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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
SiO(2) /TiO(2) hollow nanoparticles decorated with Ag nanoparticles: enhanced visible light absorption and improved light scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Hollow SiO2 /TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) of controlled size (Ag@HNPs) were fabricated in order to enhance visible-light absorption and improve light scattering in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). They exhibited localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the LSPR effects were significantly influenced by the size of the Ag NPs. The absorption peak of the LSPR band dramatically increased with increasing Ag NP size. The LSPR of the large Ag NPs mainly increased the light absorption at short wavelengths, whereas the scattering from the SiO2 /TiO2 HNPs improved the light absorption at long wavelengths. This enabled the working electrode to use the full solar spectrum. Furthermore, the SiO2 layer thickness was adjusted to maximize the LSPR from the Ag NPs and avoid corrosion of the Ag NPs by the electrolyte. Importantly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased from 7.1?% with purely TiO2 -based DSSCs to 8.1?% with HNP-based DSSCs, which is an approximately 12?% enhancement and can be attributed to greater light scattering. Furthermore, the PCEs of Ag@HNP-based DSSCs were 11?% higher (8.1 vs. 9.0?%) than the bare-HNP-based DSSCs, which can be attributed to LSPR. Together, the PCE of Ag@HNP-based DSSCs improved by a total of 27?%, from 7.1 to 9.0?%, due to these two effects. This comparative research will offer guidance in the design of multifunctional nanomaterials and the optimization of solar-cell performance.
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HIF-1?-Mediated Upregulation of TASK-2 K+ Channels Augments Ca2+ Signaling in Mouse B Cells under Hypoxia.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The general consensus is that immune cells are exposed to physiological hypoxia in vivo (PhyO2, 2-5% PO2). However, functional studies of B cells in hypoxic conditions are sparse. Recently, we reported the expression in mouse B cells of TASK-2, a member of pH-sensitive two-pore domain K(+) channels with background activity. In this study, we investigated the response of K(+) channels to sustained PhyO2 (sustained hypoxia [SH], 3% PO2 for 24 h) in WEHI-231 mouse B cells. SH induced voltage-independent background K(+) conductance (SH-Kbg) and hyperpolarized the membrane potential. The pH sensitivity and the single-channel conductance of SH-Kbg were consistent with those of TASK-2. Immunoblotting assay results showed that SH significantly increased plasma membrane expressions of TASK-2. Conversely, SH failed to induce any current following small interfering (si)TASK-2 transfection. Similar hypoxic upregulation of TASK-2 was also observed in splenic primary B cells. Mechanistically, upregulation of TASK-2 by SH was prevented by si hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) transfection or by YC-1, a pharmacological HIF-1? inhibitor. In addition, TASK-2 current was increased in WEHI-231 cells overexpressed with O2-resistant HIF-1?. Importantly, [Ca(2+)]c increment in response to BCR stimulation was significantly higher in SH-exposed B cells, which was abolished by high K(+)-induced depolarization or by siTASK-2 transfection. The data demonstrate that TASK-2 is upregulated under hypoxia via HIF-1?-dependent manner in B cells. This is functionally important in maintaining the negative membrane potential and providing electrical driving force to control Ca(2+) influx.
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Intraoperative Frozen Section for the Evaluation of Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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We investigated extrathyroidal extension (ETE) through frozen biopsy for intraoperative decision making in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
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Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies novel variants associated with fasting plasma glucose in East Asians.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) has been recognized as an important indicator for the overall glycemic state preceding the onset of metabolic diseases. Most genome-wide association loci for FPG so far been identified were derived from populations with European ancestry with a few exceptions. To extend a thorough catalog for FPG loci, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 genome-wide association studies in up to 24,740 non-diabetic subjects with East Asian ancestry. Follow-up replication analyses in up to additional 21,345 participants identified three new FPG loci reaching genome-wide significance in or near PDK1-RAPGEF4, KANK1 and IGF1R. Our results could provide additional insight into the genetic variation implicated in fasting glucose regulation.
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Ligularia fischeri Extract Protects Against Oxidative-Stress-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice and PC12 Cells.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques in brain and the overproduction of amyloid beta (A?), leading to learning and memory impairment and intense oxidative stress. In this study, the protective effect of Ligularia fischeri extract was investigated using PC12 cells. L. fischeri extract attenuated hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA fragmentation in cells. In vivo behavioral tests were performed to examine the effects of the extract on amyloid-? peptide1-42-induced impairment of learning and memory in mice. A diet containing the extract increased alternation behaviors in the Y-maze test and step-through latency of passive avoidance task. Moreover, we found that consumption of the extract decreased lipid peroxidation in a biochemical study of brain tissue in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to identify the active compounds in the extract. These results suggest that L. fischeri extract could be protective against A?-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its constituent, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid.
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Aptamer-functionalized hybrid carbon nanofiber FET-type electrode for a highly sensitive and selective platelet-derived growth factor biosensor.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Precise selectivity and rapid responses to target biomolecules are important in the development of biosensors. In particular, highly sensitive and selective biosensors have been used in clinical treatment to detect factors such as cancer oncoproteins and endocrine disruptors. Herein, highly sensitive liquid electrolyte field-effect transistor (FET) system biosensors were fabricated to detect platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) using a PDGF-B binding aptamer conjugated with carboxylic polypyrrole-coated metal oxide-decorated carbon nanofibers (CPMCNFs) as the signal transducer. First, CPMCNFs were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) of the carboxylic pryrrole monomer (CPy) on metal oxide-decorated carbon nanofiber (MCNF) surfaces with no treatment for carbon surface functionalization. Furthermore, a 3 nm thick uniformly coated carboxylic polypyrrole (CPPy) layer was formed without aggregation. The CPMCNFs were integrated with the PDGF-B binding aptamer and immobilized on the interdigitated array substrate by covalent anchoring to produce a FET-type biosensor transducer. The PDGF-B binding aptamer conjugated CPMCNF (CPB-Apt) FET sensor was highly sensitive (5 fM) and extremely selective for isoforms of PDGFs. Additionally, the CPB-Apt FET sensor could be reused over a few weeks.
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The relationship of dietary sodium, potassium, fruits, and vegetables intake with blood pressure among Korean adults aged 40 and older.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The inverse relationships of combined fruits and vegetables intake with blood pressure have been reported. However, whether there are such relationships with salty vegetables has rarely been investigated in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the relation of combined and separate intake of fruits, vegetable intakes, and salty vegetables, as well as sodium and potassium, with blood pressure among the middle-aged and elderly populations.
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Prognostic significance of WT1 expression in soft tissue sarcoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare. We evaluated the WT1 protein expression level in various types of STS and elucidated the value of WT1 as a prognostic factor and a possible therapeutic target.
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The immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A virus vaccines (Havrix® and Epaxal®) in Korean young adults.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Assessing the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccines is important because some people receive only a single dose. However, previous studies have shown variable results and have not examined the effects of demographic characteristics other than gender. This study was performed to examine the immunogenicity of a single dose of HAV vaccine according to the vaccine type and demographic characteristics in young adults.
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Overexpression of NRG1 promotes progression of gastric cancer by regulating the self-renewal of cancer stem cells.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) have been successfully isolated from patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the self-renewal of GCSCs and their relationship with the microenvironment are poorly characterized.
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A case of isolated bowenoid papulosis of the nipple.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Bowenoid papulosis (BP) is a disease that mainly occurs in sexually active young adults. The patients present with multiple pigmented papular lesions with a verrucous surface on the anogenital area. Although extragenital BP is usually associated with concomitant genital involvement, a few cases of isolated extragenital BP have been reported. However, to our knowledge, BP of the nipple has not yet been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with isolated extragenital BP of the nipple caused by human papillomavirus-16.
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Restrictive Strabismus and Diplopia 2 Years After Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy With Medpor-Coated Tear Drain.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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A 19-year-old woman who underwent conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with Medpor-Coated Tear Drain 2 years ago presented with diplopia on left gaze for 4 months. Limitation of extraocular movement of OS on left gaze was observed on duction test. The forced duction test revealed restriction of the left medial rectus muscle. Orbital MRI demonstrated an enhancing soft tissue lesion surrounding the tube in inferomedial aspect of left orbit. Removal of the tube and adhesiolysis were performed. Histologic findings were consistent with a chronic inflammation with fibrosis. After surgery, limitation of extraocular movement and diplopia were completely resolved. Jones tube coated with a thin layer of porous polyethylene allows the ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue into the coating, decreasing the probability of tube extrusion, but can also accelerate fibrotic changes around the tube causing restrictive strabismus.
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Comparison of putative circulating cancer stem cell detection between the hepatic portal system and peripheral blood in colorectal cancer patients.
Ann Surg Treat Res
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The present pilot study was conducted to detect putative cancer stem cell (CSC) from the hepatic portal system and peripheral blood in the colorectal cancer patients and to compare them to healthy donor and diverticulitis patients.
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Development of an integrated reporting system for verifying hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia in clinical chemistry results.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) cause preanalytical interference and vary unpredictably with different analytical equipments and measurement methods. We developed an integrated reporting system for verifying HIL status in order to identify the extent of interference by HIL on clinical chemistry results.
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An optimized extraction technique for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from the Camellia japonica seed cake by using response surface methodology.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions for the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity and extraction yield from Camellia japonica seed cake. Predicted values for AchE inhibition and extraction yield were 19.41 and 13.35%, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental values from validation, suggesting that RSM may provide a useful tool to optimization processes.
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The Role of TWIST in Ovarian Epithelial Cancers.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with tumor hypoxia. EMT is regulated, in part, by the action of TWIST, which inhibits of E-cadherin expression and may interfere with the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
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NAA10 controls osteoblast differentiation and bone formation as a feedback regulator of Runx2.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) transactivates many genes required for osteoblast differentiation. The role of N-?-acetyltransferase 10 (NAA10, arrest-defective-1), originally identified in yeast, remains poorly understood in mammals. Here we report a new NAA10 function in Runx2-mediated osteogenesis. Runx2 stabilizes NAA10 in osteoblasts during BMP-2-induced differentiation, and NAA10 in turn controls this differentiation by inhibiting Runx2. NAA10 delays bone healing in a rat calvarial defect model and bone development in neonatal mice. Mechanistically, NAA10 acetylates Runx2 at Lys225, and this acetylation inhibits Runx2-driven transcription by interfering with CBF? binding to Runx2. Our study suggests that NAA10 acts as a guard ensuring balanced osteogenesis by fine-tuning Runx2 signalling in a feedback manner. NAA10 inhibition could be considered a potential strategy for facilitating bone formation.
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Paleoparasitological studies on mummies of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Paleoparasitology is the application of conventional or molecular investigative techniques to archeological samples in order to reveal parasitic infection patterns among past populations. Although pioneering studies already have reported key paleoparasitological findings around the world, the same sorts of studies had not, until very recently, been conducted in sufficient numbers in Korea. Mummified remains of individuals dating to the Korean Joseon Dynasty actually have proved very meaningful to concerned researchers, owing particularly to their superb preservation status, which makes them ideal subjects for paleoparasitological studies. Over the past several years, our study series on Korean mummies has yielded very pertinent data on parasitic infection patterns prevailing among certain Joseon Dynasty populations. In this short review, we summarized the findings and achievements of our recent paleoparasitological examinations of Joseon mummies and discussed about the prospects for future research in this vein.
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Self-reported snoring and carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older adults: the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.
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Risk factors and rate of progression for zone I versus zone II type 1 retinopathy of prematurity.
J AAPOS
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To compare the risk factors and rate of progression of zone I versus zone II type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
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Broth microdilution methods using B-lactamase inhibitors for the identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases and metallo-?-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the broth microdilution (BMD) test in detecting the production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli by using various ?-lactamase inhibitors. A carbapenemase detection test, comprised of Mueller-Hinton broth containing serial twofold dilutions of imipenem or meropenem with and without aminophenylboronic acid (APB), phenylboronic acid (PB), cloxacillin (CLX), dipicolinic acid (DPA), or EDTA, was evaluated against 31 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with KPC, 21 MBL-producers (3 Enterobacteriaceae and 18 non-fermenters), and 26 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains. A threefold or greater decrease in the MIC of imipenem or meropenem with ?-lactamase inhibitors, when compared with the imipenem or meropenem alone, was considered a positive result. Imipenem with and without PB had the most comparable sensitivity (93.5%) and specificity (93.6%) for the detection of K. pneumoniae with KPC enzymes if the additional criterion of a negative CLX result was included. Both DPA and EDTA had excellent sensitivity (imipenem with and without DPA vs. EDTA, 90.5% vs. 95.2%) and specificity (imipenem with and without DPA vs. EDTA, 98.2% vs. 100%) for the detection of MBL-producing gram-negative bacilli. The comparative study showed that, by using imipenem with and without PB, CLX, and EDTA, the BMD test was effective in detecting KPC and MBL enzymes. The BMD test could be applied for routine use in commercially available semiautomated systems for the detection of KPCs and MBLs in gram-negative bacilli.
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Quality evaluation on use of camellia oil as an alternative method in dried seaweed preparation.
Prev Nutr Food Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The fatty acid and volatile compound compositions of camellia oil were analyzed in this study. The impacts of the replacement of conventional vegetable oil with camellia oil on the sensory attributes of dried seaweed were also determined. C18:1 (83.59%), followed by C16:0 and C18:2, were the most abundant fatty acids in camellia oil. A total of 11 and 32 volatile compounds were identified in camellia oil and sesame oil, respectively. In the preference test, the camellia oil samples received a higher, although insignificant, liking rating in overall acceptability of appearance. Overall, there were no differences between the sensory attributes of camellia oil and sesame oil. This finding, combined with the unique fatty acid composition, thermal stability, and health benefits of camellia oil indicate that further study into the use of camellia oil in foods is warranted.
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Correlation of sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.
J Mov Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients.
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Comparison of potential risks between intracranial and extracranial vertebral artery dissections.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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To better understand potential risks for vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD), we compared intracranial and extracranial VADs.
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The effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption on serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Caffeine, a commonly consumed food constituent, is known to exert beneficial physiological effects in humans. There is a lack of comprehensive population data for the effects of caffeine intake on urate metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether coffee, tea, and caffeine intake influences serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. We enrolled 9,400 participants in this study. An assessment of various dietary intake amounts of substances such as coffee and tea was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. The content of caffeine was calculated from coffee (74 mg/cup) and tea (15 mg/cup) intake information from the past year. Multivariate logistic regression models, multiple linear regression models, and analysis of covariance were applied to identify any association of dietary intake with serum uric acid levels or the risk of hyperuricemia. No trends for coffee, tea, or caffeine intake were found according to each quintile with serum uric acid in males, although there were weak, marginally significant trends between the content of coffee and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in females (p = 0.07 for both). Tea intake in males and caffeine intake in females were significantly different between non-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). In addition, a significant association of serum uric acid level with tea intake in males (? = 0.0006, p = 0.02) and with tea intake and caffeine intake in females (? = 0.0003, p = 0.04 and ? = 0.0006, p = 0.02, respectively) was observed. There was no effect of coffee, tea, or caffeine intake on the risk of hyperuricemia in either males or females. This study suggests that caffeine consumption might have an effect on serum uric acid in females. However, coffee, tea, and caffeine intake amounts were not associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.
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Urchin-like polypyrrole nanoparticles for highly sensitive and selective chemiresistive sensor application.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Urchin-like polypyrrole (U_PPy) nanoparticles with various diameters were fabricated using a dual-nozzle electrospray and vapor deposition polymerization (VDP). Metal oxide nanoneedle-decorated PPy (FePPy) particles were fabricated as starting materials for deposition of a PPy layer on the metal oxide surface. The FePPy particles were prepared by heating and stirring an aqueous solution of the metal precursor and electrosprayed PPy (E_PPy) particles with nucleated sites on the surface. U_PPys with a maximized surface area were then formed by soaking in an initiator solution followed by VPD. The U_PPy particles were evaluated in various hazardous chemical gas sensors at room temperature. Because of their larger surface area, U_PPy based chemiresistive sensors exhibited greater sensitivity and ca. 10-100 times higher minimum detectable levels (MDLs) of common analytes than pristine PPy particle-based sensors. For example, the MDL of NH? was approximately 0.01 ppm, which is better than that observed for other conducting polymer nanostructures. Our new fabrication methodology promises to be an effective approach for fabrication of hybrid nanostructures for future sensing technologies.
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Fe3O4/carbon hybrid nanoparticle electrodes for high-capacity electrochemical capacitors.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Fe3O4/carbon hybrid nanoparticles (FeCHNPs) were fabricated using dual-nozzle electrospraying, vapor deposition polymerization (VDP), and carbonization. FeOOH nanoneedles decorated with polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (FePNPs) were fabricated by electrospraying pristine PPy mixed with FeCl3 solution, followed by heating stirring reaction. A PPy coating was then formed on the FeOOH nanoneedles through a VDP process. FeCHNPs were produced through carbonization of PPy and FeOOH phase transitions. These hybrid carbon nanoparticles (NPs) were used to build electrodes of electrochemical capacitors. The specific capacitance of the FeCHNPs was 455?F?g(-1), which is larger than that of pristine PPy NPs (105?F?g(-1)) or other hybrid PPy NPs. Furthermore, the FeCHNP-based capacitors exhibited better cycle stability during charge-discharge cycling than other hybrid NP capacitors. This is because the carbon layer on the Fe3 O4 surface formed a protective coating, preventing damage to the electrode materials during the charge-discharge processes. This fabrication technique is an effective approach for forming stable carbon/metal oxide nanostructures for energy storage applications.
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Berberine prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and suppresses hippocampal apoptosis in mice with Parkinson's disease.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a reduction in striatal dopaminergic fibers, which result in tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia and gait disturbance. In addition to motor dysfunction, dementia is a widely recognized symptom of patients with PD. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L., is known to exert anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on short-term memory in relation to dopamine depletion and hippocampal neurogenesis using a mouse model of PD, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/P) treatment. Mice in the berberine-treated groups were orally administered berberine once a day for a total of 5 weeks. Our results revealed that the injection of MPTP/P induced dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra and fiber loss in the striatum. This resulted in impaired motor balance and coordination, as assessed by the beam walking test. We further demonstrated that MPTP/P-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus deteriorated short-term memory, as shown by the step-down avoidance task. By contrast, neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, which is a compensatory adaptive response to excessive apoptosis, was increased upon PD induction. However, treatment with berberine enhanced motor balance and coordination by preventing dopaminergic neuronal damage. Treatment with berberine also improved short-term memory by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Berberine demonstrated maximal potency at 50 mg/kg. Based on these data, treatment with berberine may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of memory impairment and motor dysfunction in patients with PD.
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Treadmill exercise reduces spinal cord injury-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Apoptosis occurring secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) causes further neural damage and functional loss. In this study, a rat model was used to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on SCI-induced apoptosis and expression of neurotrophic factors. To produce SCI, a contusion injury (10 g × 25 mm) was applied subsequent to laminectomy at the T9-T10 level. Following SCI, treadmill exercise was performed for six weeks. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated with a grid-walking test. The expression of neurotrophic factors and the level of apoptosis at the site of SCI were determined by western blotting. SCI reduced hindlimb motor function and suppressed expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the ratio of phosphorylated Akt to Akt (pAkt/Akt) and the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) to Bax (Bcl-2/Bax) were decreased, and cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased by SCI. Treadmill exercise enhanced hindlimb motor function and increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI rats. Treadmill exercise increased PI3K expression, the pAkt/Akt and the Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and suppressed cleaved caspase-3 expression in the injured spinal cord. This study demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes the recovery of motor function by suppressing apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. The beneficial effect of exercise may be attributed to the increase in expression of neurotrophic factors via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
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The effect of vitamin C intake on the risk of hyperuricemia and serum uric acid level in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the association between vitamin C intake and risk of hyperuricemia or serum uric acid levels in male and female subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Prospective Cohort.
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Association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia: lack of association with schizophrenia and possible association with affective disturbances of schizophrenia.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) catalyzes monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), and norepinephrine. MAOA also plays a key role in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MAOA gene located on the X chromosome and schizophrenia. We also analyzed the relationships between these SNPs and the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia such as persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, affective disturbances, and poor concentration. Two hundred seventy five Korean schizophrenia patients and 289 control subjects were recruited. Three SNPs [rs6323 (Arg294Arg), rs1137070 (Asp470Asp), and rs3027407 (3'-untranslated region)] of the MAOA gene were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing. The common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia according to the Operation Criteria Checklist were analyzed. Three examined SNPs showed no associations with male and female schizophrenia, respectively (p>0.05). In the analysis of the common clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, three examined SNPs were associated with affective disturbances, especially restricted affect and blunted affect in male schizophrenia, respectively (restricted affect, p=0.002, OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.45-5.00; blunted affect, p=0.009, OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.22-4.12). The SNPs were not associated with other clinical symptoms of schizophrenia (persecutory delusion, auditory hallucinations, and poor concentration). These results suggest that exonic SNPs (rs6323, rs1137070, and rs3027407) of the MAOA gene may be contributed to affective disturbances of Korean males schizophrenia, especially restricted affect and blunted affect.
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Harris lines observed in human skeletons of Joseon Dynasty, Korea.
Anat Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The Harris line (HL), caused by bone-growth arrest and manifesting on X-rays as a radiopaque transverse line in the metaphysis of the long bones, is an indicator reflecting stress conditions such as disease or malnutrition. HL frequency has been assumed to differ between pre-modern and modern societies, as reflective of increased caloric intake and overall nutritional improvements attendant on industrialization. To determine if such a change occurred in Korea, in the present study we compared the respective HL statuses in medieval Joseon and modern Korean population samples. HLs were found in 39.4% (28/71) of the Joseon Koreans. Whereas only 27.5% (11/40) of the males showed an HL, fully 54.8% (17/31) of the females exhibited it. Notably, HLs were observed in only 16.4% (35/213) of the modern Koreans; more remarkably still, the HL rate was almost the same between the sexes, 16.7% (20/120) for the males and 16.1% (15/93) for the females. The HL frequency was much higher in the Joseon Koreans than in their modern counterparts, reflecting the improvement of nutritional status that had been achieved in the course of South Korea's modernization. This HL-frequency decrease was much more obvious in the female populations. The higher HL frequency among the Joseon females might reflect the relatively poor nutritional condition of females in pre-modern Korean society.
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Antibacterial effect of self-etching adhesive systems on Streptococcus mutans.
Restor Dent Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of self-etching adhesive systems against Streptococcus mutans using the agar diffusion method.
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Immunosuppressive effects of fisetin against dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial chronic skin disorder that is increasing in prevalence globally. In NC/Nga mice, repetitive epicutaneous applications of 2-4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces AD-like clinical symptoms. Bioflanonol fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a dietary component found in plants, fruits and vegetables. Fisetin has various physiological effects that include anti-oxidation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-carcinogenesis and anti-inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin relieves AD-like clinical symptoms induced by repeated DNFB treatment in NC/Nga mice. Fisetin significantly inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophils, mast cells and CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells, and suppressed the expressions of cytokines and chemokines associated with dermal infiltrates in AD-like skin lesions. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and the ratio of phospho-NF-?B p65 to total NF-?B p65 were markedly reduced by fisetin. Fisetin also reduced the production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 by activated CD4(+) T cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 was increased. These results implicate fisetin as a potential therapeutic for AD.
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V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies.
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Differential roles of Sirt1 in HIF-1? and HIF-2? mediated hypoxic responses.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Hypoxia-inducible factors 1? and 2? (HIF-1? and HIF-2?) determine cancer cell fate under hypoxia. Despite the similarities of their structures, HIF-1? and HIF-2? have distinct roles in cancer growth under hypoxia, that is, HIF-1? induces growth arrest whereas HIF-2? promotes cell growth. Recently, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) was reported to fine-tune cellular responses to hypoxia by deacetylating HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Yet, the roles of Sirt1 in HIF-1? and HIF-2? functions have been controversial. We here investigated the precise roles of Sirt1 in HIF-1? and HIF-2? regulations. Immunological analyses revealed that HIF-1? K674 and HIF-2? K741 are acetylated by PCAF and CBP, respectively, but are deacetylated commonly by Sirt1. In the Gal4 reporter systems, Sirt1 was found to repress HIF-1? activity constantly in ten cancer cell-lines but to regulate HIF-2? activity cell type-dependently. Moreover, Sirt1 determined cell growth under hypoxia depending on HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Under hypoxia, Sirt1 promoted cell proliferation of HepG2, in which Sirt1 differentially regulates HIF-1? and HIF-2?. In contrast, such an effect of Sirt1 was not shown in HCT116, in which Sirt1 inactivates both HIF-1? and HIF-2? because conflicting actions of HIF-1? and HIF-2? on cell growth may be offset. Our results provide a better understanding of the roles of Sirt1 in HIF-mediated hypoxic responses and also a basic concept for developing anticancer strategy targeting Sirt1.
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Plant homeodomain finger protein 2 promotes bone formation by demethylating and activating Runx2 for osteoblast differentiation.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Plant homeodomain finger protein 2 (PHF2), which contains a plant homeodomain and a Jumonji-C domain, is an epigenetic regulator that demethylates lysine 9 in histone 3 (H3K9me2). On the other hand, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) plays essential roles in bone development and regeneration. Given previous reports that the PHF2 mutation can cause dwarfism in mice and that PHF2 expression is correlated with that of Runx2 in differentiating thymocytes, we investigated whether PHF2 regulates Runx2-mediated bone formation. Overexpression of PHF2 facilitated bone development in newborn mice, and viral shRNA-mediated knockdown of PHF2 delayed calvarial bone regeneration in adult rats. In primary osteoblasts and C2C12 precursor cells, PHF2 enhances osteoblast differentiation by demethylating Runx2, while suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1) inhibits bone formation by methylating it. The PHF2-Runx2 interaction is mediated by the Jumonji-C and Runt domains of the two proteins, respectively. The interaction between Runx2 and osteocalcin promoter is regulated by the methylation status of Runx2, i.e., the interaction is augmented when Runx2 is demethylated. Our results suggest that SUV39H1 and PHF2 reciprocally regulate osteoblast differentiation by modulating Runx2-driven transcription at the post-translational level. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the development of new therapeutic modalities for patients with impaired bone development or delayed fracture healing.
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A possible case of cherubism in a 17th-century Korean mummy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic "cherubic" phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous "ground-glass" sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism.
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Radiological diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in 17th century Korean mummy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained.
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SIRT1 and AMPK Mediate Hypoxia-Induced Resistance of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers to Cisplatin and Doxorubicin.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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SIRT1 is an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase induced by metabolic stresses, such as nutrition or oxygen deprivation. Although SIRT1 contributes to aging and metabolic disorders, its role in cancer progression and therapeutic responses remains controversial. Because hypoxia occurs widely in solid tumors, where it provokes drug resistance, we investigated the involvement of SIRT1 in hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. SIRT1 was downregulated in a panel of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells exposed to hypoxia for 48 hours. The master metabolic kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was inactivated under the same conditions, likely due to attenuation of the SIRT1/LKB1-mediated AMPK activation process. Notably, hypoxic inactivation of this SIRT1-AMPK pathway led to cisplatin and doxorubicin resistance. Mechanistic investigations suggested that this pathway supported the cytotoxic response to cisplatin and doxorubicin by licensing an apoptotic process controlled by mitochondria. We confirmed the involvement of this pathway in a mouse xenograft model of human NSCLC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a SIRT1 activator SRT1720 augmented the antitumor effects of cisplatin, and these effects could be blocked by administration of an AMPK inhibitor compound C. Taken together, our results offer preclinical proof-of-concept to target the SIRT1-AMPK pathway as a strategy to overcome hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in NSCLC. Cancer Res; 74(1); 1-11. ©2013 AACR.
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Effects of brussels sprouts and their phytochemical components on oxidative stress-induced neuronal damages in PC12 cells and ICR mice.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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In this study, the protective effects of Brussels sprouts extract and its major constituents against oxidative stress-induced damages were investigated in rat pheochromocytoma cells and Institute of Cancer Research mice. The major constituents of Brussels sprouts (3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), indole-3-carbinol, and phenethyl isothiocyanate) were selectively tested. Of these, the flavonoid compound, kaempferol exhibited the highest potency in radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay) and was most protective against oxidative stress in neuronal cell assays (measurement of intracellular oxidative stress levels and cell viability). In mice, after 4 weeks of kaempferol administration, significant protection against amyloid beta (A?) peptide-induced neurotoxicity was also observed, as assessed through the passive avoidance test. Taken together, the results suggest that Brussels sprouts could be protective against A?-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its major constituent, kaempferol.
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Multidimensional polypyrrole/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid nanoparticles for chemical nerve gas agent sensing application.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Multidimensional FeOOH nanoneedle-decorated hybrid polypyrrole nanoparticles (PFFs) were fabricated using dual-nozzle electrospray and heat stirring process. To decorate metal oxide nanoneedles on the polypyrrole (PPy) surface, metal oxide particle-decorated PPys (E_PPy) were fabricated as starting materials. The E_PPy particles were prepared by dual-nozzle electrospray because ferric ions (Fe(3+)) dispersed on the surface reacted with hydroxide (OH(-)) ions in the collector solution without aggregation of each particles. Multidimensional hybrid PFFs with maximized surface area were then formed by heat stirring reaction in the aqueous metal precursor contained solutions. The decoration morphology of the metal oxide nanoneedles could be controlled by precursor concentration in the aqueous solution. These multidimensional hybrid PPFs were applied to nerve gas agent (DMMP) chemical sensor at room temperature with excellent sensitivity. The minimum detectable level (MDL) of PFFs was as low as 0.1 ppb, which is higher than that for a chemical sensor based on hybrid materials. This is because the metal oxide nanoneedles increase surface area and affinity to DMMP vapor.
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Combating resistance to anti-IGFR antibody by targeting the integrin ?3-Src pathway.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Several phase II/III trials of anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have shown limited efficacy. The mechanisms of resistance to IGF-1R mAb-based therapies and clinically applicable strategies for overcoming drug resistance are still undefined.
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2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from sweet potato protects against oxidative stress in PC12 cells and in mice.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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In this study, the protective effect of sweet potato extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity on the pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) was investigated. The active component of the sweet potato extract was purified and determined to be 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. The antioxidant capacity of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol was measured by using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical. To examine the effects of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol on amyloid-beta peptide (A?1????)-induced learning and memory impairment in mice, in vivo behavioral tests were performed. Administration of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol increased alternation behavior in mice injected with A?????. These results suggest that sweet potato extract could be protective against A?-induced neurotoxicity, possibly due to the antioxidative capacity of its constituent, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol.
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Rubus coreanus Miquel inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and prevents cognitive impairment in a mouse model of dementia.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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To find acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors for the prevention of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimers disease, ethanol extracts of promising traditional edible Korean plants were tested. Among them, Rubus coreanus Miquel extract exhibited the most significant AChE inhibitory activity. The effect of R. coreanus extract on trimethyltin-induced memory impairment in mice was investigated using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Our results showed that administration of R. coreanus extract significantly improved alternation behavior and step-through latency. In addition, R. coreanus extract was sequentially fractionated, and the purified constituent was determined to be 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid.
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The Changing Pattern of Parasitic Infection among Korean Populations by Paleoparasitological Study of Joseon Dynasty Mummies.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Abstract In the coprolites of 4 recently discovered Joseon mummies of Korea, we found Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Metagonimus yokogawai, Paragonimus westermani, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. The current finding was compared with previous paleoparasitological data, and with recent national survey data from Korea. In A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, similar patterns of infection prevalence were observed between the national survey of 1961 and our current Joseon data. Some of the trematode species (C. sinenesis and P. westermani) showed much higher infection prevalences among the Joseon Koreans than among their 1960s descendants. The present results indicate that the decrease in trematode infection rates might have begun earlier than was the case for nematode infection.
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Metallic discoloration on the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The differential diagnosis of bluish-gray pigmentation of the skin includes dermal melanocytosis, malignant melanoma and metallic discoloration. Of these disorders, metallic discoloration, which develops from deposits of fine metallic particles on the skin, is an uncommon dermatologic disease. We report a case of metallic discoloration of the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement. The patient had bluish-gray pigmentation on her right shin as well as pain while walking. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion showed abundant black particles in the perivascular area of the lower dermis. Polarizing microscopy revealed refractile foreign materials in the dermis. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer unit attached to a transmission electron microscope detected titanium and aluminium peaks in the specimen.
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Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean population: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.
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The impact of serum uric acid level on arterial stiffness and carotid atherosclerosis: the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Serum uric acid level has been found to be associated with a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the topic has not been explored in the general population, especially in Korea. This study was designed to determine whether serum uric acid is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort study.
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Suicidal ideation and occupational pesticide exposure among male farmers.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The occupation of farming has been reported to be associated with a high suicide rate, and suicidal ideation is an important risk factor for suicide. The objective of this study was to explore the association between occupational pesticide exposure or poisoning history and suicidal ideation among male farmers in South Korea.
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Improvement of short tandem repeat analysis of samples highly contaminated by humic acid.
J Forensic Leg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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We investigated several methods for obtaining successful short tandem repeat (STR) results from high-humic acid (HA)-content samples. DNA purification efficiency was tested for QIAquick(®) PCR Purification, QIAamp(®) DNA Investigator and Prepfiler™ Forensic DNA Extraction kits. HA-removal capacity of Inhibitor Remover and InhibitEX(®) Tablet was tested. Experiments on overcoming HA effects on STR amplification were conducted using an AmpliTaq Gold(®) DNA Polymerase and a TaKaRa Ex Taq™ Hot Start Version (Ex Taq HS) with BSA addition. QIAquick kit was most efficient in HA removal and Ex Taq HS showed high resistance to HA. Increasing the amounts of Taq polymerases and BSA addition were shown to be efficient in overcoming PCR inhibition, but BSA addition was superior to the former method. Inhibitor Remover and InhibitEX(®) Tablet did not positively affect the STR results. This study will help achieve better STR results with high-HA-content samples.
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Nodal status of central lymph nodes as a negative prognostic factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The status of metastatic lymph nodes, including the size and extracapsular spread (ECS), in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has not been well established. This study evaluated the correlation between the specific status of central lymph node metastases (CLNM) and negative prognostic factors.
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Amplification of DNA remnants in mummified human brains from medieval Joseon tombs of Korea.
Anthropol Anz
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Recently, a number of mummified brains obtained from the remains of medieval Joseon Koreans have been subjected to biological investigations. Although the morphology of the organs had been perfectly maintained on gross examination, we still do not know how well biomolecules such as DNA were preserved. In the present study, the preservation status of remnant DNA in mummified brain tissue was determined by means of comparisons with corresponding DNA taken from the femurs of the same subjects. Quantifiler analysis revealed that DNA from the mummified brain was less fragmented than that contained in the femurs. The better preservation status of the brain DNA was shown also in MiniFiler assays: the number of short tandem repeat (STR) locus profiles for the mummified brain was far higher than in the case of the femur bones. In the case of the mtDNA analysis, longer DNA fragments (821 bp) could be successfully amplified with brain samples, whereas only shorter PCR amplicons (221-263 bp) were seen with the femur samples. Indeed mummified brain tissue, if discovered in amounts suitable for ancient DNA analysis, promises to be the preferred source for genetic analysis of individuals from pre-modern Korean tombs.
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Inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the spleen: a report of six cases with increased IgG4-positive plasma cells.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT)-like follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a rare neoplasm typically occurring in the spleen or liver. We present six cases of EBV(+) IPT-like FDC sarcoma of the spleen among Koreans along with their clinicopathologic features and IHC results. Most patients presented with an asymptomatic, incidentally detected single splenic mass and were successfully managed by splenectomy alone. Concomitant disease was found in one case, showing EBV(+) gastric carcinoma with lymphoid-rich stroma. Histologic features showed fibro-inflammatory lesions that were often accompanied by necrosis and epithelioid histiocytic collection, which are barely distinguishable from IPT. Tumor cells did not frequently express conventional FDC markers, including CD21 (3/6 positive cases), clusterin (4/6), and D2-40 (2/6), but showed uniform positivity for smooth muscle actin (SMA). Noticeably, significant numbers of IgG4(+) plasma cells were found within all six tumors. We suggest that the diagnosis of IPT-like FDC sarcoma should be made by the application of a panel of FDC markers, and CD21 negativity or SMA positivity cannot be the criterion for exclusion of IPT-like FDC sarcoma. Relationship of IPT-like FDC sarcoma of the spleen and IgG4-related sclerosing disease should be investigated in further studies.
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Self-reported snoring and metabolic syndrome: the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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We investigated the association between self-reported snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among a community-dwelling Korean population.
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Proteomic and cytokine plasma biomarkers for predicting progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma in human patients.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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In the present study, we screened proteomic and cytokine biomarkers between patients with adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer (CRC) in order to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind turmorigenesis and tumor progression in CRC. To this end, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of plasma proteins using a combination of 2DE and MS as well as profiled differentially regulated cytokines and chemokines by multiplex bead analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 11 upregulated and 13 downregulated plasma proteins showing significantly different regulation patterns with diagnostic potential for predicting progression from adenoma to carcinoma. Some of these proteins have not previously been implicated in CRC, including upregulated leucine-rich ?-2-glycoprotein, hemoglobin subunit ?, Ig ?-2 chain C region, and complement factor B as well as downregulated afamin, zinc-?-2-glycoprotein, vitronectin, and ?-1-antichymotrypsin. In addition, plasma levels of three cytokines/chemokines, including interleukin-8, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, and tumor necrosis factor ?, were remarkably elevated in patients with CRC compared to those with adenomatous polyps. Although further clinical validation is required, these proteins and cytokines can be established as novel biomarkers for CRC and/or its progression from colon adenoma.
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Paleoparasitological surveys for detection of helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations.
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Relation between left atrial enlargement and stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke patients.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Increased atrial size is frequently seen in ischemic stroke patients in clinical practice. There is controversy about whether left atrial enlargement (LAE) should be regarded as a risk factor for cerebral infarction. We investigated the association between indexed left atrial volume (LAVI) and conventional stroke risk factors as well as stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke patients.
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Cardiovascular autonomic function in lateral medullary infarction.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Even though the medulla contains the baroreceptor regulatory centers, few studies have focused on the autonomic dysfunction of lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Therefore, cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic functions were compared in LMI patients and age-matched controls. We prospectively recruited 25 LMI patients who had ipsilateral Horners sign and cardiac autonomic function testing without a history of diabetes, cardiac disease, or previous stroke. Parasympathetic function tests included beat-to-beat heart rate variation during deep breathing, 30:15 heart rate ratio testing while standing, and the valsalva ratio. Sympathetic function tests included blood pressure during active standing and sustained handgrip. The composite autonomic score (CAS) was measured as a total of 10 points; parasympathetic dysfunction was designated as ?3 points in the parasympathetic subscores and sympathetic dysfunction as ?2 points in the sympathetic subscores. Multiple regression analysis was performed to predict parasympathetic or sympathetic dysfunction. The mean age and stroke risk factors of the study population were not significantly different between the LMI group (n = 25) and control group (n = 29). However, cardiac autonomic functions were significantly different in the groups: parasympathetic dysfunction (14 vs. 4 patients, p = 0.011) and sympathetic dysfunction (3 vs. 13 patients, p = 0.008). In univariate analysis, male-gender (p = 0.011), right-side involvement (p = 0.035) and ventral involvement (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with parasympathetic dysfunction (CAS subscore ?3). In multivariable analysis, the ventral involvement remained to be the independent predictor for parasympathetic dysfunction (OR 16.0; 95% CI 2.2-118.3, p = 0.007). This study suggests that LMI patients are susceptible to cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction, especially in the ventral medulla.
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Historical Study on Factors Inducing Soil- Transmitted Helminth Infection among People of Old Seoul City during Joseon Dynasty.
Uisahak
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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In a series of paleo-parasitological investigations, we have been able to obtain invaluable data on parasite infection patterns prevalent among the Joseon (1392-1910) people in Korea. Thus far we have established that the Joseon people were in fact heavily infected by various species of parasites, though precise patterns and exact statuses of infection in specific town and cities have proved elusive. In the present study, relevant historical documentation was obtained and examined, shedding light on some of the operative socio-cultural factors that might have played a role in inducing a high infection prevalence of Ascaris, a soil-transmitted roundworm, in Joseon society. On this evidentiary basis, we could confirm that the recycling of human feces as fertilizer and the habit of eating raw vegetables were both closely related to infection. These factors were sufficient to maintain the life cycle of Ascaris, there by perpetuating a cycle of infection and reinfection among the Joseon inhabitants. Overall, this study demonstrated the value of close medical-scientist / historian interdisciplinary collaboration infacilitating comprehensive and meaningful paleo-parasitological findings and interpretations.
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Nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by oncocytic carcinoma.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Here, we report an extremely rare case of acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by oncocytic carcinoma. A 64-year-old man presented to the hospital complaining of epiphora and left-side nasal obstruction. Ophthalmic and otolaryngology examination revealed a left lacrimal duct obstruction caused by a mass in the left nasal cavity and lacrimal drainage system. The mass was removed and confirmed as an oncocytic carcinoma. Nine months after surgery, without adjuvant radiotherapy, a left orbital mass was observed and the patient underwent reoperation. The mass proved to be recurrent oncocytic carcinoma. The patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy to eradicate any residual tumor and the patient remains tumor-free one year post-radiotherapy.
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Migraine with aura: a predictor of patent foramen ovale in children and adolescents.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) is higher among adult migraine patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of PFO in children and adolescent migraine patients.
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The Risk Factors for Discrepancy After Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of Gastric Category 3 Lesion (Low Grade Dysplasia).
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Treatment with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric category 3 lesion (low grade dysplasia, LGD) diagnosed by endoscopic forceps biopsy (EFB) is controversial.
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Distal subclavian artery occlusion causing multiple cerebral infarcts consequence of retrograde flow of a thrombus?
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Intracranial embolization usually arises from the heart, a vertebrobasilar artery, a carotid artery, or the aorta, but rarely from the distal subclavian artery upstream of an embolus. We report on a patient who experienced left shoulder and forearm pain with weak blood pressure and pulse followed by concurrent onset of left hemiplegia. This case is a rare example of multiple cerebral embolic infarctions, which developed as a complication of distal subclavian artery thrombosis possibly associated with protein S deficiency.
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A synergistic interaction between transcription factors nuclear factor-?B and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) has been implicated in gastric cancer metastasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of the interaction between NF-?B and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in controlling metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells.
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Long bone fractures identified in the Joseon Dynasty human skeletons of Korea.
Anat Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Fracture is one of the pathological signs most frequently encountered in archaeologically obtained bones. To expand the paleopathological knowledge on traumatic injuries, it is desirable to secure data on long bone fractures from as wide a geographic and temporal range as possible. We present, for the first time, evidence of long bone fractures in a 16th-18th century Joseon skeletal series (n=96). In this study, we found 3 Colles fractures of the radius in 2 individual cases. The pattern of fractures was unique. Although previous reports show that the ulna is broken more often than the radius, ulnar fracture associated with fending off a blunt attack was rare in our series (1/7 cases). Transverse fractures, typically caused by intentional violence, were also very rare (1/7 cases) in this study. These results may reflect the relatively tranquil lives of the Joseon people in 16th-18th century Korea. We also found post-fracture complications such as deformations, bone length shortening, and osteomyelitis. The present study would be of interest to medical scientists in related fields because it is one of the few studies conducted on long bone fractures among pre-modern societies in East Asian countries, thus far.
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TNF-? polymorphisms and coronary artery disease: association study in the Korean population.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) results from atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease mediated in part by proinflammatory cytokines, particularly tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), which is expressed by atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we investigated whether TNF-? gene promoter polymorphisms affect the incidence of CAD in Koreans by genotyping. 404 Control subjects and 197 patients who previously received a coronary artery stent for the G/A, C/T, and C/A polymorphisms at position -238, -857 and -863, respectively. The G/G, G/A and A/A genotypes at position -238 occurred in 85.8%, 14.2% and 0% CAD patients and 91.8%, 7.9% and 0.3% control subjects, respectively. The G/A polymorphisms at position -238 were significantly associated with CAD when assuming a dominant model of inheritance (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.10-3.20; P = 0.02), and A allele carriers had a significantly increased risk of developing CAD relative to the G allele (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.04-2.92; P = 0.03). However, the polymorphisms at positions -857 and -863 were not associated with CAD. Haplotype-based analysis revealed the CAD and control groups differed significantly in the frequencies of haplotype ACC at positions -238, -857 and -863 (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.05-2.98; P = 0.03). This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after adjusting body mass index and the presence of diabetes and hypertension (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.15-3.68; P = 0.015). Thus, the -238A allele of TNF-? is associated with an increased risk of CAD and could be used as predictor for CAD in Koreans. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical implications of these findings.
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Association between Interferon-Inducible Protein 6 (IFI6) Polymorphisms and Hepatitis B Virus Clearance.
Genomics Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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CD8+ T cells are key factors mediating hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance. However, these cells are killed through HBV-induced apoptosis during the antigen-presenting period in HBV-induced chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Interferon-inducible protein 6 (IFI6) delays type I interferon-induced apoptosis in cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IFI6 could affect the chronicity of CLD. The present study included a discovery stage, in which 195 CLD patients, including chronic hepatitis B (HEP) and cirrhosis patients and 107 spontaneous recovery (SR) controls, were analyzed. The genotype distributions of rs2808426 (C > T) and rs10902662 (C > T) were significantly different between the SR and HEP groups (odds ratio [OR], 6.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 26.52, p = 0.008 for both SNPs) and between the SR and CLD groups (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 15.26; p = 0.021 and OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.18 to 14.44; p = 0.027, respectively). The distribution of diplotypes that contained these SNPs was significantly different between the SR and HEP groups (OR, 6.58; 95% CI, 1.63 to 25.59; p = 0.008 and OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.61; p = 0.008, respectively) and between the SR and CLD groups (OR, 4.38; 95% CI, 1.25 to 15.26; p = 0.021 and OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.18 to 14.44; p = 0.027, respectively). We were unable to replicate the association shown by secondary enrolled samples. A large-scale validation study should be performed to confirm the association between IFI6 and HBV clearance.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.