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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Common-path and compact wavefront diagnosis system based on cross grating lateral shearing interferometer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A common-path and compact wavefront diagnosis system for both continuous and transient wavefronts measurement is proposed based on cross grating lateral shearing interferometer (CGLSI). Derived from the basic CGLSI configuration, this system employs an aplanatic lens to convert the wavefront under test into a convergent beam, which makes it possible for CGLSI to test the wavefront of collimated beams. A geometrical optics model for grating pitch determination and a Fresnel diffraction model for order selection mask design are presented. Then a detailed analysis about the influence of the grating pitch, the distance from the cross grating to the order selection mask and the numerical aperture of the aplanatic lens on the system error is made, and a calibration method is proposed to eliminate the system error. In addition, the differential Zernike polynomials fitting method is introduced for wavefront retrieval. Before our experiment, we have designed several grating pitches and their corresponding order selection mask parameters. In the final comparative experiment with ZYGO interferometer, the wavefront diagnosis system exhibits both high precision and repeatability.
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CT imaging during microwave ablation: Analysis of spatial and temporal tissue contraction.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To analyze the spatial distribution and temporal development of liver tissue contraction during high-temperature ablation by using intraprocedural computed tomography (CT) imaging.
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Recent Advances of Transition-Metal Catalyzed Radical Oxidative Cross-Couplings.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Conspectus Oxidative cross-coupling reactions between two nucleophiles are a powerful synthetic strategy to synthesize various kinds of functional molecules. Along with the development of transition-metal-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reactions, chemists are applying more and more first-row transition metal salts (Fe, Co, etc.) as catalysts. Since first-row transition metals often can go through multiple chemical valence changes, those oxidative cross-couplings can involve single electron transfer processes. In the meantime, chemists have developed diverse mechanistic hypotheses of these types of reactions. However, none of these hypotheses have led to conclusive reaction pathways until now. From studying both our own work and that of others in this field, we believe that radical oxidative cross-coupling reactions can be classified into four models based on the final bond formations. In this Account, we categorize and summarize these models. In model I, one of the starting nucleophiles initially loses one electron to generate its corresponding radical under oxidative conditions. Then, bond formations between this radical and another nucleophile create a new radical, [Nu(1)-Nu(2)](•), followed by a further radical oxidation step to generate the cross-coupling product. The radical oxidative alkenylation with olefin, radical oxidative arylative-annulation, and radical oxidative amidation are examples of this model. In model II, one of the starting nucleophiles loses its two electrons via two steps of single-electron-transfer to generate an electrophilic intermediate, followed by a direct bond formation with the other nucleophile. For example, the oxidative C-O coupling of benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds with carboxylic acids and oxidative C-N coupling of aldehydes with amides are members of this model group. For model III, both nucleophiles are oxidized to their corresponding radicals. Then, the radicals combine to form the final coupling product. The dioxygen-involved radical oxidative cross-couplings between sulfinic acids and olefins or alkynes belong to this bond formation model. Lastly, in model IV, one nucleophile loses two electrons to generate an electrophilic intermediate, while the other nucleophile loses one electron to generate a radical. Then, a bond forms between the cation and the radical to generate a cationic radical, followed by a one-electron reduction to afford the final coupling product. The oxidative coupling between arylboronic acids and simple ethers was classified in this model. At the current stage, there are only a few examples presented for models III and IV, but they represent two types of potentially important transformations. More and more examples of these two models will be developed in the future.
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Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes.
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Non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry for steep aspheric measurement.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A non-null annular subaperture stitching interferometry (NASSI), combining the subaperture stitching ideal and non-null test method, is proposed for steep aspheric testing. Compared with standard annular subaperture stitching interferometry (ASSI), a partial null lens (PNL) is employed as an alternative to the transmission sphere, to generate different aspherical wavefronts as the references. The coverage subaperture number would be reduced greatly for the better performance of aspherical wavefronts in matching the local slope of aspheric surfaces. In this way, relatively large overlapping areas can be obtained for adjustment errors correction while the error accumulation would be decreased. With the reverse optimization reconstruction (ROR) method for retrace error correction, the figure error of each subaperture can be retrieved accurately. Therefore, the testing accuracy and efficiency are thus increased. The dynamic test range is extended as well. A numerical simulation exhibits the comparison of the performance of the NASSI and standard ASSI, which demonstrates the high accuracy of the NASSI in testing steep aspheric. Experimental results of NASSI are shown to be in good agreement with those of the Zygo interferometer.
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Reverse optimization reconstruction of aspheric figure error in a non-null interferometer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Aspheric non-null testing, as an alternative to the traditional null testing, achieves more flexible measurements. However, figure-error reconstruction in non-null tests has always been difficult due to the presence of retrace error. A novel method with reverse optimization is proposed for aspheric figure-error reconstruction in a non-null interferometer. It is a generalized and effective approach based on system modeling and polynomial fitting. An optimization function is set with polynomial coefficients of the desired figure error as variables and those of the detected experimental wavefront as optimization targets. Through the reverse optimization process with iterative ray tracing, the optimal solutions can be extracted and the desired figure error is reconstructed with a simple fitting procedure. Numerical simulations verifying the high accuracy of the proposed method are presented with error considerations. A set of experiments has also been carried out to demonstrate the validity and repeatability of this method.
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Automated discrimination between digs and dust particles on optical surfaces with dark-field scattering microscopy.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To make the surface defects evaluation system (SDES) of fine flat optics more effective and reliable, the point-like defects on the surface are divided into two categories: digs and dust particles. Since only the digs are the real damages that should be sent for further investigation, the false signals associated with dust particles should be distinguished and removed. Dark-field scattering microscopy and pattern recognition methodology are combined to classify digs and dust particles. The SDES is employed for dark-field image acquisition of optical samples. Gray scale, texture, and morphology analyses are then conducted on each image to extract raw feature data, which are compressed with the principal component analysis. Based on the compressed feature data, the support vector machine is used to construct the classification model. The success discrimination rates are 96.56% for the training set and 93.90% for the prediction set. The classification results are presented to show the potential of this method to be used for practical digs and dust particles discrimination on the actual optical samples.
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Interaction of NS2 with AIMP2 Facilitates the Switch from Ubiquitination to SUMOylation of M1 in Influenza A Virus-Infected Cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Influenza A viruses (IAVs) rely on host factors to support their life cycle as viral proteins could "hijack" or interact with cellular proteins to execute their functions. Identification and understanding of these factors would increase the knowledge of molecular mechanisms manipulated by the viruses. In this study, we searched for novel binding partners of influenza NS2 protein, the nuclear export protein responsible for overcoming host-range restriction, by a yeast two-hybrid screening, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and identified AIMP2, a potent tumor suppressor that usually functions to regulate protein stability, as one of the major NS2-binding candidates. We found that the presence of NS2 protected AIMP2 from ubiquitin-mediated degradation in NS2-transfected cells and AIMP2 functioned as a positive regulator for IAV replication. Interestingly, AIMP2 had no significant effect on NS2 but enhanced stability of the matrix protein M1. We further provided evidence that AIMP2 recruitment switched the modification of M1 from ubiquitination to SUMOylation occurring on the same attachment site K242 on M1, and thereby promoted M1-mediated vRNPs nuclear export to increase viral replication. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism of AIMP2 in mediating influenza virus replication.
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Tacrolimus Versus Cyclosporine as Primary Immunosuppressant After Renal Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis and Economics Evaluation.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Tacrolimus and cyclosporine are the major immunosuppressants for renal transplantation. Several studies have compared these 2 drugs, but the outcomes were not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacoeconomics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in the treatment of renal transplantation and provide evidence for the selection of essential drugs. Trials were identified through a computerized literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Renal Group Specialized Register of randomized controlled trials, and Chinese Biomedical database. Two independent reviewers assessed trials for eligibility and quality and then extracted data. Data were extracted for patient and graft mortality, acute rejection, and adverse events. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. A decision tree model was populated with data from a literature review and used to estimate costs and quality-adjusted life years gained and incremental cost-effectiveness. Altogether, 6137 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The results of our analysis were that tacrolimus reduced the risks after renal transplantation of patient mortality, graft loss, acute rejection, and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, tacrolimus increased the risk of new-onset diabetes. Pharmacoeconomic analysis showed that tacrolimus represented a more cost-effective treatment than does cyclosporine for the prevention of adverse events following renal transplant. Tacrolimus is an effective and safe immunosuppressive agent and it may be more cost-effective than cyclosporine for the primary prevention of graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, new-onset diabetes should be closely monitored during the medication period.
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Facilitating Image Search With a Scalable and Compact Semantic Mapping.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This paper introduces a novel approach to facilitating image search based on a compact semantic embedding. A novel method is developed to explicitly map concepts and image contents into a unified latent semantic space for the representation of semantic concept prototypes. Then, a linear embedding matrix is learned that maps images into the semantic space, such that each image is closer to its relevant concept prototype than other prototypes. In our approach, the semantic concepts equated with query keywords and the images mapped into the vicinity of the prototype are retrieved by our scheme. In addition, a computationally efficient method is introduced to incorporate new semantic concept prototypes into the semantic space by updating the embedding matrix. This novelty improves the scalability of the method and allows it to be applied to dynamic image repositories. Therefore, the proposed approach not only narrows semantic gap but also supports an efficient image search process. We have carried out extensive experiments on various cross-modality image search tasks over three widely-used benchmark image datasets. Results demonstrate the superior effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of our proposed approach.
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A major root-associated acid phosphatase in Arabidopsis, AtPAP10, is regulated by both local and systemic signals under phosphate starvation.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is a universal response of plants to phosphate (Pi) starvation. AtPAP10 (Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 10) is a major Pi starvation-induced APase that is associated with the root surface in Arabidopsis. So far, the roles of local and systemic signalling in regulating root-associated AtPAP10 activity remain largely unknown. In this work, we show that a decrease of local, external Pi availability is sufficient to induce AtPAP10 transcription in roots in the presence of sucrose, a systemic signal from shoots, whereas the magnitude of the induction is affected by the Pi status of the whole plant. Once the AtPAP10 mRNAs are synthesized in roots, subsequent accumulation of AtPAP10 proteins in root cells and increase in AtPAP10 activity on the root surface are mainly controlled by local signalling. Previously, ethylene has been demonstrated to be a positive regulator of AtPAP10 activity. In this study, we provide evidence that under Pi deficiency ethylene mainly modulates enzymatic activity of AtPAP10 on the root surface, but not AtPAP10 transcription and protein accumulation, suggesting that it functions as a local signal. Furthermore, our work indicates that the effect of ethylene on the induction of root-associated AtPAP10 activity depends on sucrose, but that the effect of sucrose does not depend on ethylene. These results reveal new insights into the distinct roles of local and systemic signalling in the regulation of root-associated AtPAP10 activity under Pi starvation.
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[Molecular identification of Manis pentadactyla using DNA barcoding].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The COI gene as DNA barcode was used to identify the Manis pentadactyla and its adulterants in order to provide a scientific basis for the molecular identification of M. pentadactyla. Genomic DNA was extracted from experimental samples using the DNA extraction kit. The COI genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced bi-directionally. Obtained sequences were assembled using the CodonCode Aligner. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed by MEGA 6.0. The results indicated that COI sequences were successfully amplified and NJ trees results indicated that M. pentadactyla and its adulterants can be easily identification. Therefore, the COI gene is an efficient barcode for identification of M. pentadactyla and its adulterants,which will provide a new technique for the market supervision.
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[Identification of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans and its adulterants using DNA barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In this study, the COI barcode was used to identify the Scolopendra medicinal materials and its adulterants in order to provide a new method for the identification of Scolopendra. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence alignment and NJ tree construction was carried out by MEGA6.0 software. The results showed that the COI sequences can be obtained from all experimental samples. The average inter-specific K2P distance of Scolopendra was 0.222 and the minimum inter-specific distance was 0.190. All the Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans medicinal samples clustered into a clade in the NJ tree and can be distinguished from its adulterants. In a conclusion, COI can be used to correctly identify Scolopendra medicinal materials, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying other animal medicinal materials.
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[Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method.
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MHC class II restricted innate-like double negative T cells contribute to optimal primary and secondary immunity to Leishmania major.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Although it is generally believed that CD4(+) T cells play important roles in anti-Leishmania immunity, some studies suggest that they may be dispensable, and that MHC II-restricted CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative, DN) T cells may be more important in regulating primary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, while there are reports of increased numbers of DN T cells in Leishmania-infected patients, dogs and mice, concrete evidence implicating these cells in secondary anti-Leishmania immunity has not yet been documented. Here, we report that DN T cells extensively proliferate and produce effector cytokines (IFN-?, TNF and IL-17) and granzyme B (GrzB) in the draining lymph nodes and spleens of mice following primary and secondary L. major infections. DN T cells from healed mice display functional characteristics of protective anti-Leishmania memory-like cells: rapid and extensive proliferation and effector cytokines production following L. major challenge in vitro and in vivo. DN T cells express predominantly (> 95%) alpha-beta T cell receptor (?? TCR), are Leishmania-specific, restricted mostly by MHC class II molecules and display transcriptional profile of innate-like genes. Using in vivo depletion and adoptive transfer studies, we show that DN T cells contribute to optimal primary and secondary anti-Leishmania immunity in mice. These results directly identify DN T cells as important players in effective and protective primary and secondary anti-L. major immunity in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.
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The alteration of Hippo/YAP signaling in the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of heart failure and sudden death in adolescents and young adults. Recently, the role of the Hippo/YAP pathway has been investigated in the pathogenesis of HCM, although the detailed molecular mechanisms largely remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated an up-regulation of YAP mRNA and protein levels in both HCM patient samples and transverse aortic constriction murine models as well as reduced phosphorylation of YAP at serine 127 accompanied by increased transcription of YAP-mediated genes in hypertrophic heart tissues. The cardiomyocyte-specific transgene of human YAP induced cardiac hypertrophy and increased fetal gene expression in the heart. In primary cultured murine cardiomyocytes, ectopic expression of YAP resulted in increased cellular size, whereas the knockdown of YAP reduced the cell size induced by phenylephrine treatment. Interestingly, both mRNA and protein levels of MST1, the kinase upstream of YAP, were dramatically decreased. Further experiments showed that transcription factor FOXO3 binds to the MST1 promoter and that the PI3 K/Akt/FOXO3 signaling pathway regulates MST1 expression. Our findings define the alteration of the Hippo/YAP pathway in the development of HCM. The exploitation of this pathway may provide a novel therapeutic avenue for this disease.
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Dietary accumulation of tetrabromobisphenol A and its effects on the scallop Chlamys farreri.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is currently the most widely-used brominated flame retardant (BFR) and has been proven to have a very high toxicity to aquatic organisms including bivalves. In this study, a laboratory experiment was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the role of algae food on the bioaccumulation of TBBPA and its effects on the suspension-feeding bivalve, the scallop, Chlamys farreri. Scallops were exposed to TBBPA via algae food alone or food+water for 10days. Results showed that TBBPA was accumulated rapidly by scallops, reaching an approximate steady state in soft tissues within 3days. The primary route of TBBPA accumulation was via the water, while dietary uptake was relatively minor. TBBPA exposure led to significant inhibition on microsomal cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 levels in gills and digestive gland, whereas GST activity and GSH level increased significantly, which indicated that TBBPA could be a suitable substrate to directly participate in phase II metabolism. TBBPA clearly induced the activity of SOD, suggesting the oxidant stress induced by TBBPA. This study suggests that dietary uptake was not the predominant uptake route for TBBPA in bivalves and also provides a preliminary basis for studying the detoxification and antioxidant responses of marine bivalves upon exposure to TBBPA.
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Changes of serum parameters of TiO? nanoparticle-induced atherosclerosis in mice.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The evaluation of toxicological effects of nanoparticulate matter is increasingly important due to their growing occupational use and presence as compounds in consumer products. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to nanosized particles lead to systemic inflammation in experimental animals, but whether long-term exposure to nanosized particles induces atherogenesis is rarely evaluated. In the current study, mice were continuously exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) at 1.25, 2.5, or 5mg/kg body weight, administered by nasal instillation for nine consecutive months, and the association between serum parameter changes and atherosclerosis in mice were investigated. The present findings suggested that chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in atherogenesis coupling with pulmonary inflammation, increased levels of serum triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, NAD(P)H oxidases 4, C-reaction protein, E-selectin, endothelin-1, tissue factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and reduced levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator. Our study suggests an association of long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs with atherosclerosis and pulmonary inflammation. This finding demonstrates the hypothesized role of TiO2 NPs as a risk factor for atherogenesis.
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Bamboo leaf-assisted formation of carbon/nitrogen co-doped anatase TiO2 modified with silver and graphitic carbon nitride: novel and green synthesis and cooperative photocatalytic activity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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We report a novel synthesis approach employing bamboo leaves as sources of both the C/N dopant and reductant to the formation of C/N co-doped TiO2 modified with Ag and g-C3N4 (Ag/CN-TiO2@g-C3N4). In this case, the ternary composite has a hierarchical structure and a large surface area, which increases the contact area of reactants. Degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and hydrogen generation were carried out to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples under visible light irradiation. It is found that with respect to single and binary catalysts, the Ag/CN-TiO2@g-C3N4 ternary composite shows the highest photocatalytic activity (degradation of RhB, H2 evolution from water splitting) as a result of the fast generation, separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers, which was evidenced by photoluminescence measurements and free radical/hole scavenging experiments. At last, a possible photocatalytic mechanism under visible light irradiation was proposed. The novel and green synergistic approach presented here could provide a facile yet effective method for designing other visible light active non-metal co-doped TiO2 based photocatalysts with enhanced activity and high chemical stability.
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Effects of spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar on the retrieval errors for atmospheric aerosol optical properties.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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This paper presents detailed analysis about the effects of spectral discrimination on the retrieval errors for atmospheric aerosol optical properties in high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on this topic comprehensively, and our goal is to provide some heuristic guidelines for the design of the spectral discrimination filter in HSRL. We first introduce a theoretical model for retrieval error evaluation of an HSRL instrument with a general three-channel configuration. The model only takes the error sources related to the spectral discrimination parameters into account, while other error sources not associated with these focused parameters are excluded on purpose. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are performed to validate the correctness of the theoretical model. Results from both the model and MC simulations agree very well, and they illustrate one important, although not well realized, fact: a large molecular transmittance and a large spectral discrimination ratio (SDR, i.e., ratio of the molecular transmittance to the aerosol transmittance) are beneficial to promote the retrieval accuracy. More specifically, we find that a large SDR can reduce retrieval errors conspicuously for atmosphere at low altitudes, while its effect on the retrieval for high altitudes is very limited. A large molecular transmittance contributes to good retrieval accuracy everywhere, particularly at high altitudes, where the signal-to-noise ratio is small. Since the molecular transmittance and SDR are often trade-offs, we suggest considering a suitable SDR for higher molecular transmittance instead of using unnecessarily high SDR when designing the spectral discrimination filter. These conclusions are expected to be applicable to most of the HSRL instruments, which have similar configurations as the one discussed here.
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Lipid-lowering effects of farnesylquinone and related analogues from the marine-derived Streptomyces nitrosporeus.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fermentation broth of Arctic Streptomyces nitrosporeus YBH10-5 resulted in the isolation of seven new compounds named nitrosporeunols A-G (1-7), together with seven known analogues (8-14). Their structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-14 were evaluated for the lowering lipid effects, while two compounds (10 and 12) remarkably decreased lipid levels including total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in HepG2 cells. Quantitative realtime PCR and Western blot indicated that farnesylquinone (12) increased the expression of the key proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, and coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), as well as their downstream genes carnitine palmitoyltransterase-1 (CPT-1), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX), malonyl CoA decarboxylase 1 (MCD1), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and cholesterol 7? -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). Luciferase assay showed that 12 increased the transcriptional activity of PPAR?, while its lipid-lowering effect was abolished by PPAR? inhibitor, MK886, in HepG2 cells. These findings suggested that 12 is a potent lipid-lowering agent which may decrease lipid levels through upregulation of PPAR? pathway.
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Carbon-centered radical addition to o?c of amides or esters as a route to c?o bond formations.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Among various types of radical reactions, the addition of carbon radicals to unsaturated bonds is a powerful tool for constructing new chemical bonds, in which the typical applied unsaturated substrates include alkenes, alkynes and imines. Carbonyl is perhaps the most common unsaturated group in nature. This work demonstrates a novel C?O bond formation through carbon-centered radical addition to the carbonyl oxygen of amide or ester, in which amide and ester groups are easily activated through the radical process. EPR spectroscopy and radical clock experiments support the radical process for this transformation, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the possibility of carbon-centered radical addition to the carbonyl oxygen of amides or esters.
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Diallyl disulfide induces G2/M arrest and promotes apoptosis through the p53/p21 and MEK-ERK pathways in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor with high incidence and mortality worldwide. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a natural organosulfur compound, isolated from garlic. In this study, MTT assay showed that DADS significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner in ESCC cells, with lower toxicity in normal liver cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that DADS made G2/M phase arrest. Molecular analysis suggested that this cell cycle arrest was likely made by the decrease of cyclin B1, cdc2, p-cdc2, cdc25c in concomitance with activation of the p53/p21 pathway. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The molecule markers showed that DADS induced apoptosis through activating caspases, altering the Bax/Bcl-2 balance and suppressing the MEK-ERK pathway. Our data indicated that DADS has the potential to be an effective and safe anticancer agent for ESCC therapy in the near future.
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A clinical survey of common avian infectious diseases in China.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Multiple common avian infectious diseases (CAIDs), namely, avian infectious diseases excluding highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease, such as avian salmonellosis and coccidiosis, cause huge economic loss in poultry production and are of great significance in public health. However, they are usually not covered in the systems for reporting of animal diseases. Consequently, the distribution of CAIDs is not clear in many countries. Here, we report a clinical survey of CAIDs in China based on clinical diagnosis of eight veterinary clinics in 2011 and 2012. This survey provided the distribution data of viral, bacterial, and parasitic CAIDs in different types of avian flocks, seasons, and regions, data that are of great value in the research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases. This survey suggested that avian colibacillosis, infectious serositis in ducks caused by Riemerella anatipestifer, avian salmonellosis, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, avian aspergillosis, coccidiosis, low pathogenic avian influenza, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, and infectious laryngotracheitis are likely to be prevalent in the poultry in China.
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miR-137 effects on gastric carcinogenesis are mediated by targeting Cox-2-activated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) provided a new avenue for early diagnosis and treatment of GC. MiR-137 has been reported to be under-expressed and involved in various cell processes. However, the role of miR-137 in GC is less known. In this study, we show that miR-137 is under-expressed in GC and functions as a tumor suppressor through targeting Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), which subsequently suppresses the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, restored Cox-2 expression partially abolished the tumor suppressive effects of miR-137 in GC cells, suggesting miR-137 may suppress GC carcinogenesis by targeting Cox-2.
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Th2 factors may be involved in TiO? NP-induced hepatic inflammation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are used in the food industry but have potential toxic effects in humans and animals. The resulting immune response is driven by the production of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, which contribute to the development of hepatic inflammation. However, TiO2 NPs have been demonstrated to impair liver function and cause liver inflammation in animal models, which may be associated with activation of Th2 factor-mediated pathways. Mice were administered a gavage instillation of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs for six consecutive months. We investigated whether TiO2 NPs activate the Th2 factor-mediated signaling pathway under TiO2 NP-induced hepatic toxicity. The results showed that mice exhibited an accumulation of titanium in the liver, which in turn led to reductions in body weight, increases in liver indices, liver dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis. Furthermore, hepatic inflammation was accompanied by increased (0.67 ± 0.09- to 2.14 ± 0.19-fold) IL-4 expression and up-regulation of its target genes including IL-5 (0.1 ± 0.06- to 0.69 ± 0.12-fold), IL-12 (0.08 ± 0.03- to 0.83 ± 0.21-fold), IFN-? (0.17 ± 0.09- to 0.87 ± 0.15-fold), GATA3 (0.05 ± 0.02- to 1.29 ± 0.18-fold), GATA4 (0.04 ± 0.01- to 0.87 ± 0.13-fold), T-bet (0.3 ± 0.06- to 0.93 ± 0.15-fold), ROR?t (0.32 ± 0.11- to 1.67 ± 0.17-fold), STAt3 (0.16 ± 0.06- to 2.14 ± 0.23-fold), STAT6 (0.2 ± 0.05- to 0.63 ± 0.12-fold), eotaxin (0.53 ± 0.13- to 1.49 ± 0.21-fold), MCP-1 (0.5 ± 0.11- to 0.74 ± 0.18-fold), and MIP-2 (0.27 ± 0.07- to 0.71 ± 0.18-fold) and significant down-regulation of its target gene STAT1 (-0.15 ± 0.05 to -0.81 ± 0.11-fold). Taken together, the alteration of Th2 factor expression may be involved in the control of hepatic inflammation induced by chronic TiO2 NP toxicity.
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Effects of propofol,ginsenoside Rg-1,protein phosphatae-2a,and lithium on the learning and memory in rats and the content of glutamic acid in hippocampus after the electmconrulsive therapy.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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To explore and compare the effects of propofol,ginsenoside Rg-1,protein phosphatae-2A,and lithium on the learning and memory and the concentration of glutamic acid in hippocampus after the electmconrulsive therapy(ECT)in the model of depressed rats induced after the removal of olfactory bulb.
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[IFN-? stimulation enhances immunosuppressive capability of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was objective to explore the effect of IFN-? on immunosuppressive capability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from umbilical cord. The immunomodulating capability of MSC was changed by stimulating cell surface receptors like Toll-like receptors (TLR). The inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation by MSC was tested via cell co-cultures. Further RT-PCR and ELISA were performed to examine the expression changes in gene and protein level. The results showed that the IFN-? could promote the immunosuppressive effect of umbilical cord derived MSC. IFN-?-stimulated MSC could suppress the proliferation of T cells more effectively. IFN-? stimulation up-regulated the expression of immunosuppressive genes like IDO1, COX2, HLA-G, and soluble suppressive proteins such as HLA-G, KYN, IL10, PGE2 of MSC. And the immuno suppression capability of IFN-?-stimulated MSC was 2-7 folds higher than control in MSC and lymphocyte co-culture tests. It is concluded that IFN-? can effectively enhance the immunosuppressive capability of MSC.
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Ildr1b is essential for semicircular canal development, migration of the posterior lateral line primordium and hearing ability in zebrafish: implications for a role in the recessive hearing impairment DFNB42.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) is a poorly characterized gene that was first identified in lymphoma cells. Recently, ILDR1 has been found to be responsible for autosomal recessive hearing impairment DFNB42. Patients with ILDR1 mutations cause bilateral non-progressive moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing impairment. However, the etiology and mechanism of ILDR1-related hearing loss remains to be elucidated. In order to uncover the pathology of DFNB42 deafness, we used the morpholino injection technique to establish an ildr1b-morphant zebrafish model. Ildr1b-morphant zebrafish displayed defective hearing and imbalanced swimming, and developmental delays were seen in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. The gene expression profile and real-time PCR revealed down-regulation of atp1b2b (encoding Na(+)/K(+) transporting, beta 2b polypeptide) in ildr1b-morphant zebrafish. We found that injection of atp1b2b mRNA into ildr1b-knockdown zebrafish could rescue the phenotype of developmental delay of the semicircular canals. Moreover, ildr1b-morphant zebrafish had reduced numbers of lateral line neuromasts due to the disruption of lateral line primordium migration. In situ hybridization showed the involvement of attenuated FGF signaling and the chemokine receptor 4b (cxcr4b) and chemokine receptor 7b (cxcr7b) in posterior lateral line primordium of ildr1b-morphant zebrafish. We concluded that Ildr1b is crucial for the development of the inner ear and the lateral line system. This study provides the first evidence for the mechanism of Ildr1b on hearing in vivo and sheds light on the pathology of DFNB42.
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Post-laparoscopic oral contraceptive combined with Chinese herbal mixture in treatment of infertility and pain associated with minimal or mild endometriosis: a randomized controlled trial.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Endometriosis affects fertility negatively. The study aims to evaluate whether laparoscopic surgery combined with oral contraceptive or herbs were more effective than laparoscopic alone in improving fecundity and pelvic pain in women with minimal/mild endometriosis.
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D-Lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus Y2-8 immobilized in fibrous bed bioreactor using corn flour hydrolyzate.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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In this study, fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was used for D-lactic acid (D-LA) production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus Y2-8. Corn flour hydrolyzed with ?-amylase and saccharifying enzyme was used as a cost-efficient and nutrient-rich substrate for D-LA production. A maximal starch conversion rate of 93.78% was obtained. The optimum pH for D-LA production was determined to be 6.5. Ammonia water was determined to be an ideal neutralizing agent, which improved D-LA production and purification processes. Batch fermentation and fed-batch fermentation, with both free cells and immobilized cells, were compared to highlight the advantages of FBB fermentation. In batch mode, the D-LA production rate of FBB fermentation was 1.62 g/L/h, which was 37.29% higher than that of free-cell fermentation, and the D-LA optical purities of the two fermentation methods were above 99.00%. In fed-batch mode, the maximum D-LA concentration attained by FBB fermentation was 218.75 g/L, which was 37.67% higher than that of free-cell fermentation. Repeated-batch fermentation was performed to determine the long-term performance of the FBB system, and the data indicated that the average D-LA production rate was 1.62 g/L/h and the average yield was 0.98 g/g. Thus, hydrolyzed corn flour fermented by S. inulinus Y2-8 by using FBB may be used for improving D-LA fermentation by using ammonia water as neutralizing agent.
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Benign notochordal cell tumor: a retrospective study of 11 cases with 13 vertebra bodies.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To analyze the clinical data, MRI, pathological diagnosis, treatment and long-term effects of benign notochordal cell tumor (BNCT), a newly described novel spine tumor.
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Molecular mechanism of the airborne transmissibility of H9N2 avian influenza A viruses in chickens.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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H9N2 avian influenza virus has been prevalent in poultry in many parts of the world since the 1990s and occasionally crosses the host barrier, transmitting to mammals, including humans. In recent years, these viruses have contributed genes to H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses, threatening public health. To explore the molecular mechanism for the airborne transmission of H9N2 virus, we compared two genetically close strains isolated from chickens in 2001, A/chicken/Shanghai/7/2001(SH7) and A/chicken/Shanghai/14/2001 (SH14). SH7 is airborne transmissible between chickens, whereas SH14 is not. We used reverse genetics and gene swapping to derive recombinant SH7 (rSH7), rSH14, and a panel of reassortant viruses. Among the reassortant viruses, we identified segments HA and PA as governing the airborne transmission among chickens. In addition, the NP and NS genes also contributed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, the mutational analyses showed the transmissibility phenotype predominantly mapped to the HA and PA genes, with HA-K363 and PA-L672 being important for airborne transmissibility among chickens. In addition, the viral infectivity and acid stability are related to the airborne transmissibility. Importantly, airborne transmission studies of 18 arbitrarily chosen H9N2 viruses from our collections confirmed the importance of both 363K in HA and 672L in PA in determining their levels of transmissibility. Our finding elucidates the genetic contributions to H9N2 transmissibility in chickens and highlights the importance of their prevalence in poultry.
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Domain-Specific Genetic Influence on Visual-Ambiguity Resolution.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The visual world is flooded with ambiguity. Generally, people can resolve the ambiguity almost instantaneously, as when they distinguish at a glance whether a maiden in a portrait by Picasso is in profile or facing front. However, perception of the same reality, though relatively stable at the individual level, can vary dramatically from person to person, manifesting idiosyncratic perceptual biases. What drives the heterogeneity of human vision as reflected in the resolution of visual ambiguity? Using the twin method, we demonstrated a significant genetic contribution to individual differences in the visual disambiguation of bistable biological-motion stimuli but not inanimate motion stimuli. These findings challenge the prevailing view that the way the human brain makes sense of visual input is largely shaped by a person's perceptual history. Rather, the visual perception of biologically salient information can be guided by adaptive mental "priors" that are genetically transmitted.
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Mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used historically for evaluating the toxicity of environmental and aqueous toxicants, and there is an emerging literature reporting toxic effects of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in zebrafish embryos. Few researches, however, are focused on the neurotoxicity on adult zebrafish after subchronic exposure to TiO2 NPs. This study was designed to evaluate the morphological changes, alterations of neurochemical contents, and expressions of memory behavior-related genes in zebrafish brains caused by exposures to 5, 10, 20, and 40 ?g/L TiO2 NPs for 45 consecutive days. Our data indicated that spatial recognition memory and levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were significantly decreased and NO levels were markedly elevated, and over proliferation of glial cells, neuron apoptosis, and TiO2 NP aggregation were observed after low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, the low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs significantly activated expressions of C-fos, C-jun, and BDNF genes, and suppressed expressions of p38, NGF, CREB, NR1, NR2ab, and GluR2 genes. These findings imply that low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs may result in the brain damages in zebrafish, provide a developmental basis for evaluating the neurotoxicity of subchronic exposure, and raise the caution of aquatic application of TiO2 NPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
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Mechanisms of TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been demonstrated to decrease learning and memory of animals. However, whether the impacts of these NPs on the recognition function are involved in hippocamal neuron damages is poorly understood. In this study, primary cultured hippocampal neurons from one-day-old fetal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5, 15, or 30 ?g/mL TiO2 NPs for 24 h, we investigated cell viability, ultrastructure, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, apoptotic signaling pathway associated with the primary cultured hippocamal neuron apoptosis. Our findings showed that TiO2 NP treatment resulted in reduction of cell viability, promoted lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptosis and increased neuron apoptotic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs led to [Ca(2+) ]i elevation, and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, up-regulated protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase-3, glucose-regulate protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein and caspase-12, and down-regulated bcl-2 expression in the primary cultured hippocampal neurons. These findings suggested that hippocampal neuron apoptosis caused by TiO2 NPs may be associated with mitochondria-mediated signal pathway and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated signal pathway.
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Nano-sized titanium dioxide-induced splenic toxicity: a biological pathway explored using microarray technology.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various areas, and its potential toxicity has gained wide attention. However, the molecular mechanisms of multiple genes working together in the TiO2 NP-induced splenic injury are not well understood. In the present study, 2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs were administered to the mice by intragastric administration for 90 consecutive days, their immune capacity in the spleen as well as the gene-expressed characteristics in the mouse damaged spleen were investigated using microarray assay. The findings showed that with increased dose, TiO2 NP exposure resulted in the increases of spleen indices, immune dysfunction, and severe macrophage infiltration as well as apoptosis in the spleen. Importantly, microarray data showed significant alterations in the expressions of 1041 genes involved in immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, oxidative stress, stress responses, metabolic processes, ion transport, signal transduction, cell proliferation/division, cytoskeleton and translation in the 10 mg/kg TiO2 NP-exposed spleen. Specifically, Cyp2e1, Sod3, Mt1, Mt2, Atf4, Chac1, H2-k1, Cxcl13, Ccl24, Cd14, Lbp, Cd80, Cd86, Cd28, Il7r, Il12a, Cfd, and Fcnb may be potential biomarkers of spleen toxicity following exposure to TiO2 NPs.
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Deficiency of p110? isoform of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase leads to enhanced resistance to Leishmania donovani.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Visceral leishmaniasis is the most clinically relevant and dangerous form of human leishmaniasis. Most traditional drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic, possess many adverse reactions and drug resistance is emerging. Therefore, there is urgent need for identification of new therapeutic targets. Recently, we found that mice with an inactivating knock-in mutation in the p110? isoform of pi3k, (p110?(d910a)) are hyper resistant to L. major, develop minimal cutaneous lesion and rapidly clear their parasite. Here, we investigated whether pi3k signaling also regulates resistance to L. donovani, one of the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis.
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Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticle/carbon nanofiber composites: preparation, structure, and superior electrocatalytic properties for sugar analysis.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Novel Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticle/carbon nanofiber (Pd-Ni/CNF) composites were successfully prepared by a simple method involving electrospinning of precursor polyacrylonitrile/Pd(acac)2/Ni(acac)2 nanofibers, followed by a thermal process to reduce metals and carbonize polyacrylonitrile. The nanostructures of the resulting Pd-Ni/CNF nanocomposites were carefully examined by a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high-angle annular dark field (HAADF)-scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). For all the nanocomposites, the Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticles (NPs) were dispersed uniformly and embedded firmly within the framework or on the surface of CNF. The size, composition, and alloy homogeneity of the Pd-Ni alloy NPs could be readily tailored by controlling the feed ratio of metal precursors and the thermal treatment process. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed enhanced redox properties for Pd-Ni/CNF-based electrodes relative to the Ni-metal electrode and significantly improved electrocatalytic activity for sugar (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose) oxidation. The application potential of Pd-Ni/CNF-based electrodes in flow systems for sugars detection was explored. A very low limit of detection for sugars (e.g., 7-20 nM), high resistance to surface fouling, excellent signal stability and reproducibility, and a very wide detection linear range (e.g., 0.03-800 ?M) were revealed for this new type of Pd-Ni/CNF nanocomposite as the detecting electrode. Such detection performances of Pd-Ni/CNF-based electrodes are superior to those of state-of-the-art nonenzymatic sugar detectors that are commercially available or known in the literature.
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Suppression of Photosynthetic Gene Expression in Roots Is Required for Sustained Root Growth under Phosphate Deficiency.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Plants cope with inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiencies in their environment by adjusting their developmental programs and metabolic activities. For Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the developmental responses include the inhibition of primary root growth and the enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs. Pi deficiency also inhibits photosynthesis by suppressing the expression of photosynthetic genes. Early studies showed that photosynthetic gene expression was also suppressed in Pi-deficient roots, a nonphotosynthetic organ; however, the biological relevance of this phenomenon remains unknown. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hypersensitive to Pi starvation7 (hps7), that is hypersensitive to Pi deficiency; the hypersensitivity includes an increased inhibition of root growth. HPS7 encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase. Accumulation of HPS7 proteins in root tips is enhanced by Pi deficiency. Comparative RNA sequencing analyses indicated that the expression of many photosynthetic genes is activated in roots of hps7. Under Pi deficiency, the expression of photosynthetic genes in hps7 is further increased, which leads to enhanced accumulation of chlorophyll, starch, and sucrose. Pi-deficient hps7 roots also produce a high level of reactive oxygen species. Previous research showed that the overexpression of GOLDEN-like (GLK) transcription factors in transgenic Arabidopsis activates photosynthesis in roots. The GLK overexpressing (GLK OX) lines also exhibit increased inhibition of root growth under Pi deficiency. The increased inhibition of root growth in hps7 and GLK OX lines by Pi deficiency was completely reversed by growing the plants in the dark. Based on these results, we propose that suppression of photosynthetic gene expression is required for sustained root growth under Pi deficiency.
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Highly selective colorimetric/fluorometric dual-channel fluoride ion probe, and its capability of differentiating cancer cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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A dual-channel naphthalimide-based chemosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of fluoride ion has been developed. Upon addition of F(-), it undergoes deprotonation reaction through H-bonding interactions, and its maximum absorption wavelength is red-shifted for 214 nm to the far-red region, together with drastically quenched fluorescence. In addition, it shows high selectivity toward F(-) anion, thus could be used for practical applications to detecting F(-) in both solution and solid state. Furthermore, the fluorescence of NIM could be enhanced in protein-containing acidic environments, hence NIM could act as lysosome marker to differentiate cancer cells from normal ones in cell imaging.
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Kinesin-12 influences axonal growth during zebrafish neural development.
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Kinesin-12 (also called KIF15) is a microtubule-based motor protein best known for its role in cell division. We previously reported that kinesin-12 is robustly expressed in developing terminally post-mitotic neurons, with levels diminishing as neurons reach maturity. We found that axons of cultured rodent neurons grow faster and longer if kinesin-12 is experimentally depleted, leading us to conclude that kinesin-12 plays a role in modulating axonal growth. Here we used zebrafish to explore whether these results apply to an in vivo system and whether they apply across different kinds of vertebrates. In whole mount in situ hybridization, kinesin-12 mRNA was detectable at 2-cell and 1K-cell stages. At 5.3 and 8 hours post-fertilization (hpf), hybridization signal for kinesin-12 mRNA was observed in the ectoderm. From 14 to 36 hpf, the signal had expanded to the central nervous system. At 60 hpf, the hybridization signal was concentrated in the brain. After 5 days post-fertilization, kinesin-12 expression was reduced. Kinesin-12 knockdown resulted in notably longer fast-growing axons with fewer branches by injection of a splice-blocking morpholino into Tg(huC:egfp) or Tg(hb9:gfp) zebrafish embryos. Kinesin-12 overexpression resulted in shorter axons than controls. These results are consistent with our previous observations on rodents using primary cultures for the experimental manipulations, and suggest a key role of kinesin-12 as a modulator of axonal development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Hepatic perfusion parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography correlate with the severity of chronic liver disease.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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In the study described here, we introduced a new ratio acquired with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS): a liver parenchyma blood supply ratio that differentiates arterial and portal phases. Our purpose was to determine whether this ratio and other liver parenchyma perfusion parameters acquired with CEUS can be correlated with the severity of chronic liver disease. Twelve patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease, 35 patients with cirrhosis (child class A: n = 10; child class B: n = 13; child class C: n = 12) and 21 healthy volunteers were examined by CEUS. Time-intensity curves were drawn for regions of interest located in liver parenchyma and right kidney cortex using QLAB quantification software. The arterial and portal phases were differentiated by the time to the maximum enhancement of right kidney and liver parenchyma perfusion data acquired from the time-intensity curves: the intensity of liver parenchyma perfused by hepatic arterial flow (I(ap)), the intensity of total perfusion of liver parenchyma (I(peak)), the intensity of liver parenchyma perfused by portal venous flow (I(pp)) and the ratio of portal perfusion to total perfusion of liver parenchyma expressed by the parameters I(pp)/I(peak), I(peak), I(pp) and I(pp)/I(peak) significantly decreased in patients with cirrhosis and in patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease, whereas Iap increased. The parameters I(pp), I(peak), I(pp)/I(peak) and Iap correlated with the severity of chronic liver disease (r = -0.938, p < 0.001; r = -0.790, p < 0.001; r = -0.931 p < 0.001; r = 0.31, p < 0.05). The diagnostic accuracy rates for cirrhosis expressed as areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.93 for I(peak), 0.98 for I(pp), 0.98 for I(pp)/I(peak), and 0.69 for I(ap). Liver parenchyma perfusion parameters obtained by CEUS were correlated with the severity of chronic liver disease and have the potential to assess cirrhosis non-invasively.
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DADS suppresses human esophageal xenograft tumors through RAF/MEK/ERK and mitochondria-dependent pathways.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a natural organosulfur compound isolated from garlic. DADS has various biological properties, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant effects. However, the anticancer mechanisms of DADS in human esophageal carcinoma have not been elucidated, especially in vivo. In this study, MTT assay showed that DADS significantly reduced cell viability in human esophageal carcinoma ECA109 cells, but was relatively less toxic in normal liver cells. The pro-apoptotic effect of DADS on ECA109 cells was detected by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Flow cytometry analysis showed that DADS promoted apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and the apoptosis rate could be decreased by caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. Xenograft study in nude mice showed that DADS treatment inhibited the growth of ECA109 tumor in both 20 and 40 mg/kg DADS groups without obvious side effects. DADS inhibited ECA109 tumor proliferation by down-regulating proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). DADS induced apoptosis by activating a mitochondria-dependent pathway with the executor of caspase-3, increasing p53 level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and downregulating the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in ECA109 xenograft tumosr. Based on studies in cell culture and animal models, the findings here indicate that DADS is an effective and safe anti-cancer agent for esophageal carcinoma.
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Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro.
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The glucocorticoid dexamethasone inhibits U937 cell adhesion and neutrophil release via RhoA/ROCK1-dependent and independent pathways.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) signaling pathway in the inhibition of inflammatory responses by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex).
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Ginsenoside Rh1 potentiates dexamethasone's anti-inflammatory effects for chronic inflammatory disease by reversing dexamethasone-induced resistance.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Acquired resistance to glucocorticoids constitutes a major clinical challenge, often overlooked in the search for compounds to improve the effect of classic steroids. We sought to unravel how a plant-original compound, ginsenoside Rh1, potentiates dexmethasone (DEX)'s potential anti-inflammation properties.
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Expression analysis of integrin ?1 isoforms during zebrafish embryonic development.
Gene Expr. Patterns
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Integrins are a superfamily of the major metazoan receptors for cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. Integrins and their ligands play critical roles in a variety of fundamental cellular processes. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface glycoproteins comprised of non-covalently bound ?- and ?-subunits. A variety of integrin subunits have been identified in mouse, chicken, zebrafish, Xenopus laevis and other vertebrates. In zebrafish multiple integrin ?1 homologs have been identified. However, zebrafish embryo is a largely untapped model for analyzing integrin ?1 isoforms temporal-spatial expression pattern, function and its relevance to human disease in whole animal level. Currently, we systematically analyzed the expression pattern of zebrafish integrin ?1 including integrin beta 1a (itgb1a), integrin beta 1b (itgb1b), integrin beta 1b.1 (itgb1b.1), and integrin beta 1b.2 (itgb1b.2) at embryo stage using whole amount in situ hybridization. We show itgb1a, itgb1b and itgb1b.1 were maternally expressed in zygote, cleavage and blastula periods, while itgb1b.2 was not detectable in the corresponding stages. A more tissue specific pattern emerges during organogenesis, including heart expression for itgb1a, myotome borders for itgb1b, intestinal epithelium for itgb1b.1, and branchial arch for itgb1b.2. All are similarly expressed in the early embryonic epidermis and notochord. Additionally, itgb1a, itgb1b and itgb1b.2 shared the common expression in otic vesicle. Our study provides new insight into the integrin ?1 expression and the use of this model organism to tackle future studies on the role of integrin ?1 in embryo development.
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Punctaporonins H-M: caryophyllene-type sesquiterpenoids from the sponge-associated fungus Hansfordia sinuosae.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H-M (1-6), together with punctaporonin B (7) and humulane (8) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H-I (1-2). The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4) exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.
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Beneficial effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on 17?-ethynylestradiol-induced cholestasis in the rat.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS) shares similar pharmacological effects with Calculus Bovis like relieving hepatobiliary diseases. This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of CBS on 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis in the rat.
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Three new species of the genus Austrophthiracarus from New Zealand (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaridae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Three new species of Austrophthiracarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) from New Zealand are described: Austrophthiracarus matuku sp. nov. from the Bethells Matuku Reserve, Auckland, Austrophthiracarus notoporosus sp. nov. from the Tutoko Bench, Fiordland and Austrophthiracarus karioi sp. nov. from the Mt. Karioi, Waikato. Holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research and paratypes are deposited in the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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Dissecting the differentiation process of the preplacodal ectoderm in zebrafish.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The preplacodal region (PPR) is a region of specialized ectoderm at the border of neural and nonneural ectoderm (NNE). Coordinated Bmp, Fgf, and Wnt signals are known to drive PPR development; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown.
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Correlates of smoke-free home policies in Shanghai, China.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Approximately 63.7% of nonsmokers in China are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in their homes. The current study documents the prevalence and correlates of smoke-free home policies in Shanghai, as well as reasons for implementing such a policy and places where smoking is most commonly allowed.
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Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<1%), and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution [? 70% (w/v)] after phase separation. Butanol removal by permeating-heating-gas stripping has potential for commercial ABE production.
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Proline Isomerization of the Immune Receptor-Interacting Protein RIN4 by a Cyclophilin Inhibits Effector-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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In the absence of pathogen infection, plant effector-triggered immune (ETI) receptors are maintained in a preactivation state by intermolecular interactions with other host proteins. Pathogen effector-induced alterations activate the receptor. In Arabidopsis, the ETI receptor RPM1 is activated via bacterial effector AvrB-induced phosphorylation of the RPM1-interacting protein RIN4 at Threonine 166. We find that RIN4 also interacts with the prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase) ROC1, which is reduced upon RIN4 Thr166 phosphorylation. ROC1 suppresses RPM1 immunity in a PPIase-dependent manner. Consistent with this, RIN4 Pro149 undergoes cis/trans isomerization in the presence of ROC1. While the RIN4(P149V) mutation abolishes RPM1 resistance, the deletion of Pro149 leads to RPM1 activation in the absence of RIN4 phosphorylation. These results support a model in which RPM1 directly senses conformational changes in RIN4 surrounding Pro149 that is controlled by ROC1. RIN4 Thr166 phosphorylation indirectly regulates RPM1 resistance by modulating the ROC1-mediated RIN4 isomerization.
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Metabolites analysis, metabolic enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A study was performed on clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed to 0.03, 0.3 and 3?g/L benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) for 21 days. B[a]P metabolite contents, activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) and B[a]P bioaccumulation were assayed in gills and digestive glands. Results showed that the order of B[a]P phase I metabolite contents was 9-hydroxy-B[a]P>B[a]P-1,6-dione>B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, and the concentration of B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol sulfate conjugates was higher than that of B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol glucuronide conjugates. B[a]P accumulation and the activities of AHH, EROD, EH, DD, SULT and UGT increased first and then reached equilibrium. GST activity was induced first and then depressed. The concentration of B[a]P was far higher than that of its metabolites. Besides, there were no significant differences between enzyme activities in gills and those in digestive glands. These results provided information on B[a]P metabolic mechanism in bivalve and scientific data for pollution monitoring and food security.
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Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60-90°C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370°C, 40min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC-MS and FT-ICR MS techniques.
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De novo transcriptomes of olfactory epithelium reveal the genes and pathways for spawning migration in japanese grenadier anchovy (Coilia nasus).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Coilia nasus (Japanese grenadier anchovy) undergoes spawning migration from the ocean to fresh water inland. Previous studies have suggested that anadromous fish use olfactory cues to perform successful migration to spawn. However, limited genomic information is available for C. nasus. To understand the molecular mechanisms of spawning migration, it is essential to identify the genes and pathways involved in the migratory behavior of C. nasus.
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Chronopharmacodynamics and chronopharmacokinetics of pethidine in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many studies have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of analgesic drugs vary according to the circadian time of drug administration. This study aims at determining whether the analgesic effect and pharmacokinetics of pethidine in male BALB/c mice are influenced by administration time.
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Dynamic expression of BCL6 in murine conventional dendritic cells during in vivo development and activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays an essential role in the development of germinal center B cells and follicular helper T cells. However, much less is known about the expression and function of BCL6 in other cell types. Here we report that during murine dendritic cell (DC) ontogeny in vivo, BCL6 is not expressed in bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, common DC precursors and committed precursors of conventional DCs (pre-cDCs), but is elevated in peripheral pre-cDCs. BCL6 protein levels rise as pre-cDCs differentiate into cDCs in secondary lymphoid organs. Elevated protein levels of Bcl6 are observed in all cDC subsets, with CD8?+ cDCs displaying the greatest levels. Co-staining of Ki-67 revealed BCL6hi cDCs to be more proliferative than BCL6lo cDCs. After adjuvant inoculation, BCL6 levels are significantly reduced in the CD11cint MHC class IIhi CD86hi cDCs. Activation-induced BCL6 reduction correlated with reduced proliferation. A LPS injection study further confirmed that, in response to microbial stimuli, BCL6 levels are dynamically regulated during the maturation of CD11cint MHC class IIhi splenic cDCs. This reduction of BCL6 levels in cDCs does not occur after LPS injection in MyD88-/- TRIF-/- mice. Thus, regulation of Bcl6 protein levels is dynamic in murine cDCs during development, maturation and activation in vivo.
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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Full-Length Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Effect of Globular Adiponectin in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, inhibits esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Chronic inflammation is a key process involved in initiation and progression of EAC, but the roles and mechanisms of adiponectin in inflammation have not been fully understood in EAC. We aimed to analyze the effects of two types of adiponectin, full-length adiponectin (f-Ad) and globular adiponectin (g-Ad), on inflammatory factors expression and explore the roles of ROS/NF-?B signaling pathway in adiponectin-regulated inflammation in EAC cells. It was found that f-Ad and g-Ad differently regulated both mRNA and protein levels of TNF-?, IL-8, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner in OE19 cells. g-Ad apparently induced TNF-?, IL-8, and IL-6 production, which was inhibited by PDTC or NAC, and increased intracellular ROS levels and NF-?B p65 activation, whereas f-Ad significantly suppressed production of inflammatory factors and NF-?B p65 activation and also decreased the intracellular ROS levels. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that g-Ad exerts a proinflammatory effect whereas f-Ad appears to induce an anti-inflammatory effect in a ROS/NF-?B-dependent manner in OE19 cells.
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Comparative serum proteomic analysis of serum diagnosis proteins of colorectal cancer based on magnetic bead separation and maldi-tof mass spectrometry.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Background: At present, the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) requires a colorectal biopsy which is an invasive procedure. We undertook this pilot study to develop an alternative method and potential new biomarkers for diagnosis, and validated a set of well-integrated tools called ClinProt to investigate the serum peptidome in CRC patients. Methods: Fasting blood samples from 67 patients diagnosed with CRC by histological diagnosis, 55 patients diagnosed with colorectal adenoma by biopsy, and 65 healthy volunteers were collected. Division was into a model construction group and an external validation group randomly. The present work focused on serum proteomic analysis of model construction group by ClinProt Kit combined with mass spectrometry. This approach allowed construction of a peptide pattern able to differentiate the studied populations. An external validation group was used to verify the diagnostic capability of the peptidome pattern blindly. An immunoassay method was used to determine serum CEA of CRC and controls. Results: The results showed 59 differential peptide peaks in CRC, colorectal adenoma and health volunteers. A genetic algorithm was used to set up the classification models. Four of the identified peaks at m/z 797, 810, 4078 and 5343 were used to construct peptidome patterns, achieving an accuracy of 100% (> CEA, P < 0. 05). Furthermore, the peptidome patterns could differentiate the validation group with high accuracy close to 100%. Conclusions: Our results showed that proteomic analysis of serum with MALDI-TOF MS is a fast and reproducible approach, which may provide a novel approach to screening for CRC.
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Arabidopsis EDM2 promotes IBM1 distal polyadenylation and regulates genome DNA methylation patterns.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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DNA methylation is important for the silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements in many higher eukaryotes. However, plant and mammalian genomes have evolved to contain repetitive elements near or inside their genes. How these genes are kept from being silenced by DNA methylation is not well understood. A forward genetics screen led to the identification of the putative chromatin regulator Enhanced Downy Mildew 2 (EDM2) as a cellular antisilencing factor and regulator of genome DNA methylation patterns. EDM2 contains a composite Plant Homeo Domain that recognizes both active and repressive histone methylation marks at the intronic repeat elements in genes such as the Histone 3 lysine 9 demethylase gene Increase in BONSAI Methylation 1 (IBM1) and is necessary for maintaining the expression of these genes by promoting mRNA distal polyadenylation. Because of its role in maintaining IBM1 expression, EDM2 is required for preventing CHG methylation in the bodies of thousands of genes. Our results thus increase the understanding of antisilencing, genome methylation patterns, and regulation of alternative RNA processing by intronic heterochromatin.
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Protective effect of Calculus Bovis Sativus on intrahepatic cholestasis in rats induced by ?-naphthylisothiocyanate.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Calculus Bovis Sativus (also referred to as in vitro Cultured Calculus Bovis), an artificial substitute of natural Calculus Bovis (Niuhuang in Chinese, a traditional Chinese medicine), has been widely used to relieve fever, diminish inflammation and normalize gallbladder function in the last decade. This study aims to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of Calculus Bovis Sativus on ?-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats. Calculus Bovis Sativus (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day) was intragastrically (i.g.) given to experimental rats for seven consecutive days. A single dose of ANIT (100 mg/kg i.g.) was given to rats on the fifth day to induce intrahepatic cholestasis. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkalinephosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were determined through biochemical methods. The bile duct was cannulated with a PE 10 polyethylene tube to collect bile for two hours and bile flow was calculated by the weight of each specimen. Moreover, the mechanism of Calculus Bovis Sativus was elucidated by determining liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examinations. Our results showed that Calculus Bovis Sativus (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly prevented ANIT-induced changes in bile flow and serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP and TBIL. Furthermore, Calculus Bovis Sativus (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the elevated hepatic MDA content induced by ANIT and increased the hepatic SOD activity suppressed by ANIT. Accordingly, histopathology of the liver tissue showed that pathological injuries were relieved after Calculus Bovis Sativus (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) pretreatment. In conclusion, Calculus Bovis Sativus exerted a protective effect on ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, which may result from the attenuated oxidative damage in liver tissues.
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[Diversity analysis of biofilm bacteria on tracheal tubes removed from intubated neonates].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The catheter-related infections caused by mechanical ventilation have become a intractable clinical problem, and it is related to the formation of bacterial biofilm (BF) on the surface of the implanted material. The majority of natural biofilms are formed by multiple bacterial species. However, there always only one or limited species were detected on tracheal tubes removed from intubated neonates by using traditional methods including bacterium culture and antigen detection. The aims of this study were to observe the bacterial communities diversity of BF on endotracheal tube (ETT), and discuss the difference between traditional bacterium culture methods and the use of molecular biology techniques on the basis of denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to provide new ideas for clinical prevention, diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections.
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Nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-h alkylation with secondary or tertiary alkyl-bromine bonds for the construction of indolones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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A nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H alkylation with tertiary or secondary alkyl-Br bonds for the construction of indolones was demonstrated. Various functional groups were well tolerated. Moreover, the challenging secondary alkyl bromides were well introduced in this transformation. Radical trapping and photocatalysis conditions exhibited that it is most likely to be a radical process for this aromatic C-H alkylation.
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Interferometric filters for spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar: performance comparisons between Fabry-Perot interferometer and field-widened Michelson interferometer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Thanks to wavelength flexibility, interferometric filters such as Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) and field-widened Michelson interferometers (FWMIs) have shown great convenience for spectrally separating the molecule and aerosol scattering components in the high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) return signal. In this paper, performance comparisons between the FPI and FWMI as a spectroscopic discrimination filter in HSRL are performed. We first present a theoretical method for spectral transmission analysis and quantitative evaluation on the spectral discrimination. Then the process in determining the parameters of the FPI and FWMI for the performance comparisons is described. The influences from the incident field of view (FOV), the cumulative wavefront error induced by practical imperfections, and the frequency locking error on the spectral discrimination performance of the two filters are discussed in detail. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that FPI can produce higher transmittance while the remarkable spectral discrimination is one of the most appealing advantages of FWMI. As a result of the field-widened design, the FWMI still performs well even under the illumination with large FOV while the FPI is only qualified for a small incident angle. The cumulative wavefront error attaches a great effect on the spectral discrimination performance of the interferometric filters. We suggest if a cumulative wavefront error is less than 0.05 waves RMS, it is beneficial to employ the FWMI; otherwise, FPI may be more proper. Although the FWMI shows much more sensitivity to the frequency locking error, it can outperform the FPI given a locking error less than 0.1 GHz is achieved. In summary, the FWMI is very competent in HSRL applications if these practical engineering and control problems can be solved, theoretically. Some other estimations neglected in this paper can also be carried out through the analytical method illustrated herein.
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Identification of differentially expressed genes in the digestive gland of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to BDE-47.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify alterations in gene transcription of the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure to 5?g/L 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) for 15 days. The ability to accumulate BDE-47 in digestive gland and gill was also evaluated in order to provide information for food safety. Analysis of tissue extracts indicated that digestive gland had the higher BDE-47 levels (12463.1±1334.8 ng/g d.w.) compare to gill (6368.6±738.7ng/g d.w.) after a 15-day exposure period. Forward and reverse SSH libraries were made from pooled digestive glands of R. philippinarum, from which 75 high quality sequences were obtained by BLAST analysis. The expression of 39 genes with significant homology (E-value<10(-5)) out of the 75 sequences was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Among the 39 genes, 27 genes were found up-regulated while 12 genes were found down-regulated after the BDE-47 exposure. The 39 genes involved in cellular cycle, cytoskeleton, substance and energy metabolism, stress response, innate immunity and cell signaling and transport which were extensively discussed. This study provides a preliminary basis for studying the response of marine bivalves upon exposure to PBDEs in terms of regulated gene expression.
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The novel coding region SNPs of PPARGC1A gene and their associations with growth traits in Chinese native cattle.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha protein, encoded by the PPARGC1A gene, is a metabolic switch, which transcriptionally activates a complex pathway of mitochondrial biogenesis, lipid and glucose metabolism. Three SNPs (exon 3 c.396G>A, intron 9 c.1892 + 19C>T and exon 10 c.1971C>T) were found and identified in three Chinese native cattle breeds by PCR-SSCP, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods. All three populations had a low genetic diversity at SNP396 locus (PIC <0.25) while possessed a moderate genetic diversity at SNP1892 locus (0.25 < PIC < 0.5). Association study indicated that the synonymous mutation c.396G>A significantly associated with body weight and average daily gain in Nanyang cattle at the adult age (P < 0.05). Our investigation will not only extend the spectrum of genetic variation of bovine PPARGC1A gene, but also provide useful information for the marker assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program.
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