in a rat model of TBI via an increase in the mobilization of EPCs and, subsequently, in angiogenesis. Flow cytometry assays using CD34- and CD133-specific antibodies were utilized to identify alterations in EPC levels, CD31 and CD34 antibody-stained brain tissue sections were used to quantify angiogenesis, and the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) test were used to evaluate behavioral recovery. Compared with saline treatment, treatment with rhEPO significantly increased the number of circulating EPCs on days 1, 4, 7, and 14 (P?
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Pioglitazone reduces lipid droplets in cholesterolosis of the gallbladder by increasing ABCA1 and NCEH1 expression.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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As a cholesterol-induced metabolic disease, cholesterolosis of the gallbladder is often resected clinically, which could lead to many complications. The histopathology of cholesterolosis is due to excessive lipid droplet accumulation in epithelial and subcutaneous tissues. The main components of lipid droplets are cholesterol esters (CEs). Removal of CEs from gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs) is very important for maintaining intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and for treating cholesterol-related diseases. In this study, pioglitazone was used to reduce intracellular CEs. To further elucidate the mechanism, cholesterolosis GBECs were treated with pioglitazone, 22-(R)-hydroxycholesterol (a liver X receptor ? (LXR?) agonist), or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) siRNA. Western blotting for PPAR?, LXR?, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH1) was performed. At length, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was measured, and oil red O staining was used to visualize lipid droplet variations in cells. In conclusion, we observed that pioglitazone increased ABCA1 expression in an LXR-dependent manner and NCEH1 expression in an LXR?-independent manner, which mobilized CE hydrolysis and cholesterol efflux to reduce lipid droplet content in cholesterolosis GBECs. Our data provide a plausible alternative to human gallbladder cholesterolosis.
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Determination of purine contents in different parts of pork and beef by high performance liquid chromatography.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Determination of adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine and xanthine in different parts of pork and beef using high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters Atlantis T3 column (4.6mm×250mm×5?m) with column temperature at 30°C. The mobile phase contained 99% 10.0mmol/L ammonium formate solution at pH 3.6 and 1.0% methanol. Chromatography was achieved at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min and detection wavelength at 254nm. The results indicated that total purine amounts in pork rump and beef sirloin were higher than those in other parts (P<0.05). The principal purine bases were hypoxanthine and adenine, and hypoxanthine content was the most highest in all samples (P<0.05). As pork rump and beef sirloin contain considerable amounts of total purine and uricogenic purine base, we suggest that excess consumption of them be avoid, whereas pork loin chop and beef rib eye are more suitable for a low-purine diet.
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Identification and characterization of genes differentially expressed in X and Y sperm using suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Differential expression of genes leads to variations in the phenotypes of X and Y sperm, although some differentially expressed gene products are shared through intercellular bridges. Genes differentially expressed in bovine X and Y sperm were identified by a combination of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), cDNA microarray, and sequence-homology analysis. Microarray data and Significance Analysis of Microarrays software were used to identify 31 differentially expressed genes, only four of which were previously identified. These genes are involved in fundamental life processes of mature sperm, and may be associated with the differences between X and Y sperm since 27 versus 4 were upregulated in X versus Y sperm, respectively. The levels of expression of seven genes-including the known genes UTY, DPH3, CYTB, and ISCU, and the unknown genes X?+?Y contig 41, X?+?Y contig 18, and Y?+?X contig 16-were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and some genes were clearly differentially expressed by X and Y sperm, despite the presence of intercellular bridges among spermatids. These results provide a theoretical basis for research on gene expression during sperm development, as well as on sex control at the level of sperm. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 908-917, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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