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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia in Febrile Neutropenic Children.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and their antibiotic susceptibilities in febrile neutropenic children. Clinical characteristics, prognosis, and antibiotic susceptibilities were reviewed and compared between febrile neutropenic children with bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. A total of 61 episodes of E. coli and K. pneumoniae bacteremia, including 21 episodes (34.4%) due to ESBL-producing strains, were diagnosed. There was no significant factor associated with bacteremia by ESBL-producing strains. Empirical antibiotics were appropriate in 85.7% of the ESBL group and 95.0% of the non-ESBL group. In the entire study population, seven deaths (11.5%), including three deaths (4.9%) due to E. coli and K. pneumoniae bacteremia, occurred. The complication and mortality rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Antibiotic susceptibility rates were significantly lower in the ESBL group than in the non-ESBL group in most antibiotics. Although 52.4% and 66.7% of the ESBL-producing isolates were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam and cefepime, respectively, 96.7% of all the isolates and 90.5% of the ESBL-producing isolates were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime in combination with aminoglycoside. In conclusion, the ESBL group did not show a significantly unfavorable outcome, and empirical therapy with piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime in combination with aminoglycoside might be more useful for febrile neutropenic children, instead of ?-lactam monotherapy in institutions with high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae.
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An antifungal mechanism of curcumin lies in membrane-targeted action within Candida albicans.
IUBMB Life
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal mechanism of curcumin. This polyphenolic compound has been used traditionally in Asia for medicinal, culinary, and other purposes. Although antifungal effect of curcumin has been reported, this is the first study for its mode of action underlying disruption of plasma membrane in Candida albicans. The leakage of potassium ion from the fungal cytosol and dissipation in membrane potential was detected by bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4 ] staining. We also investigated an increase in membrane permeability in curcumin-treated C. albicans with influx of propidium iodide assay. Fluorescence analysis with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene supported the membrane-targeted mechanism of action indicating membrane disruption. On the basis of these results, we studied the effects of curcumin treatment on model membrane to elucidate its antifungal mechanism. Using calcein leakage assays from curcumin-treated large unilamellar vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles, we found that curcumin has membrane-active mechanism inducing leakage of intracellular component through the flappy membrane. Therefore, this study suggests that curcumin exerts antifungal activity via inducing disruption of fungal plasma membrane. © 2014 IUBMB Life, 2014.
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A Fatal Spontaneous Gas Gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens during Neutropenia of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Case Report and Literature Review.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Most cases of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium species begin with trauma-related injuries but in rare cases, spontaneous gas gangrene (SGG) can occur when patients have conditions such as advanced malignancy, diabetes, or immunosuppression. Clostridium perfringens, a rare cause of SGG, exists as normal flora of skin and intestines of human. Adequate antibiotics with surgical debridement of infected tissue is the only curative therapeutic management. Mortality rate among adults is reported range of 67-100% and majority of deaths are occurred within 24 hours of onset. We experienced a case of SGG on the trunk, buttock and thigh in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. His clinical course was rapid and fatal during pre-engraftment neutropenic period of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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Performance of chromID Clostridium difficile agar compared with BBL C. difficile selective agar for detection of C. difficile in stool specimens.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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We evaluated the performance of a new chromogenic medium for detection of Clostridium difficile, chromID C. difficile agar (CDIF; bioMérieux, France), by comparison with BBL C. difficile Selective Agar (CDSA; Becton Dickinson and Company, USA). After heat pre-treatment (80?, 5 min), 185 diarrheal stool samples were inoculated onto the two media types and incubated anaerobically for 24 hr and 48 hr for CDIF and for 48 hr and 72 hr for CDSA. All typical colonies on each medium were examined by Gram staining, and the gram-positive rods confirmed to contain the tpi gene by PCR were identified as C. difficile. C. difficile was recovered from 36 samples by using a combination of the two media. The sensitivity with CDIF 48 hr was highest (100%) and was significantly higher than that with CDIF 24 hr (58.3%; P<0.001), because samples with a low burden of C. difficile tended to require prolonged incubation up to 48 hr (P<0.001). The specificity of CDIF 24 hr and CDIF 48 hr (99.3% and 90.6%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of CDSA 48 hr and CDSA 72 hr (72.5% and 67.1%, respectively; P<0.001). CDIF was effective for detecting C. difficile in heat-pretreated stool specimens, thus reducing unnecessary testing for toxin production in non-C. difficile isolates and turnaround time.
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A novel mechanism for the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Silver nanoparticles are known to have antimicrobial properties and have been used extensively in medicine, although the mechanism(s) of action have not yet been clearly established. In the present study, the findings suggest a novel mechanism for the antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli, namely, the induction of a bacterial apoptosis-like response. We propose a possible mechanism for the bacterial apoptosis-like response that includes the following: accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (detected with H2DCFDA staining), increased intracellular calcium levels (detected with Fura-2 AM), phosphatidylserine exposure in the outer membrane (detected with Annexin V) which is the hallmarks of early apoptosis, disruption of the membrane potential [detected with DiBAC4(3)], activation of a bacterial caspase-like protein (detected by FITC-VAD-FMK staining) and DNA degradation (detected with TUNEL assay) which is the hallmarks of late apoptosis in bacterial cells treated with silver nanoparticles. We also performed RecA expression assay with western blotting and observed activation of SOS response to repair the damaged DNA. To summarize, silver nanoparticles are involved in the apoptosis-like response in E. coli and the novel mechanisms which were identified in this study, suggest that silver nanoparticles may be an effective antimicrobial agent with far lower propensity for inducing microbial resistance than antibiotics.
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Lycopene-induced hydroxyl radical causes oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Lycopene, which is a well-known red carotenoid pigment, has been drawing scientific interest because of its potential biological functions. The current study reports that lycopene acts as a bactericidal agent by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Lycopene treatment elevated the level of ROS-in particular, hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) -which can damage DNA in E. coli. Lycopene-induced DNA damage in bacteria was confirmed and we also observed cell filamentation caused by cell division arrest, an indirect marker of the DNA damage repair system, in lycopene-treated E. coli. Increased RecA expression was observed, indicating activation of the DNA repair system (SOS response). To summarize, lycopene exerts its antibacterial effects by inducing (•)OH -mediated DNA damage that cannot be ameliorated by the SOS response. Lycopene may be a clinically useful adjuvant for current antimicrobial therapies.
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The efficacy of non-carbapenem antibiotics for the treatment of community-onset acute pyelonephritis due to extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has become an important cause of community-onset urinary tract infections. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of non-carbapenem antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis (APN) due to ESBL-producing E. coli.
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Halofuginone ameliorates autoimmune arthritis in mice by regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The small molecule halofuginone has been shown to inhibit fibrosis, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of halofuginone in preventing autoimmune arthritis in mice.
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Features of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in Korean children living in an area of high seroprevalence against Epstein-Barr virus.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Korean children living in an area of a high seroprevalence against EBV and to determine the impact of recipient age on EBV reactivation. Medical records of 248 children and adolescents who had received allogeneic HCT were retrospectively reviewed. The trends of EBV reactivation and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) were evaluated and compared between younger (?10 years old) and older (11-20 years old) groups. EBV reactivation occurred in 177 cases (71.4 %) and high-level EBV reactivation, defined as a virus DNA titer of 300,000 copies/mL or higher, occurred in 21 cases (8.5 %). PTLD was diagnosed in five cases (2.0 %), and one of these patients died. The EBV reactivation rate was not significantly different between the two age groups; however, high-level reactivation and PTLD were more significantly frequent in the older than in the younger group (P = 0.030 and P = 0.026, respectively). In conclusion, older children and adolescents are more likely to experience high-level EBV reactivation and PTLDs, and higher EBV DNA titers than those previously reported may be a predictor of PTLD in areas with a high seroprevalence against EBV.
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Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (?51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.
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Magainin 2 induces bacterial cell death showing apoptotic properties.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Magainin 2 is pore-forming antimicrobial peptide on lipid matrix of bacterial membrane, secreted from the skin of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The aim of this study was to investigate a new concept for antibacterial mechanisms called bacterial apoptosis-like cell death. We examined the morphological changes induced by magainin 2 in Escherichia coli, regarding apoptosis. Specifically, phosphatidylserine externalization from the inner to outer membrane surface was detected by Annexin V staining, and DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation was detected by TUNEL and DAPI assay. We also found much mechanistic evidence to support the hypothesis that magainin 2 induces bacterial apoptosis-like death-including disturbance of membrane detected by DiBAC4(3), caspase activation observed by FITC-VAD-FMK staining, and analyzing the role of RecA in bacterial apoptosis-like death through the RecA expression assay by Western blot-in E. Coli when treated with magainin 2. On the basis of these results, magainin 2 exerts antibacterial activity with a new mechanism which is bacterial apoptosis-like death. Searching antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms of action can be an effective strategy to coping with the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Magainin 2 deserves further research as a potential antimicrobial therapeutic agent.
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Antifungal activity and pore-forming mechanism of astacidin 1 against Candida albicans.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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In a previous report, a novel antibacterial peptide astacidin 1 (FKVQNQHGQVVKIFHH) was isolated from hemocyanin of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In this study, the antifungal activity and mechanism of astacidin 1 were evaluated. Astacidin 1 exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichosporon beigelii, Malassezia furfur, and Trichophyton rubrum. Also, astacidin 1 had fungal cell selectivity in human erythrocytes without causing hemolysis. To understand the antifungal mechanism, membrane studies were done against C. albicans and T. beigelii. Flow cytometric analysis and K(+) measurement showed membrane damage, resulting in membrane permeabilization and K(+) release-induced membrane depolarization. Furthermore, the calcein leakage from liposomes mimicking C. albicans membrane demonstrated that the membrane-active action was driven by pore-forming mechanism. Live cell imaging using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans of various sizes suggested that the radii of pores formed in the C. albicans membrane were 1.4-2.3 nm. Therefore, the present study suggests that astacidin 1 exerts its antifungal effect by damaging the fungal membrane via pore formation.
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Ursolic acid ameliorates autoimmune arthritis via suppression of Th17 and B cell differentiation.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in most plant species, which has been shown anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In this study, we examined the effects of UA on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, and to identify the mechanisms underlying the effects.
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Antimicrobial peptides in the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans is an environmentally beneficial and medically important arthropod species. Although this species is increasingly applied as a reliable source of new antimicrobial peptides, the transcriptome of this species is a prerequisite for more rational selection of antimicrobial peptides. In this report, we isolated total RNA from the whole body of adult centipedes, S. subspinipes mutilans, that were nonimmunized and immunized against Escherichia coli, and we generated a total of 77,063 pooled contigs and singletons using high-throughput sequencing. To screen putative antimicrobial peptides, in silico analyses of the S. subspinipes mutilans transcriptome were performed based on the physicochemical evidence of length, charge, isoelectric point, and in vitro and in vivo aggregation scores together with the existence of continuous antimicrobial peptide stretches. Moreover, we excluded some transcripts that showed similarity with both previously known antimicrobial peptides and the human proteome, had a proteolytic cleavage site, and had downregulated expression compared with the nonimmunized sample. As a result, we selected 17 transcripts and tested their antimicrobial activity with a radial diffusion assay. Among them, ten synthetic peptides experimentally showed antimicrobial activity against microbes and no toxicity to mouse erythrocytes. Our results provide not only a useful set of antimicrobial peptide candidates and an efficient strategy for novel antimicrobial peptide development but also the transcriptome data of a big centipede as a valuable resource.
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Melittin triggers apoptosis in Candida albicans through the reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondria/caspase-dependent pathway.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Melittin is one of the best-studied antimicrobial peptides, and many studies have focused on the membrane underlying its membrane-disruptive activity. We previously showed that melittin could cause some hallmarks of apoptosis in Candida albicans. Here, we first report the exact mechanism of melittin-induced fungal apoptosis. We first characterized the reactive oxygen species generated by melittin. The results showed that melittin strongly produced highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (?OH), which contribute to cell death. Next, we showed that melittin also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced the Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum and its remarkable accumulation in mitochondria. Finally, we investigated the role of caspase in the apoptotic pathway. The results showed that melittin activated metacaspase, which was mediated by cytochrome c release. To summarize, melittin is involved in the mitochondria- and caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway in C. albicans. Our findings suggest that melittin possesses a dual antimicrobial mechanism, including membrane-disruptive and apoptotic actions.
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Hematologic diseases: high risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To investigate the incidence and clinical outcome of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated diarrhea (CDAD) in patients with hematologic disease.
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Success rate and risk factors for failure of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole in patients with hematological malignancies: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).
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Structure-activity relationships of the intramolecular disulfide bonds in coprisin, a defensin from the dung beetle.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Defensins, which are small cationic molecules produced by organisms as part of their innate immune response, share a common structural scaffold stabilized by three disulfide bridges. Coprisin is a 43-amino acid defensin-like peptide from Copris tripartitus. Here, we report the intramolecular disulfide connectivity of cysteine-rich coprisin and show that it is the same as in other insect defensins. The disulfide bond pairings of coprisin were determined by combining the enzymatic cleavage and mass analysis. We found that loss of any single disulfide bond in coprisin eliminated all antibacterial, but not antifungal, activity. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that two disulfide bonds, Cys20-Cys39 and Cys24-Cys41, stabilize coprisin's ?-helical region. Moreover, BLAST search against UniProtKB database revealed that coprisin's ?-helical region is highly homologous to those of other insect defensins.
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Antifungal effect and mode of action of glochidioboside against Candida albicans membranes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Glochidioboside was obtained from Sambucus williamsii and its biological effect has not been reported. Its antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi and the mode of action involved in its effect were examined. Glochidioboside exerted antifungal effect with almost no hemolytic effect against human erythrocytes. To understand its antifungal mechanisms, membrane studies were done. Using two dyes, 3,3'-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)] and propidium iodide, membrane depolarization and permeabilization by glochidioboside were confirmed. Furthermore, the membrane-active mechanism was proven by synthesizing a model membrane, calcein-encapsulating large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), and also by observing the influx of different sized fluorescent dyes, such as calcein, FD4 and FD10, into the fungal cells. The membrane-active action was pore-forming action with radii between 1.4 and 2.3 nm. Finally, three dimensional (3D) flow cytometric analysis showed the shrinkage of the fungal cells from the membrane damage. In conclusion, this study suggests that glochidioboside exerts an antifungal activity through a membrane-disruptive mechanism.
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Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cysteine-free coprisin nonapeptides.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Coprisin is a 43-mer defensin-like peptide from the dung beetle, Copris tripartitus. CopA3 (LLCIALRKK-NH2), a 9-mer peptide containing a single free cysteine residue at position 3 of its sequence, was derived from the ?-helical region of coprisin and exhibits potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The single cysteine implies a tendency for dimerization; however, it remains unknown whether this cysteine residue is indispensible for CopA3s antimicrobial activity. To address this issue, in the present study we synthesized eight cysteine-substituted monomeric CopA3 analogs and two dimeric analogs, CopA3 (Dimer) and CopIK (Dimer), and evaluated their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungi, as well as their hemolytic activity toward human erythrocytes. Under physiological conditions, CopA3 (Mono) exhibits a 6/4 (monomer/dimer) molar ratio in HPLC area percent, indicating that its effects on bacterial strains likely reflect a CopA3 (Mono)/CopA3 (Dimer) mixture. We also report the identification of CopW, a new cysteine-free nonapeptide derived from CopA3 that has potent antimicrobial activity with virtually no hemolytic activity. Apparently, the cysteine residue in CopA3 is not essential for its antimicrobial function. Notably, CopW also exhibited significant synergistic activity with ampicillin and showed more potent antifungal activity than either wild-type coprisin or melittin.
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Antifungal effect of CopA3 monomer peptide via membrane-active mechanism and stability to proteolysis of enantiomeric D-CopA3.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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In our previous study, coprisin, a 43-mer defensin-like peptide, was derived from the dung beetle, Copris tripartitus, and a 9-mer CopA3 (monomer), truncated coprisin analog peptide, was designed. However, the antifungal effects of CopA3 are not known yet. In this study, the antifungal activity and mechanism of CopA3 were investigated and to develop a more effective antimicrobial peptide under physiological conditions, the enantiomeric d-CopA3 was designed. l- and d-CopA3 had a similar antifungal activity without chiral selectivity, and their activity was more potent than that of melittin used as a positive control. Furthermore, l- and d-CopA3 did not even show any hemolysis against human erythrocytes. Membrane studies using propidium iodide and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol [DiBAC4(3)], suggested that the antifungal effect of l- and d-CopA3 was due to the membrane-active mechanism, by contrast with coprisin possessing apoptotic mechanism without membrane permeabilization. Finally, the proteolytic resistance and antifungal activity of l- and d-CopA3 against trypsin was analyzed by HPLC and colony count assay. The results showed that only d-CopA3 maintained a potent antifungal activity despite the proteolytic condition. Therefore, this study suggests that d-CopA3 has potential as a novel antimicrobial agent.
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The influence of the N-terminal region of antimicrobial peptide pleurocidin on fungal apoptosis.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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In our previous study, the 25-mer antimicrobial peptide pleurocidin (Ple) had been thought to induce apoptosis in Candida albicans. This study demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was a major cause of Ple-induced apoptosis. Four truncated analogs were synthesized to understand the functional roles in the N- and C-terminal regions of Ple on the apoptosis. Ple, Ple (4-25), Ple (1-22), and Ple (1-19) produced ROS, including hydroxyl radicals, on the order of [Ple > Ple (1-22) > Ple (4-25) > Ple (1-19)], whereas Ple (7-25) did not induce any ROS production. The results suggested that the N-terminal deletion affected the ROS-inducing activities much more than that of the C-terminal deletion, and net hydrophobicity [Ple > Ple (1-22) > Ple (4-25) > Ple (1-19) > Ple (7-25)] was related to ROS generation rather than other primary factors like net charge. Hence, we focused on the N-terminal-truncated peptides, Ple (4-25) and Ple (7-25), and examined other apoptotic features, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The results also confirmed the disappearance of apoptotic activity of Ple (7-25) by the truncation of the N-terminal region (1-6) and the specific activity patterns between Ple and analogs. In conclusion, the N-terminal region of Ple played an important role in apoptosis.
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Posaconazole treatment in Korea: single-center experience over 5 years.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Posaconazole is a second-generation triazole with a broad spectrum. However, there is a lack of data to support a significant role for posaconazole in the treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI), especially in Korea. Until recently, posaconazole was available only through the Korean Orphan Drug Center. This study was designed to review the use of posaconazole at a single-center in Korea.
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Effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib and nilotinib, in murine lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury during neutropenia recovery.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Neutrophil recovery has been implicated in deterioration of oxygenation and exacerbation of preexisting acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether imatinib or nilotinib was effective on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI during neutropenia recovery in mice.
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Antibacterial effect of amentoflavone and its synergistic effect with antibiotics.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Selaginella tamariscina is a traditional herb used in medicine. Phytochemical amentoflavone, a biflavonoid class of flavonoids, was isolated from the plant of Selaginella tamariscina. In this study, the antibacterial effects and combination effects of amentoflavone and conventional antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol were investigated. These results showed that amentoflavone had a considerable antibacterial effect and synergistic interaction with antibiotics against various bacterial strains (fractional inhibitory concentration index ? 0.5), except for Streptococcus mutans. To study the mechanism(s) involved in the synergistic activities between amentoflavone and antibiotics, we detected hydroxyl radical formation using 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein and measured the NAD?/NADH ratio by NAD? cycling assay. The results indicated that the formation of hydroxyl radical would be a cause of the synergistic effect and that this oxidative stress originated from a transient NADH depletion. This study suggests that amentoflavone synergizes with antibiotics and has potential as a therapeutic agent for antimicrobial chemotherapy.
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Detection of human cytomegalovirus UL97 D605E mutation in Korean stem cell transplantation recipients and donors.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Ganciclovir resistance of human cytomegalovirus is associated with mutations in the viral UL97 gene and poses severe problems for immunocompromised patients. In this study, PCRbased restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses detected the UL97 D605E mutation in all five clinical isolates from patients with ganciclovir-resistant human cytomegalovirus infection during prolonged ganciclovir therapy, whereas the M460V mutation was only present in 1 of 5 isolates. On the other hand, the detection rates of the D605E mutation in the stored available DNA samples from the donor and allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients were 66.7% and 93.7%, respectively, suggesting that the presence of D605E mutation was not associated with the ganciclovir exposure. Although the D605E mutation may not be related to ganciclovir resistance, we suggest that this mutation could be an important molecular marker of human cytomegalovirus evolution in East Asian countries. Moreover, the restriction fragment length polymorphism method using the restriction enzyme HaeIII, which is generally used to detect the UL97 A591V mutation, could also detect the D605E mutation and may therefore be a useful tool for future research on the investigation of UL97 gene mutations.
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Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimers disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.
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The relationship between the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous itraconazole and clinical parameters, including plasma levels of itraconazole, in immunocompromised patients receiving itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis: a
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To identify the role of therapeutic drug monitoring of itraconazole (ITZ) in the setting of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous (IV) ITZ, we performed a multicenter, prospective study in patients with hematological malignancies who had received antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ oral solution (OS). We evaluated the plasma levels of ITZ and hydroxy (OH) ITZ both before initiation of IV ITZ and on days 5-7 of IV ITZ. A total of 181 patients showed an overall success rate of 68.0 %. Prolonged baseline neutropenia and accompanying cardiovascular comorbidity were significantly associated with poor outcomes of the empirical antifungal therapy (P?=?0.005 and P?=?0.001, respectively). A significantly higher trough plasma level of OH ITZ per body weight was found in the patients who achieved success with empirical antifungal therapy (P?=?0.036). There were no significant correlations between plasma concentrations of ITZ/OH ITZ (baseline or trough levels) and toxicities. Seven patients had a discontinuation of ITZ therapy due to toxicity. This study demonstrated that IV ITZ as empirical antifungal therapy was effective and therapeutic drug monitoring was helpful to estimate the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ OS. To predict the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy with IV ITZ, we should evaluate baseline clinical characteristics and also perform the therapeutic drug monitoring of both ITZ and OH ITZ.
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Structure-activity relationships of cecropin-like peptides and their interactions with phospholipid membrane.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Cecropin A and papiliocin are novel 37-residue cecropin-like antimicrobial peptides isolated from insect. We have confirmed that papiliocin possess high bacterial cell selectivity and has an ?-helical structure from Lys(3) to Lys(21) and from Ala(25) to Val(35), linked by a hinge region. In this study, we demonstrated that both peptides showed high antimicrobial activities against multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria as well as fungi. Interactions between these cecropin-like peptides and phospholipid membrane were studied using CD, dye leakage experiments, and NMR experiments, showing that both peptides have strong permeabilizing activities against bacterial cell membranes and fungal membranes as well as Trp(2) and Phe(5) at the N-terminal helix play an important role in attracting cecropin-like peptides to the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. Cecropin-like peptides can be potent peptide antibiotics against multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria and fungi.
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Phospholipase D1 has a pivotal role in interleukin-1?-driven chronic autoimmune arthritis through regulation of NF-?B, hypoxia-inducible factor 1?, and FoxO3a.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a potent proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine playing an important role in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the signaling network of IL-1? in synoviocytes from RA patients is still poorly understood. Here, we show for the first time that phospholipase D1 (PLD1), but not PLD2, is selectively upregulated in IL-1?-stimulated synoviocytes, as well as synovium, from RA patients. IL-1? enhanced the binding of NF-?B and ATF-2 to the PLD1 promoter, thereby enhancing PLD1 expression. PLD1 inhibition abolished the IL-1?-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators and angiogenic factors by suppressing the binding of NF-?B or hypoxia-inducible factor 1? to the promoter of its target genes, as well as IL-1?-induced proliferation or migration. However, suppression of PLD1 activity promoted cell cycle arrest via transactivation of FoxO3a. Furthermore, PLD1 inhibitor significantly suppressed joint inflammation and destruction in IL-1 receptor antagonist-deficient (IL-1Ra(-/-)) mice, a model of spontaneous arthritis. Taken together, these results suggest that the abnormal upregulation of PLD1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of IL-1?-induced chronic arthritis and that a selective PLD1 inhibitor might provide a potential therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders.
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Combinatorial biosynthesis and antibacterial evaluation of glycosylated derivatives of 12-membered macrolide antibiotic YC-17.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Expression plasmids carrying different deoxysugar biosynthetic gene cassettes and the gene encoding a substrate-flexible glycosyltransferase DesVII were constructed and introduced into Streptomyces venezuelae YJ003 mutant strain bearing a deletion of a desosamine biosynthetic (des) gene cluster. The resulting recombinants produced macrolide antibiotic YC-17 analogs possessing unnatural sugars replacing native D-desosamine. These metabolites were isolated and further purified using chromatographic techniques and their structures were determined as D-quinovosyl-10-deoxymethynolide, L-rhamnosyl-10-deoxymethynolide, L-olivosyl-10-deoxymethynolide, and D-boivinosyl-10-deoxymethynolide on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses and the stereochemistry of sugars was confirmed using coupling constant values and NOE correlations. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated in vitro against erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. Substitution with L-rhamnose displayed better antibacterial activity than parent compound YC-17 containing native sugar D-desosamine. The present study on relationships between chemical structures and antibacterial activities could be useful in generation of novel advanced antibiotics utilizing combinatorial biosynthesis approach.
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MRP8 promotes Th17 differentiation via upregulation of IL-6 production by fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8/MRP14 is an endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand and is abundant in synovial fluid (SF) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Belonging to damage-associated molecular patterns, it amplifies proinflammatory mediators and facilitates a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T-helper (Th)17 cells have a crucial role in RA pathogenesis, and IL-6 is the key factor promoting Th17 differentiation. We investigated whether the level of MRP8/MRP14 is positively associated with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF and found that MRP8/MRP14 level had a significant correlation with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF. We also observed that MRP8-induced IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells but MRP14 did not. Upon stimulation with MRP8, IL-6 production was enhanced by RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and was further elevated by coculturing RA FLS with activated CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that MRP8-activated IL-6 production by RA FLS promoted differentiation of Th17 cells using the coculture system consisting of CD4+ T cells and RA FLS. In addition, IL-6 blockade attenuated Th17 polarization of CD4+ T cells in the cocultures. Inhibitor studies revealed that MRP8 increased IL-6 production in RA FLS via TLR4/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our results show that MRP8 has a crucial role in stimulating IL-6 expression by RA FLS, and subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation in RA, suggesting that neutralizing MRP8 level in RA synovium may be an effective therapeutic strategy in RA treatment.
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Antifungal effect and pore-forming action of lactoferricin B like peptide derived from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans has been a medically important arthropod species by using it as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, we derived a novel lactoferricin B like peptide (LBLP) from the whole bodies of adult centipedes, S. s. mutilans, and investigated the antifungal effect of LBLP. LBLP exerted an antifungal and fungicidal activity without hemolysis. To investigate the antifungal mechanism of LBLP, a membrane study with propidium iodide was first conducted against Candida albicans. The result showed that LBLP caused fungal membrane permeabilization. The assays of the three dimensional flow cytometric contour plot and membrane potential further showed cell shrinkage and membrane depolarization by the membrane damage. Finally, we confirmed the membrane-active mechanism of LBLP by synthesizing model membranes, calcein and FITC-dextran loaded large unilamellar vesicles. These results showed that the antifungal effect of LBLP on membrane was due to the formation of pores with radii between 0.74nm and 1.4nm. In conclusion, this study suggests that LBLP exerts a potent antifungal activity by pore formation in the membrane, eventually leading to fungal cell death.
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Isolation of (-)-olivil-9-O-?-d-glucopyranoside from Sambucus williamsii and its antifungal effects with membrane-disruptive action.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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In this study, we isolated (-)-olivil-9-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (OLI9G), a phytochemical from the stem bark of Sambucus williamsii, and investigated the antifungal mechanism of OLI9G against Candida albicans. First of all, the antifungal susceptibility testing and hemolysis assay showed that OLI9G exerted a potent activity without hemolysis compared to the activity of amphotericin B. To investigate the mechanism of action of OLI9G, we first examined membrane depolarization using cyanine dye, 3,3-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide (diSC35). The results showed that OLI9G significantly changed the fungal membrane potential. To further understand this activity on the membrane, we did the propidium iodide (PI) influx assay. From the results, OLI9G caused membrane permeabilization in the fungal membrane, and the three dimensional (3D) flow cytometric contour plot from the PI influx assay further showed that the cells had shrunk due to the membrane damage. Finally, the membrane-active mechanism of OLI9G was confirmed by synthesizing a model membrane, calcein-encapsulating large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). The calcein leakage showed the membrane-disruptive effects caused by direct action of OLI9G. In conclusion, the current study suggests that OLI9G exerts its antifungal activity through a membrane-disruptive action.
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Synergistic antibacterial and antibiofilm effect between (+)-medioresinol and antibiotics in vitro.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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In this study, antibacterial effects of (+)-Medioresinol isolated from stem bark of Sambucus williamsii and its synergistic activities in combination with antibiotics such as ampicillin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol were tested by antibacterial susceptibility testing and checkerboard assay. (+)-Medioresinol possessed antibacterial effects against antibiotics-susceptible- or antibiotics-resistant strains. Most of combinations between (+)-Medioresinol and each antibiotic showed synergistic interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration index ? 0.5) against bacterial strains including antibiotics-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, the antibiofilm effect of (+)-Medioresinol alone or in combination with each antibiotic was investigated. The results indicated that not only (+)-Medioresinol but also its combination with each antibiotic had antibiofilm activities. It concludes that (+)-Medioresinol has potential as a therapeutic agent and adjuvant for treatment of bacterial infection.
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Impact of vancomycin resistance on mortality in neutropenic patients with enterococcal bloodstream infection: a retrospective study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) is generally associated with the delayed administration of adequate antibiotics. The identification of risk factors and outcomes of VRE BSI is necessary for establishing strategies for managing neutropenic fever in patients with hematological malignancies.
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Epidemiology and clinical features of bloodstream infections in hematology wards: one year experience at the catholic blood and marrow transplantation center.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in 2 distinctive hematological wards of the Catholic Blood and Marrow Transplantation (BMT) center.
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Antimicrobial effects of coprisin on wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus in rats.
Wound Repair Regen
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally produced antibiotics that play important roles in host defense mechanisms. These proteins are found in variety of animal and plant species. The antibiotic effects of AMPs are gaining attention for use in human medicine. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of coprisin, a novel AMP isolated from the dung beetle (Copris tripartitus), were evaluated. The peptide was used to treat rats with wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Coprisin accelerated wound closure both grossly and microscopically compared with the untreated group. Additionally, treatment with this peptide decreased phosphorylated-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) levels, a downstream factor of the transforming growth factor-? signaling pathway which is believed to inhibit reepithelization, in the nucleus and cytoplasm of regenerating cells. Moreover, increased cell populations and angiogenesis were observed in lesions treated with coprisin, suggesting that this peptide promotes wound healing via its antimicrobial activity against S.?aureus. Our results demonstrated that coprisin is a potential therapeutic agent that can possibly replace traditional antibiotics and overcome microbial resistance.
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Clinical characteristics and the usefulness of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test in hematologic patients with hepatic or splenic lesions.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Hepatic or splenic lesions in hematologic patients are not defined well because they are not easy to evaluate due to limitations of invasive procedures. Management typically depends on the clinical diagnosis with few microbiological data.
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Community-genotype strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with high-level mupirocin resistance in a neonatal intensive care unit.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypes of mupirocin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MR-MRSA) isolates in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and their potential source.
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Antifungal property of hibicuslide C and its membrane-active mechanism in Candida albicans.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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In this study, the antifungal activity and mode of action(s) of hibicuslide C derived from Abutilon theophrasti were investigated. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed that hibicuslide C possessed potent activities toward various fungal strains and less hemolytic activity than amphotericin B. To understand the antifungal mechanism(s) of hibicuslide C in Candida albicans, flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide was done. The results showed that hibicuslide C perturbed the plasma membrane of the C. albicans. The analysis of the transmembrane electrical potential with 3,3-dipropylthiacarbocyanine iodide [DiSC3(5)] indicated that hibicuslide C induced membrane depolarization. Furthermore, model membrane studies were performed with calcein encapsulating large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and FITC-dextran (FD) loaded LUVs. These results demonstrated that the antifungal effects of hibicuslide C on the fungal plasma membrane were through the formation of pores with radii between 2.3 nm and 3.3 nm. Finally, in three dimensional flow cytometric contour plots, a reduced cell sizes by the pore-forming action of hibicuslide C were observed. Therefore, the present study suggests that hibicuslide C exerts its antifungal effect by membrane-active mechanism.
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Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and ?-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, ?-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, ?-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and ?-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.
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Inoculum effects of ceftobiprole, daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae at inocula of 10(5) and 10(7) CFU injected into opposite thighs of neutropenic mice.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Reduced bactericidal efficacy at a high inoculum is known as the inoculum effect (IE). We used neutropenic mice to compare the IEs of ceftobiprole (CFB), daptomycin (DAP), linezolid (LZD), and vancomycin (VAN) against 6 to 9 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 4 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae at 2 inocula in opposite thighs of the same mice. Neutropenic mice had 10(4.5) to 10(5.7) CFU/thigh (low inoculum [LI]) in one thigh and 10(6.4) to 10(7.2) CFU/thigh (high inoculum [HI]) in the opposite thigh when treated for 24 h with subcutaneous (s.c.) doses every 12 h of DAP at 0.024 to 100 mg/kg of body weight and LZD at 0.313 to 320 mg/kg and s.c. doses every 6 h of CFB at 0.003 to 160 mg/kg and VAN at 0.049 to 800 mg/kg. Dose-response data were analyzed by a maximum effect (E(max)) model using nonlinear regression. Static doses for each drug and at each inoculum were calculated, and the difference between HI and LI (IE index) gave the magnitude of IE for each drug-organism combination. Mean (range) IE indexes of S. aureus were 2.9 (1.7 to 4.6) for CFB, 4.1 (2.6 to 9.3) for DAP, 4.6 (1.7 to 7.1) for LZD, and 10.1 (6.3 to 20.3) for VAN. In S. pneumoniae, the IE indexes were 2.5 (1.3 to 3.3) for CFB, 2.0 (1.6 to 2.8) for DAP, 1.9 (1.7 to 2.2) for LZD, and 1.5 (0.8 to 3.2) for VAN; these values were similar for all drugs. In S. aureus, the IE was much larger with VAN than with CFB, DAM, and LZD (P < 0.05). An in vivo time course of vancomycin activity showed initiation of killing at 4- to 16-fold-higher doses at HI than at LI despite similar initial growth of controls.
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Response to pretransplant hypomethylating agents influences the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adults with myelodysplastic syndromes.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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This study describes a retrospective analysis on the transplant outcome of 56 consecutive patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) according to their response to hypomethylating agents (HMA). While 2-yr disease-free survival (DFS) of patients who transformed to acute myeloid leukemia (n = 12) was 25%, that of the remaining patients with MDS according to response to HMA was 73.1%, 68.1%, 50.0%, and 20.8% in G-COR (group of continuous response, n = 19), G-NoC (group of no change, n = 15), G-LOR (group of loss of response, n = 6), and G-DP (group of disease progression, n = 4), respectively. When dichotomized as G-COR/G-NoC versus G-LOR/G-DP, significantly different 2-yr DFS (71.0% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.004) and relapse (14.1% vs. 46.7%; P = 0.016) were demonstrated. On multivariate analysis, G-LOR/G-DP [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; P = 0.008] and poor karyotype at transplantation (HR, 2.69; P = 0.017) were the significant predictors for poor DFS, as G-LOR/G-DP was for relapse (HR, 6.28; P = 0.011). DFS was significantly poor in patients with any of the two predictors in all MDS (81.5% vs. 34.9%; P = 0.001) or higher-risk MDS (HrMDS) at the time of HMA (80.7% vs. 29.2%; P = 0.005). G-COR showed a trend of better DFS compared with G-NoC among HrMDS (74.6% vs. 36.5%; P = 0.090). These results implicate the significance of response to HMA on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes and support the need for future study to verify the suggested strategy of proceeding to transplantation before LOR or DP, especially for HrMDS.
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Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of viridans streptococcal bacteremia during febrile neutropenia in patients with hematologic malignancies: a comparison between adults and children.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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This study was performed to compare the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities of viridans streptococcal bacteremia (VSB) between febrile neutropenic adults and children with hematologic malignancies.
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[A case of liver abscess and bacteremia caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Vibrio cholerae non-O1 have caused several well-studied food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis and also have been responsible for sporadic cases of otitis media, wound infection, and bacteremia. Few cases of liver abscess caused by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 have been reported. A 73-year-old man with underlying diabetes mellitus was admitted with nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia and febrile sensation. We identified Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in his blood cultures and multiple hepatic microabscess on abdominal computed tomography. He was treated with systemic antibiotics and fluid therapy, but died due to septic shock on sixth day. We report here, a case of liver abscess with bacteremia due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in a patient with diabetes mellitus.
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Carbon contamination analysis and its effect on extreme ultra violet mask imaging performance using coherent scattering microscopy/in-situ accelerated contamination system.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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The coherent scattering microscopy/in-situ accelerated contamination system (CSM/ICS) is a developmental metrology tool designed to analyze the impact of carbon contamination on the imaging performance. It was installed at 11B EUVL beam-line of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). Monochromatized 13.5 nm wavelength beam with Mo/Si multilayer mirrors and zirconium filters was used. The CSM/ICS is composed of the CSM for measuring imaging properties and the ICS for implementing acceleration of carbon contamination. The CSM has been proposed as an actinic inspection technique that records the coherent diffraction pattern from the EUV mask and reconstructs its aerial image using a phase retrieval algorithm. To improve the CSM measurement accuracy, optical and electrical noises of main chamber were minimized. The background noise level measured by CCD camera was approximately 8.5 counts (3 sigma) when the EUV beam was off. Actinic CD measurement repeatability was <1 A (3 sigma) at 17.5 nm line and space pattern. The influence of carbon contamination on the imaging properties can be analyzed by transferring EUV mask to CSM imaging center position after executing carbon contamination without a fine alignment system. We also installed photodiode and ellipsometry for in-situ reflectivity and thickness measurement. This paper describes optical design and system performance observed during the first phase of integration, including CSM imaging performance and carbon contamination analysis results.
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplant following remission induction chemotherapy including gemtuzumab ozogamicin is a feasible and effective treatment option in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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This study analyzed the results of stem cell transplant (SCT) in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieved complete remission (CR) with a gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO)-containing regimen in order to identify the impact of the drug as a remission induction regimen on the outcome of SCT. Patients who achieved CR with GO proceeded to reduced-intensity conditioning or autologous SCT after one or two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 53.5 months (n - 17), probabilities of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 3 years were 58.2 ± 12.1% and 47.1 ± 12.1%, respectively, and the cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 35.3 ± 12.1%, and 17.7 ± 9.5%, respectively. Patients with high bone marrow CD33 expression at the time of diagnosis showed significantly higher OS and DFS (70.7%, p = 0.008 and 57.1%, p = 0.008, respectively) than those with low expression. The intensification of post-remission treatment using SCT in elderly patients with AML who achieve CR on GO appears to be an effective and feasible treatment modality.
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Downregulation of RNAIII in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains regardless of the presence of agr mutation.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus can cause serious problems relating to treatment failure and persistent infection. We investigated vancomycin susceptibility, genetic relationships and transcriptional changes of the accessory gene regulator (agr) in vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains isolated from South Korea compared with vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strains. Molecular characterization, population analysis profiling, agr sequencing and transcriptional profiling of RNAIII by real-time RT-PCR were performed. Of 16 VISA strains tested, eight exhibited ST5, agr II and type II SCCmec. The others exhibited ST239, agr I and type III SCCmec. A point mutation in AgrA (Asp8Gly or Ile238Lys) was found in only five VISA strains; no mutations were detected in the other strains. However, RNAIII levels markedly decreased in all VISA strains (mean of 1.39-fold change) compared with the VSSA strains (31.51-fold change) in late-exponential phases (P<0.0001). The downregulation of RNAIII could be an important genetic event in the VISA strains, regardless of the presence or absence of the agr mutation.
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Indole-3-carbinol generates reactive oxygen species and induces apoptosis.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Cruciferous vegetables contain glucobrassicin which, during metabolism, yields indole-3-carbinol (I3C). The aim of this study was to find whether indole-3-carbinol caused apoptosis and its mechanism in Candida albicans. We found that treatment of Candida albicans with indole-3-carbinol significantly increased the reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical accumulation. The hydroxyl radical is one of the most active components of oxygen, and it is the end product of an oxidative damage cellular death pathway. We investigated the general phenotypes of apoptosis and then investigated whether there were other distinct markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, the effects of thiourea as a hydroxyl radical scavenger and protective effect of trehalose, which is the result of the fungal immune system, was also assured. This study indicates that indole-3-carbinol has apoptosis effects, including a production of hydroxyl radicals, cytochrome c release and activation of metacaspase. Both hydroxyl radicals and metacaspases triggered apoptosis in Candida albicans.
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Structure and function of papiliocin with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities isolated from the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Papiliocin is a novel 37-residue cecropin-like peptide isolated recently from the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. With the aim of identifying a potent antimicrobial peptide, we tested papiliocin in a variety of biological and biophysical assays, demonstrating that the peptide possesses very low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells and high bacterial cell selectivity, particularly against Gram-negative bacteria as well as high anti-inflammatory activity. Using LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells, we found that papiliocin exerted its anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production and secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, producing effects comparable with those of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. We also showed that the innate defense response mechanisms engaged by papiliocin involve Toll-like receptor pathways that culminate in the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. Fluorescent dye leakage experiments showed that papiliocin targets the bacterial cell membrane. To understand structure-activity relationships, we determined the three-dimensional structure of papiliocin in 300 mm dodecylphosphocholine micelles by NMR spectroscopy, showing that papiliocin has an ?-helical structure from Lys(3) to Lys(21) and from Ala(25) to Val(36), linked by a hinge region. Interactions between the papiliocin and LPS studied using tryptophan blue-shift data, and saturation transfer difference-NMR experiments revealed that Trp(2) and Phe(5) at the N-terminal helix play an important role in attracting papiliocin to the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that papiliocin is a potent peptide antibiotic with both anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, and we have laid the groundwork for future studies of its mechanism of action.
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Emergence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing escherichia coli as a cause of community-onset bacteremia in South Korea: risk factors and clinical outcomes.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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To define the risk factors and clinical outcomes of community-onset bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC), we analyzed 50 consecutive cases of community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBLEC at a secondary hospital in South Korea from 2005 to 2010. Risk factors were assessed by conducting a case-double control study in which cases were compared with (1) control patients with community-onset bacteremia due to non-ESBLEC, and (2) those with community-onset bacteremia not caused by E. coli. Clinical outcome was assessed among patients with community-onset E. coli bacteremia. Community-onset bacteremia due to ESBLEC accounted for 6.7% of all community-onset E. coli bacteremia. In addition, an increasing proportion of ESBLEC among patients without any healthcare risk factors was observed. Comparison with both control groups revealed that the recent use of antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-12.3) was an independent risk factor for ESBL acquisition. Factors influencing the 30-day mortality were a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR, 26.6; 95% CI, 1.5-470.7) and malignancy (OR, 11.9; 95% CI, 1.1-134.8). Increased mortality was not statistically associated either with ESBL production or with inappropriate empirical therapy. ESBLEC has emerged as a significant cause of community-onset bacteremia in this hospital, suggesting that ESBLEC are widely disseminated in the South Korean community.
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Engineered biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of narbomycin and evaluation of their antibacterial activities.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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A 14-membered macrolide antibiotic narbomycin produced from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 is composed of polyketide macrolactone ring and D-desosamine as a deoxysugar moiety, which acts as an important determinant of its antibacterial activity. In order to generate diverse glycosylated derivatives of narbomycin, expression plasmids carrying different deoxysugar biosynthetic gene cassettes and the gene encoding a substrate-flexible glycosyltransferase DesVII were constructed and introduced into S. venezuelae YJ003 mutant strain bearing a deletion of thymidine-5-diphospho-D-desosamine biosynthetic gene cluster. The resulting recombinants of S. venezuelae produced a range of new analogs of narbomycin, which possess unnatural sugar moieties instead of native deoxysugar D-desosamine. The structures of narbomycin derivatives were determined through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses and their antibacterial activities were evaluated in vitro against erythromycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. Substitution with L-rhamnose or 3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose was demonstrated to exhibit greater antibacterial activity than narbomycin and the clinically relevant erythromycin. This work provides new insight into the functions of deoxysugar biosynthetic enzymes and structure-activity relationships of the sugar moieties attached to the macrolides and demonstrate the potential of combinatorial biosynthesis for the generation of new macrolides carrying diverse sugars with increased antibacterial activities.
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A case of pseudomembranous colitis after voriconazole therapy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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This is a case report on a 35-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia who presented fever and intermittent mucoid loose stool to the emergency center. He had been taking voriconazole for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The flexible sigmoidoscopy was consistent with the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis.
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Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification to predict the clinical outcome of invasive aspergillosis.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Monitoring the response to therapy for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is essential for the management of patients with hematologic diseases. We evaluated the correlation between the outcome of real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (RTi-NASBA) for Aspergillus 18S rRNA and the clinical outcome of IA. A total of 157 serum samples from 29 patients with IA were tested for RTi-NASBA. The treatment response and mortality were compared with the NASBA outcome (whether the NASBA value was converted to negative or not) at 12 weeks after the start of antifungal therapy. At 12 weeks, there was a moderate correlation between the treatment failure and persistently positive NASBA (? = 0.482; P = 0.019). Deaths attributable to IA were more prevalent in patients without negative conversion of NASBA than in those with negative conversion (50% vs 5%; P = 0.013). Significant factors of treatment failure at 12 weeks were the status of hematologic disease (nonremission; P = 0.041) and the NASBA outcome (failure of negative conversion; P = 0.024). Survival was significantly better in patients with negative conversion of NASBA than those with persistently positive values (P = 0.036). This study suggests that the serial monitoring of RTi-NASBA could be useful for prediction of the clinical outcome in hematologic patients with IA.
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The antimicrobial peptide arenicin-1 promotes generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Arenicin-1, a 21-residue antimicrobial peptide, is known to exert significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity without cytotoxicity in mammalian cells except at high concentration. However, the mechanism of fungal cell death by arenicin-1 is weakly understood.
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The functional role of the tachykinin consensus region of urechistachykinin peptide family for its antimicrobial activity.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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In our previous study, we reported that urechistachykinin I (U I) and II (U II) exerted antimicrobial effects. To find out how the tachykinin consensus sequence of the urechistachykinin peptide family affects its antimicrobial activity, analogues substituting the amino acid residues phenylalanine (Phe-6; Anal 1), glycine (Gly-8; Anal 2), and arginine (Arg-10; Anal 3) of U II to alanine (Ala) were designed. Subsequently, the antimicrobial activity was shown on the order of Anal 3>U II=Anal 2>Anal 1, and this activity pattern was correlated with membrane studies such as propidium iodide (PI) influx and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD) leakage assay. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity is related to the hydrophobicity values of the peptides. In regards to the activity of U II, it is determined that the hydrophobic Phe-6 plays a more critical role than Gly-8 or Arg-10.
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Amentoflavone stimulates mitochondrial dysfunction and induces apoptotic cell death in Candida albicans.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Amentoflavone was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of Selaginella tamariscina. It is a traditional herb for the therapy of chronic trachitis and exhibits some anti-tumor activity. Previously, we confirmed the antifungal effects of amentoflavone. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal mechanism(s) of amentoflavone, such as mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. The cells that were treated with amentoflavone exhibited a series of cellular changes that were consistent with apoptosis: externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA and nuclear fragmentation, accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl radicals, and activation of metacaspase. In addition, diagnostic markers of apoptosis, including the reduction of mitochondrial inner-membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, were observed. These phenomena are important changes in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, the effect of thiourea as hydroxyl radical scavenger on amentoflavone-induced apoptosis was evaluated. A hydroxyl radical is a more active ROS species. Mitochondrial dysfunction was inhibited, which was indicated by decreased levels of intracellular hydroxyl radicals. Taken together, our results present the first evidence that amentoflavone induces apoptosis in C. albicans cells and is associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction. Besides, amentoflavone-induced hydroxyl radicals may play a significant role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
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Evidence-based guidelines for empirical therapy of neutropenic fever in Korea.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Neutrophils play an important role in immunological function. Neutropenic patients are vulnerable to infection, and except fever is present, inflammatory reactions are scarce in many cases. Additionally, because infections can worsen rapidly, early evaluation and treatments are especially important in febrile neutropenic patients. In cases in which febrile neutropenia is anticipated due to anticancer chemotherapy, antibiotic prophylaxis can be used, based on the risk of infection. Antifungal prophylaxis may also be considered if long-term neutropenia or mucosal damage is expected. When fever is observed in patients suspected to have neutropenia, an adequate physical examination and blood and sputum cultures should be performed. Initial antibiotics should be chosen by considering the risk of complications following the infection; if the risk is low, oral antibiotics can be used. For initial intravenous antibiotics, monotherapy with a broad-spectrum antibiotic or combination therapy with two antibiotics is recommended. At 3-5 days after beginning the initial antibiotic therapy, the condition of the patient is assessed again to determine whether the fever has subsided or symptoms have worsened. If the patients condition has improved, intravenous antibiotics can be replaced with oral antibiotics; if the condition has deteriorated, a change of antibiotics or addition of antifungal agents should be considered. If the causative microorganism is identified, initial antimicrobial or antifungal agents should be changed accordingly. When the cause is not detected, the initial agents should continue to be used until the neutrophil count recovers.
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Teicoplanin dosing strategy for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in Korean patients with neutropenic fever.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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The present study was conducted to determine and compare the target attainment rate (TAR) between microorganism-nonspecific (C(trough)) and microorganism- specific (AUC24/MIC) targets over two weeks of teicoplanin administration according to several dose regimens for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in Korean patients with neutropenic fever.
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Serum galactomannan strongly correlates with outcome of invasive aspergillosis in acute leukaemia patients.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains an important cause of mortality in acute leukaemia patients. Previous studies reported that serum galactomannan (GM) levels correlate strongly with IA outcomes in patients with haematological cancers. This study aimed to clarify the usefulness of serial GM testing for outcome evaluation of IA in acute leukaemia patients. We retrospectively analysed 58 acute leukaemia patients who had IA during neutropenic period after chemotherapy and whose serum GM was serially monitored until discharge or death. The kappa correlation coefficient was used to determine the strength of correlation between GM and clinical outcome (survival or death) of IA. The correlation between clinical outcome and GM kinetics was good at week 6 [? = 0.663, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.465-0.861] and excellent at week 12 (? = 0.819, 95% CI: 0.667-0.91). Survival was significantly better in patients whose GM values normalised than in patients with persistently positive GM (P < 0.0001) regardless of whether neutropenia resolved or acute leukaemia responded to chemotherapy. In neutropenic patients with acute leukaemia, serum GM correlated strongly with survival outcome of IA. This finding further supports the usefulness of the GM index as a surrogate marker for assessing IA outcome and the need for serial GM testing in therapeutic monitoring.
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Antifungal activity of lariciresinol derived from Sambucus williamsii and their membrane-active mechanisms in Candida albicans.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Lariciresinol is an enterolignan precursor isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii, a folk medicinal plant used for its therapeutic properties. In this study, the antifungal properties and mode of action of lariciresinol were investigated. Lariciresinol displays potent antifungal properties against several human pathogenic fungal strains without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of action of lariciresinol, the membrane interactions of lariciresinol were examined. Fluorescence analysis using the membrane probe 3,3-diethylthio-dicarbocyanine iodide (DiSC(3)-5) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), as well as a flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI), a membrane-impermeable dye, indicated that lariciresinol was associated with lipid bilayers and induced membrane permeabilization. Therefore, the present study suggests that lariciresinol possesses fungicidal activities by disrupting the fungal plasma membrane and therapeutic potential as a novel antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.
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Oxidative stress by antimicrobial peptide pleurocidin triggers apoptosis in Candida albicans.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Pleurocidin (GWGSFFKKAAHVGKHVGKAALTHYL-NH(2)), found in skin mucous secretions of the winter flounder Pleuronectes americanus, is known to possess a high potency and broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide without cytotoxicity. In this study, to investigate the impact of pleurocidin on apoptotic progress, we observed morphological and physiological changes in Candida albicans. In cells exposed to pleurocidin, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is a major cause of apoptosis were increased, and hydroxyl radicals were especially a large part of ROS. The increase of ROS induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane depolarization which causes release of pro-apoptotic factors. Using FITC-VAD-FMK staining, we confirmed activation of yeast metacaspases which lead to apoptosis and phosphatidylserine externalization at early stage apoptosis was observed using annexin V FITC. In addition, pleurocidin induced-apoptotic cells underwent apoptotic morphological changes, showing the reduced cell size (low FSC) and enhanced intracellular density (high SSC) in flow cytometry dot plots. Under the influence of oxidative stress, DNA and nuclei were fragmented and condensed in cells, and they were visualized by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. These apoptotic phenomena represent that oxidative stress by inducing pleurocidin must be an important factor of the apoptotic process in C. albicans.
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Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.
J Korean Soc Coloproctol
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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The long-term results of a laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer have been reported in several studies, but reports on the results of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer are limited. We investigated the long-term outcomes, including the five-year overall survival, disease-free survival and recurrence rate, after a laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer.
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Effects of positively charged arginine residues on membrane pore forming activity of Rev-NIS peptide in bacterial cells.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Here, we investigated antibacterial effects of Rev-NIS and suggested the role of positively charged amino acids on membrane pore forming activity of the peptide in bacterial cells, by synthesizing two analogs, Anal R and Anal S. Based on the amphipathic property of Rev-NIS, Anal R and Anal S were designed by substituting E(1) and L(3) to R and L(3) to S, respectively. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that Anal R and Anal S have the same conformation of Rev-NIS, with a significant fraction of helical structure. In succession, the antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that Rev-NIS and its analogs possessed significant activities (Anal R>Rev-NIS>Anal S), without hemolytic effects, against bacterial pathogens including antibiotics-resistant strains. Moreover, the membrane studies, 3,3-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide (diSC(3)5) staining and FITC-dextran (FD) leakage assay demonstrated that the analogs as well as Rev-NIS acted on the bacterial membranes and potently made pores, with the hydrodynamic radius between 1.4nm and 2.3nm. Especially, Anal R made larger pores than other peptides, with the radius between 2.3nm and 3.3nm. These results also corresponded to the result of antibacterial susceptibility testing. In summary, this study indicates that the two arginine residues are more influential than the hydrophobicity or the helicity, regarding the molecular activity of the peptide, and finally suggests that Anal R peptide may be applied to novel antibacterial agents.
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Voriconazole-related severe adverse events: clinical application of therapeutic drug monitoring in Korean patients.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Voriconazole is a triazole agent with excellent antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. However, despite its potential advantages, the occurrence of unpredictable toxicities might be critical in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for voriconazole-related severe adverse events (SAEs).
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Induction of yeast apoptosis by an antimicrobial peptide, Papiliocin.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Papiliocin is a 37-residue peptide isolated from the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus. In this study, we found that Papiliocin induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl radicals known to be important regulators of apoptosis in Candida albicans. To examine the relationship between the accumulation of ROS and the induction of apoptosis, we investigated the apoptotic effects of Papiliocin using apoptotic markers. Cells treated with Papiliocin showed a series of cellular changes normally seen in cells undergoing apoptosis: plasma membrane translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner to the outer membrane leaflet, measured by Annexin V staining, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, observed by DiOC(6)(3) staining; and the presence of active metacaspases, measured using the CaspACE FITC-VAD-FMK, as early apoptotic events. In addition, DNA condensation and fragmentation, which is important marker of late stage apoptosis, was seen by DAPI and TUNEL assay. Therefore, these results suggest that Papiliocin leads to apoptosis in C. albicans via ROS accumulation.
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Molecular epidemiologic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bacteremia and nasal colonization at 10 intensive care units: multicenter prospective study in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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We investigated molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated at 10 intensive care units (ICUs) in Korea. MRSA isolates from bacteremia and nasal colonization were collected prospectively from October 2008 through May 2009 at 10 University-affiliated hospital ICUs. A total of 83 and 175 MRSA strains were isolated from bacteremia and nasal colonization, respectively. Acquired group accounted for 69.9% (n = 58) of bacteremia and 73.1% (n = 128) of nasal colonization. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type B (SCCmec type II/ST5) was dominant in the acquired group followed by PFGE type D (SCCmec type IVA/ST72; a community genotype). Seven of 58 (12.1%) acquired bacteremia and 15 of 128 (11.8%) acquired nasal colonizations had SCCmec type IVA/ST72 genotype, which indicated that the community genotype had already emerged as a cause of ICU acquired MRSA infection or colonization. Antibiotic resistance rates to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, clindamycin and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole were 84.4%, 67.1%, 78.1%, and 12.0%, respectively. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin best predicted a community genotype (sensitivity 96.5%; specificity 96.9%; odds ratio 861; 95% confidence interval 169-4,390, P < 0.001) and the positive predictive value was 90.2%. Among 23 nasal re-colonized strains, 7 MRSA strains (30.4%) were different from the originally colonized strains on the basis of PFGE types.
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Enantiomeric 9-mer peptide analogs of protaetiamycine with bacterial cell selectivities and anti-inflammatory activities.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Protaetiamycine is an insect defensin, derived from the larvae of the beetle Protaetia brevitarsis. In our previous work, we designed 9-mer peptide analogs of protaetiamycine, including 9Pbw2 (RLWLAIKRR-NH(2) ), 9Pbw3 (RLWLAIWRR-NH(2) ), and 9Pbw4 (RLWLAWKRR-NH(2) ). 9Pbw2 and 9Pbw4 showed high antimicrobial activity without cytotoxicity, while 9Pbw3 with higher hydrophobicity compared to 9Pbw2 and 9Pbw4 showed high cytotoxicity as well as high antimicrobial activity (Shin et al., J. Pept. Sci. 2009; 15: 559-568). In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of 9Pbw2, 9Pbw3, and 9Pbw4 by quantitation of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that only 9Pbw3 has strong inhibition of NO production, implying that Trp(7) as well as optimum level of hydrophobicity may play key roles in the anti-inflammatory activity of 9Pbw3. In order to design potent anti-inflammatory peptide with lower cytotoxicity as well as high stability from cleavage by protease compared to 9Pbw3, we synthesized 9Pbw3-D, the all-D-amino acid analog of 9Pbw3. 9Pbw3-D showed less cytotoxicity against RAW264.7 cells as well as considerably stronger inhibition of NO production and inflammation-induced cytokine production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells than 9Pbw3. 9Pbw3-D inhibited the gene expression of inflammatory-induced cytokine significantly more than 9Pbw3 and showed high resistance to proteolytic digestion. Binding of 9Pbw3-D with LPS caused higher enhancement of the FITC fluorescence as a result of its stronger interaction with LPS compared to that of 9Pbw3 and this result is in good agreement with their anti-inflammatory activities. 9Pbw3-D with higher anti-inflammatory activity as well as lower cytotoxicity against mammalian cell compared to 9Pbw3 can be a potent noncytotoxic antibiotic candidates.
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