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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhancement of the field emission from the TiO2 nanotube arrays by reducing in a NaBH4 solution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A mass of oxygen vacancies are successfully introduced into TiO2 nanotube arrays using low-cost NaBH4 as a reductant in a liquid-phase environment. By controlling and adjusting the reduction time over the range of 0-24 h, the doping concentration of the oxygen vacancy realizes controllable and eventually reaches saturation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of oxygen vacancies is also investigated, indicating that part of oxygen vacancies remain stable up to 250 °C. In addition, this liquid-phase reduction strategy significantly lowers the requirements of instruments and cost. More interesting, reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays show drastically enhanced field emission performances including substantially decreased turn-on field from 25.01 to 2.65 V/?m, a high current density of 3.5 mA/cm2 at 7.2 V/?m and an excellent field emission stability and repeatability. These results are attributed to the oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing in NaBH4 solution, resulting in a reduced effective work function and an increased conductivity.
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An Anatomic Study to Determine the Optimal Entry Point, Medial Angles, and Effective Length for Safe Fixation using Posterior C1 Lateral Mass Screws.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Study Design. Anatomic study of the C1 lateral mass using fine-cut computed tomographic (CT) scans and Mimics software.Objective. To investigate the optimal entry point, medial angles and effective length for safe fixation using posterior C1 lateral mass screws.Summary of Background Data. Placing posterior C1 lateral mass screws is technically demanding, and a misplaced screw can result in injury to the vertebral artery, spinal cord, or internal carotid artery. Although various insertion angles have been proposed for posterior C1 lateral mass screw, no clear consensus has been reached on the ideal medial angle of the C1 lateral mass.Methods. The C1 lateral masses were evaluated using CT scans and Mimics software in 70 patients. The effective width (EW) and effective screw length (ESL) of posterior C1 lateral mass screws were measured at different medial angulations relative to the midline sagittal plane. The height (H) for screw entry point on the posterior surface of C1 lateral mass and the distance (D) between screw entry point and the intersection of the midline sagittal plane and the posterior arch of the atlas were also measured.Results. The mean height (H) for screw entry on the posterior surface of the lateral mass was 4.25mm, the mean distance (D) between screw entry point and the intersection of the mid-sagittal plane and the posterior arch of the atlas was 27.62mm. The optimal medial angle was 20.86º with a corresponding effective width of 10.56mm and effective screw length of 21.87mm.Conclusion. This study helps to define the specific anatomy related to C1 posterior lateral mass screw placement in an effort to facilitate instrumentation. However, variation is seen in lateral mass anatomy, and this study must be combined with customized surgical planning that includes advanced imaging for safe and effective instrumentation.
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Synthesis and cytotoxicity of triterpenoids derived from betulin and betulinic acid via click chemistry.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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In this study, a series of triazole substituted betulin and betulinic acid derivatives was designed and synthesized via click chemistry at C-30 position. Eighteen target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activities against leukemia cell-line HL-60. Seventeen compounds have not reported before. The cytotoxic experiment showed that most of betulinic acid derived triazoles have higher cytotoxic profile than betulinic acid. Among them, compound 30-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl] betulinic acid (7b) showed the best IC50 value (1.3 ?M) against leukemia cell-line HL-60 (eight- to ninefold higher potency than betulinic acid).
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[Analysis of serum vancomycin concentration after administration of different doses in children with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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ObBJECTIVE: To analyze serum vancomycin concentration after administration of different therapeutic doses in children with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (SAP) in order to determine the appropriate dose of vancomycin in clinical administration.
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[Clinical features of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia and analysis of antibiotic resistance of the pathogen in children].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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To compare the clinical manifestations between inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (SAP) and the antibiotic resistance between the isolates of inhaled and blood-borne Staphylococcus aureus.
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8q24 rs4242382 Polymorphism is a Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer among Multi-Ethnic Populations: Evidence from Clinical Detection in China and a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Evidence supporting an association between the 8q24 rs4242382-A polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) risk has been reported in North American and Europe populations, though data from Asian populations remain limited. We therefore investigated this association by clinical detection in China, and meta-analysis in Asian, Caucasian and African-American populations.
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Demonstration of CNOT gate with Laguerre Gaussian beams via four-wave mixing in atom vapor.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We present an experimental study of controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate through four-wave mixing (FWM) process in a Rubidium vapor cell. A degenerate FWM process in a two level atomic system is directly excited by a single diode laser, where backward pump beam and probe beam are Laguerre Gaussian mode. By means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum, we demonstrate the ability to realize CNOT gate with topological charges transformation in this nonlinear process. The fidelity of CNOT gate for a superposition state with different topological charge reaches about 97% in our experiment.
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VSARICHS: a simple grading scale for vascular structural abnormality-related intracerebral haemorrhage.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Vascular structural abnormality-related intracerebral haemorrhage (VSARICH) accounts for 10-20% of cases of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), but none of the grading scales for primary ICH are reliable for VSARICH. This study aimed to propose a grading scale based on clinical and anatomical parameters to predict short-term clinical outcome.
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[Analysis of microsatellite loci from Bactrocera dorsalis based on transcriptome dataset].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The transcriptome database of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was used to identify the functional gene-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers and to analyze the SSR loci information. In total, 1890 EST-SSR loci were identified, of which, 1296 SSR sequences could be used for primer design. The average distribution frequency of the transcriptomic SSRs was 1/10. 21 kb. However, these distribution frequencies varied considerably among different types of repeat SSRs. The tri-nucleotide repeat SSRs were found to have the highest frequency among the different types of repeat SSRs in the EST-SSR of B. dorsalis. Combining with other literatures, we inferred that the tri-nucleotide repeat SSRs were the most abundant EST-SSR in all of insects. In this study, 42 pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed and 18 pairs produced amplification bands of expected sizes. According to the results of other related literatures, the practices and challenges of strategy for SSR isolation from insect transcriptome databases were discussed, and the problems which should be considered in the screening of insect transcriptomic EST-SSR were put forward.
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Redirecting soluble antigen for MHC class I cross-presentation during phagocytosis.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are mostly derived from proteins synthesized by the antigen-presenting cell itself, while peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are predominantly from materials acquired by endocytosis. External antigens can also be presented by MHC class I molecules in a process referred to as cross-presentation. Here, we report that mouse dendritic cell engagement to a phagocytic target alters endocytic processing and inhibits the proteolytic activities. During phagocytosis, endosome maturation is delayed, shows less progression towards the lysosome, and the endocytosed soluble antigen is targeted for MHC class I cross-presentation. The antigen processing in these arrested endosomes is under the control of NAPDH oxidase associated ROS. We also show that cathepsin S is responsible for the generation of the MHC class I epitope. Taken together, our results suggest that in addition to solid structure uptake, DC phagocytosis simultaneously modifies the kinetics of endosomal trafficking and maturation. As a consequence, external soluble antigens are targeted into the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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MicroRNA-455 inhibits proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer by targeting RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC, also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer, or bowel cancer) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the Western world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (18-25 nucleotides long) noncoding RNAs with important posttranscriptional regulatory functions. miRNAs play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes including carcinogenesis in various solid cancers including CRC. In order to investigate the roles that miRNAs played in CRC, the expression of human miRNAs (in 20 normal adjacent tissue samples and 20 colon cancer samples) was examined in this study. miR-455, miR-484, and miR-101 were significantly downregulated in colon cancer samples. And overexpression of miR-455 significantly inhibited the proliferation and the invasion of SW480, but had no effect on apoptosis. PCR and Western blot showed that overexpression of miR-455 decreased protein expression of RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (RAF1) but had no effect on mRNA level. Luciferase assay indicated that miR-455 regulated RAF1 expression directly. Moreover, overexpression of RAF1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-455 on the growth and the invasion of SW480. The data indicated that miR-455 regulates the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells, at least in part, by downregulating RAF1, a direct target of miR-455. Collectively, our study demonstrated that miR-455-RAF1 may represent a new potential therapeutic target for colorectal carcinoma treatment.
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Halorussus ruber sp. nov., isolated from an inland salt lake of China.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Halophilic archaeal strain YC25(T) was isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells of strain YC25(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YC25(T) was found to be able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 1.7 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.01 M), and at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 8 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1), galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), and an unknown diglycosyl diether (DGD-2) chromatographically identical to those of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain YC25(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122(T) (94.3-95.4 and 91.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain YC25(T) was determined to be 63.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YC25(T) (=CGMCC 1.12122(T) = JCM 18363(T)) represents a new species of Halorussus, for which the name Halorussus ruber sp. nov. is proposed.
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Minimally invasive surgery treatment for the patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (MISTICH): protocol of a multi-center randomized controlled trial.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The choice of surgical or conservative treatment for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is controversial. Some minimally invasive treatments have been applied to hematoma evacuation and could improve prognosis to some extent. Up to now, studies on minimally invasive surgery for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are still insufficient.
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Generation of Airy beams by four-wave mixing in Rubidium vapor cell.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We report on an experimental generation of Airy beams by four-wave mixing (FWM) in atomic vapor cells. This is achieved by using a non-degenerate FWM process, which occurs with two Gaussian pump beams and one Airy signal beam in hot Rubidium vapor. After satisfying the phase matching condition, a FWM field with the profile of an Airy beam can be generated. In our experiment, the diffraction-free and self-healing behaviors of the generated FWM beam are examined. The results shown that the generated FWM beam is an Airy beam. The nonlinear generation process can be extended to other configurations in the atomic medium, which will be useful for manipulation and application of Airy beams in atomic systems.
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Alterations in microRNA-124 and AMPA receptors contribute to social behavioral deficits in frontotemporal dementia.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Neurodegenerative diseases, such as frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are often associated with behavioral deficits, but the underlying anatomical and molecular causes remain poorly understood. Here we show that forebrain-specific expression of FTD-associated mutant CHMP2B in mice causes several age-dependent neurodegenerative phenotypes, including social behavioral impairments. The social deficits were accompanied by a change in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) composition, leading to an imbalance between Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPARs. Expression of most AMPAR subunits was regulated by the brain-enriched microRNA miR-124, whose abundance was markedly decreased in the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex of mice expressing the mutant CHMP2B. We found similar changes in miR-124 and AMPAR levels in the frontal cortex and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from subjects with behavioral variant FTD. Moreover, ectopic miR-124 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex of mutant mice decreased AMPAR levels and partially rescued behavioral deficits. Knockdown of the AMPAR subunit Gria2 also alleviated social impairments. Our results identify a previously undescribed mechanism involving miR-124 and AMPARs in regulating social behavior in FTD and suggest a potential therapeutic avenue.
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Chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to determine that dexpramipexole is not converted to pramipexole in vivo after administered in humans.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Dexpramipexole (DEX) was being investigated in clinical studies for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To monitor the potential chiral interconversion of dexpramipexole to pramipexole (PPX) in vivo, a highly sensitive and selective chiral LC-MS/MS assay was developed and qualified for the detection of pramipexole in the presence of dexpramipexole in human plasma. In this assay, plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation coupled with solid phase extraction (SPE). The analyte PPX was separated from its enantiomer DEX using a chiral HPLC method. The assay was qualified with a dynamic range of 0.150-1.00ng/mL. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for PPX was 0.150ng/mL in the presence of up to 1000ng/mL of DEX. The qualified method was used to analyze plasma samples from a DEX clinical study. No PPX was detected in humans at pharmacologically significant levels after administration of dexpramipexole at single doses up to 600mg per day.
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Degeneration and Regeneration of GABAergic Interneurons in the Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice in Experimental Models of Epilepsy.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Mounting evidence showed that GABAergic interneurons play an important role in the generation of seizures by regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the hippocampus; however, there is a continuous debate regarding the alteration in the number of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons during epileptogenesis. Here, we investigated the degeneration and regeneration of GABAergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus during epileptogenesis using glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice.
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Punicalagin Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Punicalagin, a bioactive ellagitannin isolated from pomegranate, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we analyzed the role of punicalagin against acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Male BALB/c mice with ARDS, induced by intranasal instillation of LPS, were treated with punicalagin 1 h prior to LPS exposure. The effects of punicalagin on pro-inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation, and the histopathological changes were evaluated. The results showed that punicalagin treatment attenuated LPS-induced lung edema, elevating TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Meanwhile, punicalagin significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases in the macrophage and neutrophil infiltration of lung tissues and myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, punicalagin inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and NF-?B activation induced by LPS. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that punicalagin protects against LPS-induced ARDS in mice. The underlying mechanisms may include inhibition of TLR4-mediated NF-?B signaling pathways.
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Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low?magnitude, high?frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri?implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole?body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone?to?implant contact, peri?implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4?week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri?implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats.
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Antitumor effects and molecular mechanisms of figitumumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to IGF-1 receptor, in esophageal carcinoma.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays an essential role in the development of numerous cancers. Figitumumab (CP) is not only a monocloncal antibody, it also has agonist activity on IGF-1R. The antitumor activity of CP in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unclear. In our study, we identified IGF-1R as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients, and investigated the antitumor effects of CP in ESCC cell lines. CP suppressed tumor growth and sensitized cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, CP inhibited cell proliferation, migration, colony forming activity and anti-apoptosis induced by IGF-1. Our results showed that CP not only inhibited IGF-1 induced receptor autophosphorylation and downstream signaling, but also triggered ?-arrestin1 and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) mediated ERK1/2 activation, indicating CP as a biased agonist for IGF-1R. Inhibition of ERK1/2 enhanced the antitumor activity of CP. Furthermore, CP was a more powerful agonist for IGF-1R down-regulation than IGF-1, and dysregulation of ?-arrestin1 and GRKs affected this down-regulation. Thus, we demonstrated antitumor activities of CP on ESCC, and as a biased agonist, CP induced ERK1/2 activation and receptor down-regulation required ?-arrestin1 and GRKs, suggesting a promising role for targeting IGF-1R in ESCC.
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Endogenous ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid production confers resistance to obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes in mice.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Despite the well-documented health benefits of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), their use in clinical management of hyperglycemia and obesity has shown little success. To better define the mechanisms of ?-3 PUFAs in regulating energy balance and insulin sensitivity, we deployed a transgenic mouse model capable of endogenously producing ?-3 PUFAs while reducing ?-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of a Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an ?-3 fatty acid desaturase. When challenged with high-fat diets, fat-1 mice strongly resisted obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatic steatosis. Endogenous elevation of ?-3 PUFAs and reduction of ?-6 PUFAs did not alter the amount of food intake but led to increased energy expenditure in the fat-1 mice. The requirements for the levels of ?-3 PUFAs as well as the ?-6/?-3 ratios in controlling blood glucose and obesity are much more stringent than those in lipid metabolism. These metabolic phenotypes were accompanied by attenuation of the inflammatory state because tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-? were significantly decreased. TNF-?-induced nuclear factor-?B signaling was almost completely abolished. Consistent with the reduction in chronic inflammation and a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activity in the fat-1 liver tissue, hepatic insulin signaling was sharply elevated. The activities of prolipogenic regulators, such as liver X receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 were sharply decreased, whereas the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, a nuclear receptor that facilitates lipid ?-oxidation, was markedly increased. Thus, endogenous conversion of ?-6 to ?-3 PUFAs via fat-1 strongly protects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and dyslipidemia and may represent a novel therapeutic modality to treat these prevalent disorders.
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Prevalence and spectrum of Nkx2.6 mutations in patients with congenital heart disease.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of birth defect and is the most prevalent non-infectious cause of infant death. A growing body of evidence documents that genetic defects are involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD is a genetically heterogeneous disease and the genetic basis underpinning CHD in an overwhelming majority of patients remain unclear. In this study, the coding exons and flanking introns of the Nkx2.6 gene, which codes for a homeodomain-containing transcription factor important for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 320 unrelated patients with CHD, and two novel heterozygous Nkx2.6 mutations, p.V176M and p.K177X, were identified in two unrelated patients with CHD, respectively, including a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and a patient with double outlet of right ventricle and ventricular septal defect. The mutations were absent in 400 control chromosomes and the altered amino acids were completely conserved evolutionarily across species. Due to unknown transcriptional targets of Nkx2.6, the functional consequences of the identified mutations at transcriptional activity were evaluated by using Nkx2.5 as a surrogate. Alignment between human Nkx2.6 and Nkx2.5 proteins showed that V176M-mutant Nkx2.6 was equivalent to V182M-mutant Nkx2.5 and K177X-mutant Nkx2.6 was equal to K183X-mutant Nkx2.5, and introduction of V182M or K183X into Nkx2.5 significantly diminished its transcriptional activating function when compared with its wild-type counterpart. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of Nkx2.6 loss-of-function mutation with increased susceptibility to tetralogy of Fallot or double outlet of right ventricle and ventricular septal defect, providing novel insight into the molecular mechanism of CHD.
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Reconstruction of Penile Urethra With the 3-Dimensional Porous Bladder Acellular Matrix in a Rabbit Model.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To evaluate the effect of reconstruction of penile urethra with the 3-dimensional (3-D) porous bladder acellular matrix (BAM) in a rabbit model.
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Comparison of nitrous oxide emissions in partial nitrifying and full nitrifying granular sludge reactors treating ammonium-rich wastewater.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in partial nitrifying and full nitrifying granular sludge reactors treating ammonium-rich wastewater. During stable operation, there was no significant difference of NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies between the two granular reactors. Nitrate and nitrite were the main effluent nitrogen species of the two reactors, and nitrite accumulation rate of partial nitrifying reactor was high of 87.79±2.03%. However, partial nitrifying granular-reactor had better total nitrogen removal efficiency (41.84±3.35%) than that of full nitrifying granular-reactor (19.91±2.12%). According to typical cycles, the N2O emission amount per cycle of partial nitrifying reactor account for 11.48% of the incoming nitrogen load, which was 1.5 times higher than that of full nitrifying reactor (7.47%). The obtained results could provide more information for understanding of N2O emission in granular sludge systems.
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Protein profiling the differences between diabetic and normal mouse cumulus cells.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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As the number of young people suffering from diabetes increases worldwide, the impact of this disease on human reproduction urgently needs to be addressed. Here we compared the proteomes of cumulus cells of super-ovulated cumulus-oocyte complexes from diabetic and normal mice. We identified 57 up-regulated and 74 down-regulated proteins in diabetic cumulus cells; among these groups were proteins associated with cell cycle, cellular communication, epigenetic regulation, protein localization, and chromatin organization - all in accordance with type I diabetes. The poor-quality follicles derived from diabetic mice were further enforced by the presence of glycoproteins that are specifically expressed by the oocyte or oviductal epithelial cells in the cumulus-cell samples. In conclusion, the proteomic differences between diabetic and normal cumulus cells provide targets for improving the reproduction health of type I diabetic patients. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosing Cancers of Central Nervous System: a Meta-analysis.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Recent studies have shown abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of cancer patients, suggesting that miRNAs may serve as promising biomarkers for cancers of CNS. However, other studies have arrived at conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to systematically measure the potential diagnostic value of miRNAs for CNS cancers. Electronic databases as well as other sources were searched until to April 12, 2014 for relevant articles. Data from different studies were pooled using the random-effects model. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative LR (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), together with the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve, and area under the SROC curve (AUC) value were used to estimate overall diagnostic performance. Twenty-three studies from 6 articles were included in the current meta-analysis with a total of 299 CNS cancer patients and 418 controls. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.80-0.89), 0.83 (95 % CI, 0.76-0.88), 5.1 (95 % CI, 3.4-7.5), 0.18 (95 % CI, 0.12-0.26), 28 (95 % CI, 14-58), and 0.91 (95 % CI, 0.88-0.93), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based miRNAs assays yielded more accurate results and seemed to be more sensitive in diagnosing of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). In conclusion, miRNAs may be suitable for serving as noninvasive biomarkers for CNS cancers detection. However, further validation based on a larger sample of patients and controls is still required.
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Potential therapeutic mechanism of genistein in breast cancer involves inhibition of cell cycle regulation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Genistein can prevent tumorigenesis and reduce the incidence of diseases that are dependent upon estrogen. Previous research, however, has shown that genistein can also increase the risk of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of genistein in breast cancer and to determine whether genistein produces a therapeutic effect or promotes the development of breast cancer. Gene microarray data obtained from three samples treated with alcohol (control group), three samples treated with 3 µmol/l genistein and three samples treated with 10 µmol/l genistein for 48 h, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional enrichment in the two genistein groups was performed. The interaction networks of the DEGs were constructed and the overlapping network was extracted. Finally, the functions and pathways of the DEGs in the overlapping network were enriched. In total, 224 DEGs coexisted in the two genistein groups, and the most significant function of these was the cell cycle. The number and the fold change of expression values of the DEGs in the 10 µmol/l genistein group were significantly higher compared with that of the 3 µmol/l genistein group. The most significant function and pathway of the DEGs in the overlapping network was the cell cycle involving several genes, including GLIPR1, CDC20, BUB1, MCM2 and CCNB1. Thus, genistein stimulation resulted in gene expression changes in breast cancer cell lines and discrepancies increased with higher doses of genistein. The DEGs were most significantly associated with cell cycle regulation.
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Aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate aerobic granules formation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal treating high strength ammonia wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). After successful aerobic granulation, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of the SBR increased from 3.11 to 14.52 g/L, while sludge volume index (SVI) values decreased from 144.61 to 30.32 mL/g. Protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS) concentrations increased from 60.2 and 12.5 mg/L to 101.1 and 15.8 mg/L, respectively. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was enhanced by altering the influent chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio. At COD/N ratio of 9, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were up to 89.8% and 77.5%, respectively. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3D-EEM) spectroscopy showed that the chemical compositions of sludge EPS were changed during granulation process. The results could provide useful information to promote nitrogen and phosphorus removal using aerobic granular sludge technology.
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[Application of three-dimensional printing technique in repair and reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defect].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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To explore the application of three-dimensional (3-D) printing technique in repair and reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defect.
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Pharmacokinetics of renally excreted drug dexpramipexole in subjects with impaired renal function.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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This phase I, open-label, single-dose study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of renally excreted drug dexpramipexole in subjects with normal and impaired renal function, i.e. mild, moderate, severe renal impairment, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis when matched by age and sex. Dexpramipexole area under the curves (AUCs), but not Cmax , were significantly increased with the severity of renal impairment after a single dose administration. The geometric mean ratio of dose-normalized AUC(0-72) was 1.4, 1.7, 2.7, and 4.5, respectively, in mild, moderate, severe renal impairment, and ESRD subjects when compared to healthy subjects. There was a strong association between renal function (eGFR) and dexpramipexole CLr. The slope (90% confidence interval(CI)) of eGFR and renal clearance (CLr) in the regression model was 3.1 (2.4, 3.7). Dexpramipexole elimination in ESRD subjects during both dialysis and non-dialysis (i.e., interval between dialysis) was insignificant. Single 75?mg and 150?mg doses of dexpramipexole were well tolerated, and the safety profile was comparable across renal function groups. Extensive drug accumulation may occur with repeated dosing in patients with significant renal impairment. It is recommended that dexpramipexole not to be given to patients with severe renal impairment or in those with ESRD.
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Deviation analysis of atlantoaxial pedicle screws assisted by a drill template.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Although C1-C2 pedicle screw fixation provides an excellent fusion rate and rigid fixation, this technique has a potential risk. It is essential to develop an accurate screwing method to avoid this neurovascular injury. To develop and validate the accuracy of a novel navigational template for C1-C2 pedicle screw placement in cadaveric specimens, computed tomography scans with 1-mm-wide cuts were obtained of 32 cadaveric cervical specimens. The authors developed 64 three-dimensional full-scale templates that were created by computer modeling with a rapid prototyping technique from the computed tomography data. Drill templates were constructed with a custom trajectory for each level and side. The drill templates were used to guide the establishment of a pilot hole for screw placement. The average distances between ideal and actual entry points of the C1 pedicle screws in the x, y, and z axes were 0.16±0.46 mm, 0.11±0.52 mm, and -0.01±0.54 mm, respectively, on the left side and 0.11±0.49 mm, 0.01±0.56 mm, and -0.09±0.59 mm, respectively, on the right side. The average distances between ideal and actual entry points of the C2 pedicle screws in the x, y, and z axes were 0.05±0.54 mm, 0.20±0.59 mm, and -0.06±0.58 mm, respectively, on the left side and 0.17±0.55 mm, 0.1±0.58 mm, and -0.01±0.49 mm, respectively, on the right side. Factors related to human error and imprecision are responsible for most malpositioning of instrumentation. The rapid prototyping drill template for C1-C2 screw placement is described to minimize human error, although it introduces error related to computer software and variation in manufacturing.
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Transfer and conversion of images based on EIT in atom vapor.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Transfer and conversion of images between different wavelengths or polarization has significant applications in optical communication and quantum information processing. We demonstrated the transfer of images based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a rubidium vapor cell. In experiments, a 2D image generated by a spatial light modulator is used as a coupling field, and a plane wave served as a signal field. We found that the image carried by coupling field could be transferred to that carried by signal field, and the spatial patterns of transferred image are much better than that of the initial image. It also could be much smaller than that determined by the diffraction limit of the optical system. We also studied the subdiffraction propagation for the transferred image. Our results may have applications in quantum interference lithography and coherent Raman spectroscopy.
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Study of genetic variants of 8q21 and 8q24 associated with prostate cancer in Jing-Jin residents in northern China.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To identify the genetic risk of six genetic variants at 8q21 and 8q24 (including rs1512268, A; rs12543663, C; rs10086908, C; rs1016343, T; rs13252298, A, and rs6983561, C) associated with prostate cancer in Beijing and Tianjin (Jing-jin) area residents in northern China.
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[Postoperative rehabilitation strategy for acetabular fracture: application of 3D printing technique].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To explore the value of 3D printing technique in the surgical management and strategy of rehabilitation therapy of acetabular fracture.
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Motor impairments, striatal degeneration, and altered dopamine-glutamate interplay in mice lacking PSD-95.
J. Neurogenet.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Excessive activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) mediate neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration under many neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by the preferential loss of medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. PSD-95 is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines, where a classical role for PSD-95 is to stabilize glutamate receptors at sites of synaptic transmission. Our recent studies indicate that PSD-95 also interacts with the D1 DA receptor localized in spines and negatively regulates spine D1 signaling. Moreover, PSD-95 forms ternary protein complexes with D1 and NMDA receptors, and plays a role in limiting the reciprocal potentiation between both receptors from being escalated. These studies suggest a neuroprotective role for PSD-95. Here we show that mice lacking PSD-95, resulting from genetic deletion of the GK domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95-?GK mice), sporadically develop progressive neurological impairments characterized by hypolocomotion, limb clasping, and loss of DARPP-32-positive MSNs. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that NMDA receptors in mutant MSNs were overactive, suggested by larger, NMDA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and higher ratios of NMDA- to AMPA-mediated corticostriatal synaptic transmission. In addition, NMDA receptor currents in mutant cortical neurons were more sensitive to potentiation by the D1 receptor agonist SKF81297. Finally, repeated administration of the psychostimulant cocaine at a dose regimen not producing overt toxicity-related phenotypes in normal mice reliably converted asymptomatic mutant mice to clasping symptomatic mice. These results support the hypothesis that deletion of PSD-95 in mutant mice produces concomitant overactivation of both D1 and NMDA receptors that makes neurons more susceptible to NMDA excitotoxicity, causing neuronal damage and neurological impairments. Understanding PSD-95-dependent neuroprotective mechanisms may help elucidate processes underlying neurodegeneration in HD and other neurological disorders.
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Unstable Jefferson fractures: Results of transoral osteosynthesis.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Majority of C1 fractures can be effectively treated conservatively by immobilization or traction unless there is an injury to the transverse ligament. Conservative treatment usually involves a long period of immobilization in a halo-vest. Surgical intervention generally involves fusion, eliminating the motion of the upper cervical spine. We describe the treatment of unstable Jefferson fractures designed to avoid these problems of both conservative and invasive methods.
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Up-regulation of fatty acid oxidation in the ligament as a contributing factor of ankylosing spondylitis: A comparative proteomic study.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The present study first utilized a standardized shotgun proteomic analysis method to determine differences in protein expression of fibroblasts in the ligament between AS patients and healthy controls.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of triptolide in LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Triptolide is one of the main active components of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triptolide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and to clarify the possible mechanisms. Mice were administered intranasally with LPS to induce lung injury. Triptolide was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS challenge. Triptolide-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, edema of the lung, as well as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with LPS-treated mice. Additionally, Western blot analysis showed that triptolide inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor-kappa B kinase-alpha (I?B-?), p65, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), p38, extracellular receptor kinase (ERK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) caused by LPS. In conclusion, our results suggested that the promising anti-inflammatory mechanism of triptolide may be that triptolide activates peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?), thereby attenuating an LPS-induced inflammatory response. Triptolide may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for ALI treatment.
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A novel miR-219-SMC4-JAK2/Stat3 regulatory pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To understand the involvement of structural maintenance of chromosome 4 (SMC4) in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Music reduces panic: an initial study of listening to preferred music improves male patient discomfort and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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To assess the impact of listening to preferred music on relieving male patients' pain and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy.
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Antidiabetic and antioxidative effect of jiang tang xiao ke granule in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Diabetes mellitus (DM), a kind of metabolic disease, is increasing over the last four decades in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule, a naturally occurring ingredient from Chinese herbal medicines, on serum glucose, lipids, and oxidative stress in DM rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin. JTXK granule 9?g/kg (based on crude herb equivalent) and pioglitazone 1.5?mg/kg (as a positive control for comparison) were orally administrated to DM rats for 4 weeks. Results showed that administration of JTXK granule reduced serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein levels (by 12%, 33%, 57%, and 44%, resp.) but increased high-density lipoprotein level by 69%, compared with the drug-untreated DM rats. Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were lowered (by 34% and 52%, resp.) associated with the elevation in serum superoxide dismutase levels (by 60%) after JTXK granule treatment. In addition, JTXK granule suppressed serum alanine aminotransferase activity (up to 50%) and alleviated pathological changes of pancreas and liver tissues in DM rats. The beneficial changes of pioglitazone on biomarkers were also found in DM rats. These findings suggested that JTXK granule may be an alternative medicine for the management of DM.
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N-acetyl-l-cystine (NAC) protects against H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) had been shown to inhibit replication of seasonal human influenza A viruses. Here, the effects of NAC on H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI) were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 10(7) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of A/swine/HeBei/012/2008/(H9N2) viruses with or without NAC treatments to induce ALI model. The result showed that pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? and CXCL-10 in BALF were attenuated by NAC. Moreover, our data showed that NAC significantly inhibited the levels of TLR4 protein and TLR4 mRNA in the lungs. Pharmacological inhibitors of TLR4 (E5564) exerted similar effects like those determined for NAC in H9N2 swine influenza virus-infected mice. These results suggest that antioxidants like NAC represent a potential additional treatment option that could be considered in the case of an influenza A virus pandemic.
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Comparison of length measurements provided by a femtosecond optical frequency comb.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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This paper presents a comparison of length measurements between the wavelength and the adjacent pulse repetition interval length (APRIL) provided by a femtosecond optical frequency comb. A theoretical estimation of the frequency stability for stabilizing the wavelength and APRIL, the frequency parameters that affect the stability of the APRIL in air, and the ambiguity in the length measurement by the APRIL are investigated. We find that the APRIL can be used as a low-cost measurement for the absolute length over a range of hundreds of meters in laboratory conditions.
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Two-stage fermentation for 2-Ketogluconic acid production by Klebsiella pneumoniae.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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2-Ketogluconic acid production by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a pH-dependent process, strictly proceeding under acidic conditions. Unfortunately, cell growth is inhibited by acidic conditions, resulting in low productivity of 2-ketogluconic acid. To overcome this deficiency, a two-stage fermentation strategy was exploited in the current study. During the first stage, the culture was maintained at neutral pH, favoring cell growth. During the second stage, the culture pH was switched to acidic conditions favoring 2-ketogluconic acid accumulation. Culture parameters, including switching time, dissolved oxygen levels, pH, and temperature were optimized for the fed-batch fermentation. Characteristics of glucose dehydrogenase and gluconate dehydrogenase were revealed in vitro, and the optimal pHs of the two enzymes coincided with the optimum culture pH. Under optimum conditions, a total of 186 g/l 2- ketogluconic acid was produced at 26 h, and the conversion ratio was 0.98 mol/mol. This fermentation strategy has successfully overcome the mismatch between optimum parameters required for cell growth and 2-ketogluconic acid accumulation, and this result has the highest productivity and conversion ratio of 2-ketogluconic and produced by microorganism.
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Histone methyltransferase SETDB1 is required for prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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SETDB1 has been established as an oncogene in a number of human carcinomas. The present study was to evaluate the expression of SETDB1 in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and cells and to preliminarily investigate the role of SETDB1 in prostate tumorigenesis in vitro. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect the expression of SETDB1 in PCa tissues, adjacent normal tissues, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues, PCa cell lines and normal prostate epithelial cells. The results suggested that SETDB1 was upregulated in human PCa tissues compared with normal tissues at the mRNA and protein levels. The role of SETDB1 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8, colony-forming efficiency and flow cytometry assays. The results indicated that downregulation of SETDB1 by siRNA inhibited PCa cell growth, and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The PCa cell migration and invasion decreased by silcencing SETDB1 which were assessed by using in vitro scratch and transwell invasion assay respectively. Our data suggested that SETDB1 is overexpressed in human PCa. Silencing SETDB1 inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
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MiR-134 blockade prevents status epilepticus like-activity and is neuroprotective in cultured hippocampal neurons.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurological disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that act post-transcriptionally modulating messenger RNA (mRNA) translation or stability which may have important roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. It has been reported that silencing microRNA-134 in vivo has significant neuroprotective and prolonged seizure-suppressive effects. However, the mechanism by which miR-134 inhibition suppressed seizures and whether miR-134 inhibition works in an in vitro model of SE, is unknown. Compared to a complex in vivo system, in vitro models of SE-like electrographic activity can be powerful tools to study this miRNA. Using a cell culture model of low Mg(2+) treatment of rat hippocampal neurons, we found SE-like electrographic activity increased expression of miR-134. Inhibiting expression of miR-134 using an inhibitor lentivirus with two miR-134 binding sites reduced SE-like electrographic activity in the hippocampal neurons and reduced neuronal death. This study provides direct evidence that inhibition of miR-134 can block status epilepticus-like discharges and is neuroprotective in hippocampal neuronal cultures and implies that inhibiting miR-134 may be a potential candidate for the clinical treatment of SE.
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Development of a simple score to predict outcome for unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Accurate assessment of prognosis for patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; formerly vegetative state) may help clinicians and families guide the type and intensity of therapy; however, there is no suitable and accurate means to predict the outcome so far. We aimed to develop a simple bedside scoring system to predict the likelihood of awareness recovery in patients with UWS.
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[Correlation of androgen receptor CAG repeats with the risks of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To explore the association of the androgenic receptor (AR) CAG repeats with the risks of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa).
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Role of dihydroxyacetone kinases I and II in the dha regulon of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Dha regulon is responsible for anaerobic glycerol metabolism and 1,3-propanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae. DhaK encodes an ATP-dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase I, whereas dhaK123 encodes a dihydroxyacetone kinase II that uses phosphoenolpyruvate as a phosphate donor. The functions of dihydroxyacetone kinases I and II in K. pneumoniae have not been discriminated. In this study, four individual genes of the two kinases were knocked out, and the metabolic characteristics of these mutants were investigated. DhaK1 or dhaK2 mutation inhibited dha regulon expression. DhaK3 mutation reduced glycerol utilization, and the growth was slower than the wild stain. However, dhaK mutation exerted no significant effects on glycerol metabolism. The metabolic characteristics of these mutants showed that the subunits of dihydroxyacetone kinase II were involved in the regulation of dha regulon expression, similar to the dha regulon of E. coli. Dihydroxyacetone kinase II catalyzed dihydroxyacetone conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, whereas dihydroxyacetone kinase I showed no significant contribution to this reaction.
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Effect of glycyrrhizin on traumatic brain injury in rats and its mechanism.
Chin. J. Traumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To investigate the neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizin (Gly) as well as its effect on expression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in rats after traumatic brain injury (TBI).
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Characterization of Bactrocera dorsalis serine proteases and evidence for their indirect role in insecticide tolerance.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) causes devastating losses to agricultural crops world-wide and is considered to be an economically important pest. Little is known about the digestive enzymes such as serine proteases (SPs) in B. dorsalis, which are important both for energy supply and mitigation of fitness cost associated with insecticide tolerance. In this study, we identified five SP genes in the midgut of B. dorsalis, and the alignments of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of motifs conserved in the SP superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses with known SPs from other insect species suggested that three of them were trypsin-like proteases. Analyses of the expression profiles among the different developmental stages showed that all five genes were most abundant in larvae than in other stages. When larvae were continuously fed on diet containing 0.33 ?g/g ?-Cypermethrin, expression of all five genes were upregulated in the midgut but the larval development was delayed. Biochemical assays were consistent with the increased protease activity exhibited by SPs in the midgut after treatment with ?-Cypermethrin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced SP activity may play an indirect role in relieving the toxicity stress of insecticide in B. dorsalis.
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Emodin inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating PPAR-? in mouse mammary epithelial cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum, has been reported to have a protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of emodin in modifying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling pathways in mouse mammary epithelial cells (MEC). The pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), inhibitory kappa B (I?B?) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and PPAR-? were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that emodin suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), iNOS and COX-2 expression. We also found that emodin inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation, I?B? degradation, phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and P38. Furthermore, emodin could activate PPAR-? and the anti-inflammatory effects of emodin can be reversed by GW9662, a specific antagonist for PPAR-?. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that emodin activates PPAR-?, thereby attenuating LPS-induced inflammatory response.
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Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.
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THADA gene polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1465618 in THADA at 2p21 has been identified as being associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk in Europeans; however, it is not clear whether the SNP is related to PCa risk in multiple populations. We investigated the association of rs1465618 in THADA with PCa in a Chinese population and carried out a meta-analysis in multiple populations, testing the relevance of this SNP for PCa risk.
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Influence of shear force on floc properties and residual aluminum in humic acid treatment by nano-Al??.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The impacts of various shear forces on floc sizes and structures in humic acid coagulations by polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and nano-Al13 were comparatively studied in this paper. The dynamic floc size was monitored by use of a laser diffraction particle sizing device. The floc structure was evaluated in terms of fractal dimension, analyzed by small-angle laser light scattering (SALLS). The effect of increased shear rate on residual Al of the coagulation effluents was then analyzed on the basis of different floc characteristics generated under various shear conditions. The results showed that floc size decreased with the increasing shear rate for both Al13 and PACl. Besides, floc strength and re-formation ability were also weakened by the enhanced shear force. Al13 resulted in small, strong and better recoverable flocs than PACl and moreover, in the shear range of 100-300 revolution per minute (rpm) (G=40.7-178.3s(-1)), the characteristics of HA-Al13 flocs displayed smaller scale changes than those of HA-PACl flocs. The results of residual Al measurements proved that with shear increased, the residual Al increased continuously but Al13 presented less sensitivity to the varying shear forces. PACl contributed higher residual Al than Al13 under the same shear condition.
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Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced ?-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-?B. Western blotting assays were also performed to assess the effect of luteolin on the expression of MafA and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in uric acid-treated cells. Finally, we evaluated the effect of luteolin on uric acid-induced inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in Min6 cells and freshly isolated mouse pancreatic islets. We found that luteolin significantly inhibited uric acid-induced NO production, which was well correlated with reduced expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, decreased activity of NF-?B was implicated in inhibition by luteolin of increased iNOS expression induced by uric acid. Besides, luteolin significantly increased MafA expression in Min6 cells exposed to uric acid, which was reversed by overexpression of iNOS. Moreover, luteolin prevented uric acid-induced inhibition of GSIS in both Min6 cells and mouse islets. In conclusion, luteolin protects pancreatic ?-cells from uric acid-induced dysfunction and may confer benefit on the protection of pancreatic ?-cells in hyperuricemia-associated diabetes.
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Novel PITX2c loss-of-function mutations associated with complex congenital heart disease.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of birth defect in humans and is the leading non-infectious cause of infant mortality. Emerging evidence strongly suggests that genetic risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, CHD is of pronounced genetic heterogeneity, and the genetic defects responsible for CHD in an overwhelming majority of patients remain unclear. In this study, the entire coding region and splice junction sites of the PITX2c gene, which encodes a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor crucial for proper cardiovascular morphogenesis, was sequenced in 170 unrelated neonates with CHD. The available relatives of the mutation carriers and 200 unrelated ethnically matched healthy individuals were genotyped. The disease-causing potential of the PITX2c sequence variations was predicted by MutationTaster and PolyPhen-2. The functional effect of the mutations was characterized using a luciferase reporter assay system. As a result, 2 novel heterozygous PITX2c mutations, p.R91Q and p.T129S, were identified in 2 unrelated newborns with transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect, respectively. A genetic scan of the pedigrees revealed that each mutation co-segregated with CHD transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern with complete penetrance. The mutations, which altered the amino acids completely conserved evolutionarily, were absent in 400 normal chromosomes and were predicted to be causative. Functional analysis revealed that the PITX2c mutations were both associated with significantly diminished transcriptional activity compared with their wild-type counterpart. This study demonstrates the association between PITX2c loss-of-function mutations and the transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect in humans, providing further insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for CHD.
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Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomer formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Klebsiella pneumoniae is known to produce meso-2,3-butanediol and 2S,3S-butanediol, whereas 2R,3R-butanediol was detected in the culture broth of K. pneumoniae CGMCC 1.6366. The ratio of 2R,3R-butanediol to all isomers obtained using glycerol as the carbon source was higher than that obtained using glucose as the carbon source. Therefore, enzymes involved in glycerol metabolism are likely related to 2R,3R-butanediol formation. In vitro reactions show that glycerol dehydrogenase catalyzes the stereospecific conversion of R-acetoin to 2R,3R-butanediol and S-acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol. Butanediol dehydrogenase exhibits high (S)-enantioselectivity in ketone reduction. Genes encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, ?-acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase were individually disrupted in K. pneumoniae CGMCC 1.6366, and the 2,3-butanediol synthesis characteristics of these mutants were investigated. K. pneumoniae ?dhaD lost the ability to synthesize 2R,3R-butanediol. K. pneumoniae ?budA showed reduced 2R,3R-butanediol synthesis. However, K. pneumoniae ?budC produced a high level of 2R,3R-butanediol, and R-acetoin was accumulated in the broth. The metabolic characteristics of these mutants and in vitro experiment results demonstrated the mechanism of the 2,3-butanediol stereoisomer synthesis pathway. Glycerol dehydrogenase, encoded by dhaD, exhibited 2R,3R-butanediol dehydrogenase activity and was responsible for 2R,3R-butanediol synthesis from R-acetoin. This enzyme also contributed to meso-2,3-butanediol synthesis from S-acetoin. Butanediol dehydrogenase, encoded by budC, was the only enzyme that catalyzed the conversion of diacetyl to S-acetoin and further to 2S,3S-butanediol.
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Efficacy of immunosuppression monotherapy after liver transplantation: a meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess the advantages and disadvantages of immunosuppression monotherapy after transplantation and the impact of monotherapy on hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence.
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Astrocytic expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor in rat and human sclerotic hippocampi.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), which is traditionally located on axon terminals, plays an important role in the pathology of epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases by modulating synaptic transmission. Using the pilocarpine model of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures, which mimics the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in humans, we examined the expression of CB1R in hippocampal astrocytes of epileptic rats. Furthermore, we also examined the expression of astrocytic CB1R in the resected hippocampi from patients with medically refractory mesial TLE. Using immunofluorescent double labeling, we found increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in hippocampi of epileptic rats, whereas expression of astrocytic CB1R was not detectable in hippocampi of saline treated animals. Furthermore, CB1R was also found in some astrocytes in sclerotic hippocampi in a subset of patients with intractable mesial TLE. Detection with immune electron microscopy showed that the expression of CB1R was increased in astrocytes of epileptic rats and modest levels of CB1R were also found on the astrocytic membrane of sclerotic hippocampi. These results suggest that increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in sclerotic hippocampi might be involved in the cellular basis of the effects of cannabinoids on epilepsy.
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Dopamine-enabled anti-Hebbian timing-dependent plasticity in prefrontal circuitry.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) of glutamatergic synapses is a Hebbian associative plasticity that may underlie certain forms of learning. A cardinal feature of STDP is its dependence on the temporal order of presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes during induction: pre-post (positive) pairings induce t-LTP (timing-dependent long-term potentiation) whereas post-pre (negative) pairings induce t-LTD (timing-dependent long-term depression). Dopamine (DA), a reward signal for behavioral learning, is believed to exert powerful modulations on synapse strength and plasticity, but its influence on STDP has remained incompletely understood. We previously showed that DA extends the temporal window of t-LTP in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) from +10 to +30 ms, gating Hebbian t-LTP. Here, we examined DA modulation of synaptic plasticity induced at negative timings in layer V pyramidal neurons on mouse medial PFC slices. Using a negative timing STDP protocol (60 post-pre pairings at 0.1 Hz, ?t = -30 ms), we found that DA applied during post-pre pairings did not produce LTD, but instead enabled robust LTP. This anti-Hebbian t-LTP depended on GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. Blocking D1- (D1Rs), but not D2- (D2Rs) class DA receptors or disrupting cAMP/PKA signaling in pyramidal neurons also abolished this atypical t-LTP, indicating that it was mediated by postsynaptic D1R-cAMP/PKA signaling in excitatory synapses. Unlike DA-enabled Hebbian t-LTP that requires suppression of GABAergic inhibition and cooperative actions of both D1Rs and D2Rs in separate PFC excitatory and inhibitory circuits, DA-enabled anti-Hebbian t-LTP occurred under intact inhibitory transmission and only required D1R activation in excitatory circuit. Our results establish DA as a potent modulator of coincidence detection during associative synaptic plasticity and suggest a mechanism by which DA facilitates input-target association during reward learning and top-down information processing in PFC circuits.
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[Association between HPV DNA and disease specific survival in patients with penile cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To examine the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in penile squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), explore the relationship between HPV and clinicopathological variables and determine its value for predicting disease-specific survival.
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[A novel computer-assisted drill template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement:a cadaveric experimental study].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To validate the accuracy of atlanto-axial pedicle screw placement with a rapid prototyping drill guide template and analyze the factors of screw deviations.
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Patient distress and emotional disclosure: a study of Chinese cancer patients.
J Cancer Educ
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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The study was conducted to extend research on the reluctance for emotional disclosure to Chinese patients with a variety of types of cancer. A quantitative survey was conducted among 400 cancer patients in China. Statistical analysis revealed that among four confirmed factors on reluctance for emotional disclosure to physicians, no perceived need scored highest, followed by unwillingness to bother, no practical use, and fear of negative impact. Patient distress was negatively associated with no perceived need and no practical use. Patients with low family support scored significantly lower in all factors except fear of negative impact. Education and income affected the factor of no perceived need. Those patients having limited family support and limited education indicated a higher need for emotional support from their physicians and were more likely to open up to them. Cultural traits should be integrated into supportive cancer care research.
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Systematic expression analysis of genes related to multidrug-resistance in isogenic docetaxel- and adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cell lines.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Docetaxel (Doc) and adriamycin (Adr) are two of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. However, their efficacy is often limited by the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). The purpose of this study was to investigate MDR mechanisms through analyzing systematically the expression changes of genes related to MDR in the induction process of isogenic drug resistant MCF-7 cell lines. Isogenic resistant sublines selected at 100 and 200 nM Doc (MCF-7/100 nM Doc and MCF-7/200 nM Doc) or at 500 and 1,500 nM Adr (MCF-7/500 nM Adr and MCF-7/1,500 nM) were developed from human breast cancer parental cell line MCF-7, by exposing MCF-7 to gradually increasing concentrations of Doc or Adr in vitro. Cell growth curve, flow cytometry and MTT cytotoxicity assay were preformed to evaluate the MDR characteristics developed in the sublines. Some key genes on the pathways related to drug resistance (including drug-transporters: MDR1, MRP1 and BCRP; drug metabolizing-enzymes: CYP3A4 and glutathione S-transferases (GST) pi; target genes: topoisomerase II (TopoII?) and Tubb3; apoptosis genes: Bcl-2 and Bax) were analyzed at RNA and protein expression levels by real time RT-qPCR and western blot, respectively. Compared to MCF-7/S (30.6 h), cell doubling time of MCF-7/Doc (41.6 h) and MCF-7/Adr (33.8 h) were both prolonged, and the cell proportion of resistant sublines in G1/G2 phase increased while that in S-phase decreased. MCF-7/100 nM Doc and MCF-7/200 nM Doc was 22- and 37-fold resistant to Doc, 18- and 32-fold to Adr, respectively. MCF-7/500 nM Adr and MCF-7/1,500 nM Adr was 61- and 274-fold resistant to Adr, three and 12-fold to Doc, respectively. Meantime, they also showed cross-resistance to the other anticancer drugs in different degrees. Compared to MCF-7/S, RT-qPCR and Western blot results revealed that the expression of MDR1, MRP1, BCRP, Tubb3 and Bcl-2 were elevated in both MCF-7/Doc and MCF-7/Adr, and TopoII?, Bax were down-regulated in both the sublines, while CYP3A4, GST pi were increased only in MCF-7/Doc and MCF-7/Adr respectively. Furthermore, the changes above were dose-dependent. The established MCF-7/Doc or MCF-7/Adr has the typical MDR characteristics, which can be used as the models for resistance mechanism study. The acquired process of MCF-7/S resistance to Doc or Adr is gradual, and is complicated with the various pathways involved in. There are some common resistant mechanisms as well as own drug-specific changes between both the sublines.
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[Association of TET2, LMTK2 and FAM84B gene expression with prostate cancer risk in Chinese patients].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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To explore the association between the common variations of TET2 (rs7679673, A), MTK2 (rs6465657, T) and FAM84B (rs12543663, C) genes and prostate cancer (Pca) risk in Chinese population in Beijing, and to understand the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes including clinical characteristics and life style, etc. in patients with prostate cancer.
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[Bilateral lung transplantation for bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a case report and literature review].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To explore the feasibility and efficiency of lung transplantation in the treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT).
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WW domain containing oxidoreductase induces apoptosis in gallbladder-derived malignant cell by upregulating expression of P73 and PUMA.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a tumor suppressor gene which can suppress proliferation of a variety of tumors. However, little was known about the relationships between WWOX and gallbladder cancer. In the current study, we intended to investigate the tumor suppressive role of WWOX in gallbladder malignant cells both in vitro and in vivo, and explore the potential mechanism of tumor toxic function of WWOX. Our results have shown that WWOX triggerred apoptosis in GBC cells and increased the expression of P73 and PUMA in cytoplasm. We also have found that Bax has been upregulated after overexpression of WWOX, whereas, Bcl-2 was downregulated by WWOX. To further validate the results in vivo, we evaluated the tumor suppressive role of WWOX in mouse model of gallbladder cancer. The results have shown that the proliferation of the tumor was inhibited after delivery of WWOX, and the expressions of P73 and PUMA were upregulated in target tissues. The mice models administrated with WWOX have shown better prognosis than mice in negative control groups. The results from our study indicated that WWOX could be used as a therapeutic agent in the gene therapy of gallbladder cancer.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.