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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Angiotensin receptor blocker in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with preserved left ventricular systolic function: prospective cohort study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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To investigate the association between treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker and clinical outcomes in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with preserved left ventricular systolic function.
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EVpedia: A Community Web Portal for Extracellular Vesicles Research.
Dae-Kyum Kim, Jaewook Lee, Sae Rom Kim, Dong-Sic Choi, Yae Jin Yoon, Ji Hyun Kim, Gyeongyun Go, Dinh Nhung, Kahye Hong, Su Chul Jang, Si-Hyun Kim, Kyong-Su Park, Oh Youn Kim, Hyun Taek Park, Ji Hye Seo, Elena Aikawa, Monika Baj-Krzyworzeka, Bas W M van Balkom, Mattias Belting, Lionel Blanc, Vincent Bond, Antonella Bongiovanni, Francesc E Borràs, Luc Buée, Edit I Buzás, Lesley Cheng, Aled Clayton, Emanuele Cocucci, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominic M Desiderio, Dolores Di Vizio, Karin Ekström, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Chris Gardiner, Bernd Giebel, David W Greening, Julia Christina Gross, Dwijendra Gupta, An Hendrix, Andrew F Hill, Michelle M Hill, Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Do Won Hwang, Jameel Inal, Medicharla V Jagannadham, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Young-Koo Jee, Malene Jørgensen, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Thomas Kislinger, Cecilia Lässer, Dong Soo Lee, Hakmo Lee, Johannes van Leeuwen, Thomas Lener, Ming-Lin Liu, Jan Lötvall, Antonio Marcilla, Suresh Mathivanan, Andreas Möller, Jess Morhayim, François Mullier, Irina Nazarenko, Rienk Nieuwland, Diana N Nunes, Ken Pang, Jaesung Park, Tushar Patel, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Hernando Del Portillo, Ulrich Putz, Marcel I Ramirez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Tae-Young Roh, Felix Royo, Susmita Sahoo, Raymond Schiffelers, Shivani Sharma, Pia Siljander, Richard J Simpson, Carolina Soekmadji, Philip Stahl, Allan Stensballe, Ewa Stępień, Hidetoshi Tahara, Arne Trummer, Hadi Valadi, Laura J Vella, Sun Nyunt Wai, Kenneth Witwer, María Yáñez-Mó, Hyewon Youn, Reinhard Zeidler, Yong Song Gho.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
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Effect of Cooling Condition on Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Graphene on Copper Catalyst.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Here, we show that chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on copper foil is strongly affected by the cooling conditions. Variation of cooling conditions such as cooling rate and hydrocarbon concentration in the cooling step has yielded graphene islands with different sizes, density of nuclei, and growth rates. The nucleation site density on Cu substrate is greatly reduced when the fast cooling condition was applied, while continuing methane flow during the cooling step also influences the nucleation and growth rate. Raman spectra indicate that the graphene synthesized under fast cooling condition and methane flow on cool-down exhibit superior quality of graphene. Further studies suggest that careful control of the cooling rate and CH4 gas flow on the cooling step yield a high quality of graphene.
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Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and mean platelet volume as predictive values after percutaneous coronary intervention for long-term clinical outcomes in Korea: A comparable and additive study.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Abstract This study aimed to determine the association of the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and mean platelet volume (MPV) with the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The baPWV and MPV were analyzed in 372 patients who underwent PCI, with the primary endpoint as cardiac death. The secondary endpoint was cardiovascular events (CVE): a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), ischemic stroke, and stent thrombosis (ST). During the follow-up period (mean, 25.8 months), there were 21 cardiac deaths, 10 MIs including four events of ST, seven ischemic strokes, and 29 TVRs. The baPWV cut-off level was set at 1672?cm/s using the receiver operating characteristic curve; the sensitivity and specificity was 85.7 and 60.1%, respectively, to differentiate between the groups with and without cardiac death. The MPV cut-off level was set at 8.20?fL using the receiver operating characteristic curve; the sensitivity and specificity were 81 and 53.3%, respectively, to differentiate between the groups with and without cardiac death. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the higher baPWV group (?1672?cm/s) had a significantly higher cardiac death and CVE rate than the lower baPWV group (<1672?cm/s) (11.4 vs. 1.4%, log-rank: p?8.20?fL,) had a significantly higher cardiac death and CVE rate than the lower MPV group (?8.20?fL) (9.4 vs. 2.1%, log-rank: p?=?0.0026; 23.8 vs. 6.8%, log-rank: p?
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New Bipolar Host Materials for Realizing Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Efficiency at 1000 cd/m(2.)
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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New host molecules such as 9-(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (pPCB2CZ) and 9-(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (mPCB2CZ) were designed and synthesized for blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). The glass transition temperatures of two host molecules were measured higher than 120 °C, and the identical triplet energies were determined to be 2.92 eV for both molecules. The bis(3,5-difluoro-2-(2-pyridyl)phenyl-(2-carboxypyridyl)iridium(III) (FIrpic)-doped mPCB2CZ-based PhOLED exhibited practically useful driving voltage of 4.8 V in a simple organic three layer device configuration which has a smaller number of interfaces in conventional multilayer PhOLEDs. Also, the high quantum efficiency of 23.7% is reported at the practically useful brightness value of 1000 cd/m(2).
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Thin Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap and Supermicrosurgery Technique for Face Reconstruction.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Distant free flaps have become a routine option for reconstruction of large, complicated facial soft tissue defects. The challenge is to find a flap that is pliable to provide good contour and function. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the use of superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flaps for facial defects.From November 2010 to June 2013, facial reconstruction was performed on 6 patients (age range, 15-79 years). The harvesting technique was modified to elevate above the deep fat, and the pedicles were taken above or just below the deep fascia. The mean size of the flap was 75.6 cm, with a thickness of 7 mm; the mean pedicle length was 4.9 cm; and the mean artery caliber was 0.7 mm. The supermicrosurgery technique was used successfully in all 6 cases. Donor sites were all closed primarily. The mean follow-up was 16.7 months.All flaps survived without flap loss, and the donor sites healed without complications including lymphorrhea. The patients were satisfied with contour and function after reconstruction.The result of these 6 cases suggested that the SCIP flap can be a reliable flap for moderate-sized to large defects in the face. The use of new instrumentation and supermicrosurgical techniques allows use of the SCIP flap reliably while providing patients with a good contour, function, and minimal donor site morbidity.
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Relation between the Change in Mean Platelet Volume and Clopidogrel Resistance in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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We aimed to determine the association between the change in mean platelet volume (MPV) over time and aspirin/ clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The MPV and platelet function were analysed in 302 patients who underwent PCI. MPV changes were associated with increased aspirin reaction units (ARU, r = 0.114; P = 0.047), increased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU, r = 0.193; P = 0.001), and decreased P2Y12% inhibition (PI%, r = - 0.273; P < 0.001). The group with increasing MPV values showed significantly higher PRU values and lower PI% compared with the group with decreasing MPV values (222.5 ± 73.9 vs. 195.6 ± 63.7 PRU, P = 0.001; 24.1 ± 21.0 vs. 32.8 ± 18.5 PI%, P < 0.001, respectively). The clopidogrel resistant group (?235 PRU or ?15% of PI%) showed a significantly higher positive change in MPV (?MPV) values than the clopidogrel responder group (0.53 ± 0.78 vs. 0.13 ± 0.69 fL, P < 0.001). When the ?MPV cut-off level was set at 0.20 fL using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating between the clopidogrel resistant and responder groups were 72.6% and 59.3%, respectively. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, the odds ratio in the clopidogrel resistant group with ?MPV ?0.2 fL was 4.10 (95% confidence interval; 1.84-9.17). In conclusion, ?MPV was associated with PRU and PI%; a positive ?MPV was an independent predictive marker for clopidogrel resistance after PCI.
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Diketopyrrolopyrrole-bitellurophene containing a conjugated polymer and its high performance thin-film transistor sensor for bromine detection.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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A new bitellurophene-based ?-conjugated polymer () was synthesized and its semiconducting property was utilized for detecting Br2. The polymer exhibited a highly sensitive response to Br2, which was indicated by a significant variation of the drain current in thin-film transistors.
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Role of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the body and tail of the pancreas.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Studies have claimed that in the surgical treatment of pancreas body and tail cancer, radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) is associated with effective tangential margin and extensive lymph node dissection. In the present study, the authors have compared the surgical outcomes between RAMPS and conventional distal pancreatosplenectomy (DPS) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas body and tail, and also identified prognostic factors associated with survival after surgery.
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Diketopyrrolopyrrole: brilliant red pigment dye-based fluorescent probes and their applications.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The development of fluorescent probes for the detection of biologically relevant species is a burgeoning topic in the field of supramolecular chemistry. A number of available dyes such as rhodamine, coumarin, fluorescein, and cyanine have been employed in the design and synthesis of new fluorescent probes. However, diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) and its derivatives have a distinguished role in supramolecular chemistry for the design of fluorescent dyes. DPP dyes offer distinctive advantages relative to other organic dyes, including high fluorescence quantum yields and good light and thermal stability. Significant advancements have been made in the development of new fluorescent probes based on DPP in recent years as a result of tireless research efforts by the chemistry scientific community. In this tutorial review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of DPP-based fluorescent probes for the period spanning 2009 to the present time and the applications of these probes to recognition of biologically relevant species including anions, cations, reactive oxygen species, thiols, gases and other miscellaneous applications. This review is targeted toward providing the readers with deeper understanding for the future design of DPP-based fluorogenic probes for chemical and biological applications.
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Natural products from marine organisms with neuroprotective activity in the experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ischemic brain stroke: their molecular targets and action mechanisms.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Continuous increases in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and brain stroke demand the urgent development of therapeutics. Marine organisms are well-known producers of natural products with diverse structures and pharmacological activities. Therefore, researchers have endeavored to identify marine natural products with neuroprotective effects. In this regard, this review summarizes therapeutic targets for AD, PD, and ischemic brain stroke and marine natural products with pharmacological activities on the targets according to taxonomies of marine organisms. Furthermore, several marine natural products on the clinical trials for the treatment of neurological disorders are discussed.
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Stent graft placement for postsurgical hemorrhage from the hepatic artery: clinical outcome and CT findings.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To evaluate the clinical results and imaging follow-up findings of stent grafts placed for hemorrhage from hepatic arteries following surgery.
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Sensor Fusion of Cameras and a Laser for City-Scale 3D Reconstruction.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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This paper presents a sensor fusion system of cameras and a 2D laser sensorfor large-scale 3D reconstruction. The proposed system is designed to capture data on afast-moving ground vehicle. The system consists of six cameras and one 2D laser sensor,and they are synchronized by a hardware trigger. Reconstruction of 3D structures is doneby estimating frame-by-frame motion and accumulating vertical laser scans, as in previousworks. However, our approach does not assume near 2D motion, but estimates free motion(including absolute scale) in 3D space using both laser data and image features. In orderto avoid the degeneration associated with typical three-point algorithms, we present a newalgorithm that selects 3D points from two frames captured by multiple cameras. The problemof error accumulation is solved by loop closing, not by GPS. The experimental resultsshow that the estimated path is successfully overlaid on the satellite images, such that thereconstruction result is very accurate.
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy for secondary periampullary cancer following extrahepatic bile duct cancer resection.
Ann Surg Treat Res
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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This study addressed the feasibility and effect of surgical treatment of metachronous periampullary carcinoma after resection of the primary extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The performance of this secondary curative surgery is not well-documented.
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The real-world application of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Objectives: Most previous studies that have investigated single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) are case series with limited sample sizes. We have reviewed the outcome of 500 consecutive cases of SILC performed by a single surgeon at our center. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to October 2012, a single surgeon performed 1250 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for various gallbladder (GB) diseases. SILC was chosen as the surgical modality unless there was evidence of acute cholecystitis or GB empyema, the patient had a prior history of upper abdominal surgery, endoscopic sphincterotomy, or had comorbidities with an ASA score of III or higher. The clinicopathologic features and perioperative data of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age and BMI of included patients were 42.7 years and 23.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean operating time was 52 min. Patients stayed in the hospital for an average of 1.3 days postoperatively. In 55 patients, an additional 2 mm trocar was inserted for retraction of the GB. One patient was converted to an open cholecystectomy because of Mirizzi syndrome. There were no observed complications including incisional hernias in this patient population. Conclusions: SILC is a safe, effective procedure for cholecystectomy that may be considered the main surgical strategy in select patients.
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Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
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Association of beta-blocker therapy at discharge with clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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This study sought to investigate the association of beta-blocker therapy at discharge with clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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In vivo Kinetic Biodistribution of Nano-Sized Outer Membrane Vesicles Derived from Bacteria.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Evaluation of kinetic distribution and behaviors of nanoparticles in vivo provides crucial clues into their roles in living organisms. Extracellular vesicles are evolutionary conserved nanoparticles, known to play important biological functions in intercellular, inter-species, and inter-kingdom communication. In this study, the first kinetic analysis of the biodistribution of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)-bacterial extracellular vesicles-with immune-modulatory functions is performed. OMVs, injected intraperitoneally, spread to the whole mouse body and accumulate in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney within 3 h of administration. As an early systemic inflammation response, increased levels of TNF-? and IL-6 are observed in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, the number of leukocytes and platelets in the blood is decreased. OMVs and cytokine concentrations, as well as body temperature are gradually decreased 6 h after OMV injection, in concomitance with the formation of eye exudates, and of an increase in ICAM-1 levels in the lung. Following OMV elimination, most of the inflammatory signs are reverted, 12 h post-injection. However, leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased as a late reaction. Taken together, these results suggest that OMVs are effective mediators of long distance communication in vivo.
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Practical Guidelines for the Surgical Treatment of Gallbladder Cancer.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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At present, surgical treatment is the only curative option for gallbladder (GB) cancer. Many efforts therefore have been made to improve resectability and the survival rate. However, GB cancer has a low incidence, and no randomized, controlled trials have been conducted to establish the optimal treatment modalities. The present guidelines include recent recommendations based on current understanding and highlight controversial issues that require further research. For T1a GB cancer, the optimal treatment modality is simple cholecystectomy, which can be carried out as either a laparotomy or a laparoscopic surgery. For T1b GB cancer, either simple or an extended cholecystectomy is appropriate. An extended cholecystectomy is generally recommended for patients with GB cancer at stage T2 or above. In extended cholecystectomy, a wedge resection of the GB bed or a segmentectomy IVb/V can be performed and the optimal extent of lymph node dissection should include the cystic duct lymph node, the common bile duct lymph node, the lymph nodes around the hepatoduodenal ligament (the hepatic artery and portal vein lymph nodes), and the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal lymph node. Depending on patient status and disease severity, surgeons may decide to perform palliative surgeries.
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Nanoscopic management of molecular packing and orientation of small molecules by a combination of linear and branched alkyl side chains.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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We synthesized a series of acceptor-donor-acceptor-type small molecules (SIDPP-EE, SIDPP-EO, SIDPP-OE, and SIDPP-OO) consisting of a dithienosilole (SI) electron-donating moiety and two diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) electron-withdrawing moieties each bearing linear n-octyl (O) and/or branched 2-ethylhexyl (E) alkyl side chains. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that SIDPP-EE and SIDPP-EO films were highly crystalline with pronounced edge-on orientation, whereas SIDPP-OE and SIDPP-OO films were less crystalline with a radial distribution of molecular orientations. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy disclosed an edge-on orientation with a molecular backbone tilt angle of ?22° for both SIDPP-EE and SIDPP-EO. Our analysis of the molecular packing and orientation indicated that the shorter 2-ethylhexyl groups on the SI core promote tight ?-? stacking of the molecular backbone, whereas n-octyl groups on the SI core hinder close ?-? stacking to some degree. Conversely, the longer linear n-octyl groups on the DPP arms facilitate close intermolecular packing via octyl-octyl interdigitation. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations determined the optimal three-dimensional positions of the flexible alkyl side chains of the SI and DPP units, which elucidates the structural cause of the molecular packing and orientation explicitly. The alkyl-chain-dependent molecular stacking significantly affected the electrical properties of the molecular films. The edge-on oriented molecules showed high hole mobilities in organic field-effect transistors, while the radially oriented molecules exhibited high photovoltaic properties in organic photovoltaic cells. These results demonstrate that appropriate positioning of alkyl side chains can modulate crystallinity and molecular orientation in SIDPP films, which ultimately have a profound impact on carrier transport and photovoltaic performance.
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One-year clinical outcomes of everolimus- versus sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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In contrast to many studies comparing everolimus-eluting stent (EES) with paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES), data directly comparing EES with sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) are limited, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Massive thoracoabdominal aortic thrombosis in a patient with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Massive thoracoabdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare finding in patients with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the absence of any coagulation abnormality. It frequently represents an urgent surgical situation. We report the case of an 82-year-old woman with massive aortic thrombosis secondary to iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. A follow-up computed tomography scan showed a decreased amount of thrombus in the aorta after anticoagulation therapy alone.
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Power-constrained contrast enhancement algorithm using multiscale retinex for OLED display.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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This paper presents a power-constrained contrast enhancement algorithm for organic light-emitting diode display based on multiscale retinex (MSR). In general, MSR, which is the key component of the proposed algorithm, consists of power controllable log operation and subbandwise gain control. First, we decompose an input image to MSRs of different sub-bands, and compute a proper gain for each MSR. Second, we apply a coarse-to-fine power control mechanism, which recomputes the MSRs and gains. This step iterates until the target power saving is accurately accomplished. With video sequences, the contrast levels of adjacent images are determined consistently using temporal coherence in order to avoid flickering artifacts. Finally, we present several optimization skills for real-time processing. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides better visual quality than previous methods, and a consistent power-saving ratio without flickering artifacts, even for video sequences.
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Predictive value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in a Korean cohort.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the associations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05).
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Predicting recurrence of pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors after surgical resection: a multicenter analysis in Korea.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) of the pancreas are still considered a surgical enigma. Many clinical research trials have failed to identify prognostic factors that predict the malignant behavior of SPTs.
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Surgical strategy for T1 gallbladder cancer: a nationwide multicenter survey in South Korea.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and clinical outcomes of T1 gallbladder (GB) cancer and to determine an appropriate surgical strategy for T1 GB cancer.
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Prognostic and predictive value of metabolic tumor volume on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in advanced biliary tract cancer treated with gemcitabine/oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance and predictive performance of volume-based parameter of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in biliary tract cancer (BTC). Of the 268 patients who were enrolled onto phase III gemcitabine/oxaliplatin (GEMOX) versus GEMOX/erlotinib trial, a total of 48 patients had pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT available for analysis. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis for the primary tumor were measured. The prognostic significance of these parameters and clinicopathological variables was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A cutoff of 98.8 ml for the MTVliver was the best discriminative value for predicting overall survival (>9 months). Multivariate analyses with adjustments for age, performance status, and disease status showed that only MTVliver was an independent prognostic factor associated with overall survival (HR 2.149, 95 % CI 1.124-4.109, P = 0.021). SUVmax did not show any correlation with overall survival. For patients in the high-MTVMBP group, overall survival was longer in the chemotherapy plus erlotinib group than in the chemotherapy-alone group [median 8.3 months (5.5-11.1) vs. 4.0 months (0.0-8.0); P = 0.048]. MTV may be considered as a significant independent metabolic prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with BTC and predictive marker for the selection of patients for the addition of erlotinib to first-line chemotherapy.
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Multi-lineage differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells on the biophysical microenvironment of cell-derived matrix.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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We obtained fibroblast- (FDM) and preosteoblast- (PDM) derived matrices in vitro from their respective cells. Our hypothesis was that these naturally occurring cell-derived matrices (CDMs) would provide a better microenvironment for the multi-lineage differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) than those based on traditional single-protein-based platforms. Cells cultured for 5-6 days were decellularized with detergents and enzymes. The resulting matrices showed a fibrillar surface texture. Under osteogenic conditions, human bone-marrow-derived stromal cells (HS-5) exhibited higher amounts of both mineralized nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression than those cultured on plastic or gelatin. Osteogenic markers (Col I, osteopontin, and cbfa1) and ALP activity from cells cultured on PDM were notably upregulated at 4 weeks. The use of FDM significantly improved the cellular expression of chondrogenic markers (Sox 9 and Col II), while downregulating that of Col I at 4 weeks. Both CDMs were more effective in inducing cellular synthesis of glycosaminoglycan content than control substrates. We also investigated the effect of matrix surface texture on hMSC (PT-2501) differentiation; soluble matrix (S-matrix)-coated substrates exhibited a localized fibronectin (FN) alignment, whereas natural matrix (N-matrix)-coated substrates preserved the naturally formed FN fibrillar alignment. hMSCs cultured for 4 weeks on N-matrices under osteogenic or chondrogenic conditions deposited a greater amount of calcium and proteoglycan than those cultured on S-matrices as assessed by von Kossa and Safranin O staining. In contrast to the expression levels of lineage-specific markers for cells cultured on gelatin, FN, or S-matrices, those cultured on N-matrices yielded highly upregulated levels. This study demonstrates not only the capacity of CDM for being an effective inductive template for the multi-lineage differentiation of hMSCs, but also the critical biophysical role that the matrix fibrillar texture itself plays on the induction of stem cell differentiation.
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Effects of licochalcone A on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats: possible role of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibition by licochalcone A.
Biopharm Drug Dispos
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effects of licochalcone A (a herbal medicine) on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine and its main metabolite, dehydronifedipine, in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine and/or dehydronifedipine were determined after oral and intravenous administration of nifedipine to rats in the absence (control) and presence of licochalcone A (0.4, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg). The effect of licochalcone A on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was also evaluated. Nifedipine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A4. Licochalcone A inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) of 5.9 ?m. In addition, licochalcone A significantly enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) of oral nifedipine were significantly greater and higher, respectively, with licochalcone A. The metabolite (dehydronifedipine)-parent AUC ratio (MR) in the presence of licochalcone A was significantly smaller compared with the control group. The above data could be due to an inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp by licochalcone A. The AUCs of intravenous nifedipine were comparable without and with licochalcone A, suggesting that inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 and P-gp was almost negligible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Template-guided solution-shearing method for enhanced charge carrier mobility in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based polymer field-effect transistors.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Template-guided solution-shearing (TGSS) is used to fabricate field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of micropatterned prisms as active channels. The prisms comprise highly crystalline PTDPP-DTTE, in which diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) is flanked by thiophene. The FET has a maximum mobility of approximately 7.43 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , which is much higher than the mobility values of the thin-film transistors with solution-sheared or spin-coated films of PTDPP-DTTE annealed at 200 °C.
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Amelioration of Cognitive Dysfunction in APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice by Long-Term Treatment of 4-O-Methylhonokiol.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease without known ways to cure. A key neuropathologic manifestation of the disease is extracellular deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (A?). Specific mechanisms underlying the development of the disease have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we investigated effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on memory dysfunction in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. 4-O-methylhonokiol (1 mg/kg for 3 month) significantly reduced deficit in learning and memory of the transgenic mice, as determined by the Morris water maze test and step-through passive avoidance test. Our biochemical analysis suggested that 4-O-methylhonokiol ameliorated A? accumulation in the cortex and hippocampus via reduction in beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 expression. In addition, 4-O-methylhonokiol attenuated lipid peroxidation and elevated glutathione peroxidase activity in the double transgenic mice brains. Thus, suppressive effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol on A? generation and oxidative stress in the brains of transgenic mice may be responsible for the enhancement in cognitive function. These results suggest that the natural compound has potential to intervene memory deficit and progressive neurodegeneration in AD patients.
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Astrogliosis is a possible player in preventing delayed neuronal death.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Mitigating secondary delayed neuronal injury has been a therapeutic strategy for minimizing neurological symptoms after several types of brain injury. Interestingly, secondary neuronal loss appeared to be closely related to functional loss and/or death of astrocytes. In the brain damage induced by agonists of two glutamate receptors, N-ethyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and kainic acid (KA), NMDA induced neuronal death within 3 h, but did not increase further thereafter. However, in the KA-injected brain, neuronal death was not obviously detectable even at injection sites at 3 h, but extensively increased to encompass the entire hemisphere at 7 days. Brain inflammation, a possible cause of secondary neuronal damage, showed little differences between the two models. Importantly, however, astrocyte behavior was completely different. In the NMDA-injected cortex, the loss of glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing (GFAP+) astrocytes was confined to the injection site until 7 days after the injection, and astrocytes around the damage sites showed extensive gliosis and appeared to isolate the damage sites. In contrast, in the KA-injected brain, GFAP+ astrocytes, like neurons, slowly, but progressively, disappeared across the entire hemisphere. Other markers of astrocytes, including S100?, glutamate transporter EAAT2, the potassium channel Kir4.1 and glutamine synthase, showed patterns similar to that of GFAP in both NMDA- and KA-injected cortexes. More importantly, astrocyte disappearance and/or functional loss preceded neuronal death in the KA-injected brain. Taken together, these results suggest that loss of astrocyte support to neurons may be a critical cause of delayed neuronal death in the injured brain.
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Expression of Heat Shock Proteins and Cytokines in Response to Ethanol Induced Damage in the Small Intestine of ICR Mice.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Ethanol administration causes intestinal epithelial cell damage by increasing intestinal permeability and the translocation of endotoxins from intestinal bacterial flora. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with recovery and protection from cell damage. The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in the expression of HSPs in the small intestine and the biochemical changes attributable to ethanol-induced intestinal damage.
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Percutaneous coronary intervention for nonculprit vessels in cardiogenic shock complicating ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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We investigated the clinical impact of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock with multivessel disease.
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A new plane of elevation: the superficial fascial plane for perforator flap elevation.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The aim for microsurgical reconstruction has broadened from achieving functional to also providing good esthetic outcomes. The perforator flaps are widely used for this goal. However, perforator flaps can still be bulky especially to resurface the skin defect. We hypothesized that elevation from the superficial fascial plane can obtain a thin and viable flap.
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Modulation of Atg5 expression by globular adiponectin contributes to autophagy flux and suppression of ethanol-induced cell death in liver cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Globular adiponectin (gAcrp) protects liver cells from ethanol-induced apoptosis via induction of autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The present study aims to investigate the potential role of autophagy-related protein 5 (Atg5), an essential Atg for the elongation of autophagosomes, in suppression of ethanol-induced cytotoxicity by gAcrp. Here, we demonstrated that suppression of Atg5 expression by ethanol was restored by pretreatment with gAcrp both in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Moreover, ethanol-induced accumulation of p62 (sequestosome1), a marker of autophagic flux, was restored by gAcrp treatment, implying that gAcrp modulates autophagic flux in liver cells. Further, Atg5 silencing prevented p62 degradation by gAcrp, suggesting that Atg5 plays a critical role in induction of autophagic flux by gAcrp. Interestingly, gene silencing of Atg5 by siRNA abrogated restoration of autophagosome formation by gAcrp in ethanol-treated cells. Finally, protection of liver cells by gAcrp from ethanol-induced apoptosis was also significantly attenuated by knocking-down of Atg5 expression, suggesting an important role of Atg5 in autophagy induction and cellular apoptosis modulated by gAcrp. Taken together, our data demonstrated that Atg5 expression, at least in part, is implicated in gAcrp-induced autophagy and subsequent anti-apoptotic effects in ethanol-treated liver cells.
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Prognostic Value of Volume-Based Metabolic Parameters Measured by (18)F-FDG PET/CT of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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To date, the prognostic value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has not been well characterized. We investigated the prognostic value of volumetric parameters using (18)F-FDG PET/CT in this patient population.
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Usefulness of serum bilirubin levels as a biomarker for long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum total bilirubin on the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) besides high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Serum total bilirubin, hs-cTnT, and NT-proBNP were analyzed in 372 patients who underwent PCI. The primary endpoint was cardiac death. There were 21 events of cardiac death during a mean of 25.8 months of follow-up. When the serum total bilirubin cut-off level (median value) was set to 0.58 mg/dL using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 95.2 % and the specificity was 51.0 % for differentiating between the group with cardiac death and the group without cardiac death. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the lower serum total bilirubin group (<0.58 mg/dL) had a significantly higher cardiac death rate than the higher serum total bilirubin group (?0.58 mg/dL) (10.4 vs. 0.6 %, log-rank: P = 0.0001). In conclusion, low serum total bilirubin is a predictive marker for cardiac death after PCI.
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Recurrence pattern depends on the location of colon cancer in the patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastasis.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The veins from the lower rectum drain into the systemic venous system, while those from other parts of the colon drain into the portal venous system. The aim of this study was to investigate recurrence pattern and survival according to the anatomical differences in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM).
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Posterior interosseous artery perforator-free flap: treating intermediate-size hand and foot defects.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Ambiguous defects on the hand and foot, especially on the fingers and toes, are still challenging to treat despite achievements in reconstruction.
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Intraductal papillary neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms of the hepatobiliary system: demographic differences between Asian and Western populations, and comparison with pancreatic counterparts.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To improve the characterization of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) and mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver (MCN-L).
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Proteomics of extracellular vesicles: Exosomes and ectosomes.
Mass Spectrom Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Almost all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic cells shed extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner. These nanosized membrane vesicles are spherical, bilayered proteolipids that harbor specific subsets of proteins, DNAs, RNAs, and lipids. Recent research has facilitated conceptual advancements in this emerging field that indicate that extracellular vesicles act as intercellular communicasomes by transferring signals to their target cell via surface ligands and delivering receptors and functional molecules. Recent progress in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles derived from diverse cell types and body fluids has resulted in the identification of several thousand vesicular proteins that provide us with essential clues to the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicle cargo sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, cell-type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins help us to understand the pathophysiological functions of extracellular vesicles and contribute to the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic target proteins. This review focuses on the high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes and ectosomes), EVpedia (a free web-based integrated database of high-throughput data for systematic analyses of extracellular vesicles; http://evpedia.info), and the intravesicular protein-protein interaction network analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles. The goal of this article is to encourage further studies to construct a comprehensive proteome database for extracellular vesicles that will help us to not only decode the biogenesis and cargo-sorting mechanisms during vesicle formation but also elucidate the pathophysiological roles of these complex extracellular organelles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.
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CCR5 knockout mice with C57BL6 background are resistant to acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity due to decreased macrophages migration into the liver.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes necrosis of centrilobular cells of the liver. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune system may contribute to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Interaction between RANTES and its receptor C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 is related to recruitment of macrophages to sites of inflammation. In this study, we examined effects of CCR5 deficiency on APAP-mediated liver injury by employing CCR5 knockout (KO) mice. CCR5 wild-type (WT) and KO mice received intraperitoneal injection of APAP (300 mg/kg) and were killed 24 h after the injection. Hepatic injury was determined by using histological and biochemical analyses. Intraperitoneal APAP caused the hepatocytic necrosis, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin staining and an increase in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels in serum. Hepatic damage appeared to be larger in CCR5 WT animals compared with KO animals. There were no differences in cytochrome P450 2E1 between CCR5 WT and KO animals suggesting that the resistance of CCR5 KO mice did not come from alterations in APAP metabolism. Infiltration of macrophages into the liver was reduced in CCR5 KO mice, and this was accompanied decreased inflammatory responses. Inhibition of macrophage activity by pretreatment of gadolinium chloride significantly blocked APAP-caused hepatotoxicity. These results indicate that recruitment of macrophage into the inflammatory sites significantly contributes to APAP-mediated hepatocytic death and CCR5 gene deletion protects from APAP-induced liver injury by alleviating macrophage recruitment and inflammatory responses. This study represents a critical role of CCR5 in macrophage infiltration into the liver and subsequent hepatotoxicity upon challenge of APAP.
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Usefulness of mean platelet volume as a biomarker for long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in Korean cohort: A comparable and additive predictive value to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B type natriu
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the associations of the mean platelet volume (MPV) high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MPV hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were analyzed in 372 patients who underwent PCI. The primary endpoint was cardiac death. The secondary endpoint analyzed was cardiovascular events (CVE): the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), ischemic stroke and stent thrombosis (ST). The median MPV hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP levels were 8.20 (IQR 7.70-8.70) fL, 0.291 (IQR 0.015-3.785) ng/mL, and 105.25 (IQR 50.84-1128.5) pg/mL, respectively. There were 21 events of cardiac death, 10 MI (including 4 events of ST), 7 ischemic strokes and 29 TVR during a mean of 25.8 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the higher MPV group (>8.20?fL, median) had a significantly higher cardiac death rate than the lower MPV group (?8.20?fL; 9.4% vs. 2.1%, log-rank: p?=?0.0026). When the MPV cut-off level was set to 8.20?fL using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity was 53.3% for differentiating between the group with cardiac death and the group without cardiac death. This value was more useful in patients with myocardial injury (hs-cTnT???0.1?ng/mL) or heart failure (NT-proBNP???450?pg/mL). The results of this study show that MPV is a predictive marker for cardiac death after PCI; its predictive power for cardiac death is more useful in patients with myocardial injury or heart failure.
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Predictive value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for cardiovascular events.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the association of pulse wave velocity or left ventricular diastolic function with the development of cardiovascular (CV) events.
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Bioinspired Exosome-Mimetic Nanovesicles for Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics to Malignant Tumors.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Exosomes, the endogenous nanocarriers that can deliver biological information between cells, were recently introduced as new kind of drug delivery system. However, mammalian cells release relatively low quantities of exosomes, and purification of exosomes is difficult. Here, we developed bioinspired exosome-mimetic nanovesicles that deliver chemotherapeutics to the tumor tissue after systemic administration. The chemotherapeutics-loaded nanovesicles were produced by the breakdown of monocytes or macrophages using a serial extrusion through filters with diminishing pore sizes (10, 5, and 1 ?m). These cell-derived nanovesicles have similar characteristics with the exosomes but have 100-fold higher production yield. Furthermore, the nanovesicles have natural targeting ability of cells by maintaining the topology of plasma membrane proteins. In vitro, chemotherapeutic drug-loaded nanovesicles induced TNF-?-stimulated endothelial cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, experiments in mice showed that the chemotherapeutic drug-loaded nanovesicles traffic to tumor tissue and reduce tumor growth without the adverse effects observed with equipotent free drug. Furthermore, compared with doxorubicin-loaded exosomes, doxorubicin-loaded nanovesicles showed similar in vivo antitumor activity. However, doxorubicin-loaded liposomes that did not carry targeting proteins were inefficient in reducing tumor growth. Importantly, removal of the plasma membrane proteins by trypsinization eliminated the therapeutic effects of the nanovesicles both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these studies suggest that the bioengineered nanovesicles can serve as novel exosome-mimetics to effectively deliver chemotherapeutics to treat malignant tumors.
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Self-ordering properties of functionalized acenes for annealing-free organic thin film transistors.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Presented here is a study of the molecular self-ordering properties of four bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene based organic semiconductors related to their electronic structure employing X-ray spectroscopy techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The local molecular order through polarization dependence of C 1s ? ?* transitions revealed ordered ?-stacking nearly perpendicular to the substrate due to van der Waals interactions between alkyl groups. DFT calculations were used to deconvolute the measured electronic structure and examine effects of small changes in molecular geometry in relation to measured charge carrier mobility in top contact field effect transistors. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are found to be conjugated from the anthracene core across the bridging ethynyl groups to the thiophene and phenyl end groups. The inclusion of ethynyl bridges connecting the thiophenes has a twofold effect of both reducing the rotational freedom of this functional group and increasing HOMO/LUMO conjugation across the molecules. These features help create a more rigid upright structure for HB-ant-THT with better molecular orbital conjugation and subsequent higher mobility. With this understanding of how different functional groups interact with an acene core, future synthesis of new materials may be directed toward annealing-free organic semiconducting materials.
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Clinical outcome prediction from mean platelet volume in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Korean cohort: Implications of more simple and useful test than platelet function testing.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the associations of the mean platelet volume (MPV) with the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and platelet reactivity. MPV and platelet function testing were analysed in 208 patients who underwent PCI. The primary endpoint was cardiac death. The secondary endpoint analysed was cardiovascular events (CVE): the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis (ST). The median MPV level, aspirin reaction unit (ARU), P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and P2Y12% inhibition (PI%) of clopidogrel were 8.55 (IQR 8.00-9.18) fl, 401.0 (IQR 389.3-442.0) ARU, 222.0 (IQR 169.0-272.3) PRU and 22 (IQR 9-38) %, respectively. We observed that high values of MPV were associated with elevated ARU (r?=?0.165, p?=?0.017) and decreased PI% (r?=?-0.167, p?=?0.016). There were 10 events of cardiac death, 3 MI (including 1 event of ST), and 8 TVR during a mean of 7.6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the higher MPV group (?8.55?fl, median) had a significantly higher cardiac death rate compared to the lower MPV group (<8.55?fl) (7.7% vs. 1.9%, log-rank: p?=?0.035). However, aspirin or clopidogrel resistance (>550 ARU, <40 PI%, respectively) did not predict cardiac death. When the MPV cut-off level was set to 8.55?fl using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 51.5% for differentiating between the group with cardiac death and the group without cardiac death. This value was more useful in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, ACS patients with an MPV over 8.55?fl had high cardiac death and CVE risk without atorvastatin loading before PCI (Log-Rank?=?0.0031, 0.0023, respectively). The results of this study show that MPV was a predictive marker for cardiac death after PCI; its predictive power for cardiac death was more useful in patients with ACS.
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A high-mobility terselenophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole containing copolymer in solution-processed thin film transistors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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A new diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based ?-conjugated copolymer containing terselenophene units has been successfully synthesized. Its hole mobility reaches around 5.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in thin film transistors made from thermally annealed films. This proves that a longer terselenophene unit induced excellent charge transport properties.
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Prognostic factors following surgical resection of distal bile duct cancer.
J Korean Surg Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Prognostic factors for distal bile duct cancer are contentious. This study was conducted to analyze the prognostic factors of distal bile duct cancer after surgery with the aim of identifying those associated with diminished survival.
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High-efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using a carbazole and carboline-based host material.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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A novel bipolar host 9-(4-(9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indol-9-yl)phenyl)-9H-3,9-bicarbazole (pBCb2Cz) was prepared for high efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs), a high triplet energy (ET) material, employing electron-deficient ?-carboline. pBCb2Cz (ET = 2.93 eV) was effective as a host material for FIrpic- and FCNIrpic-based blue PhOLEDs, and highest quantum efficiencies of 23.0 and 16.2%, respectively, were achieved.
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with coronary artery disease in Koreans.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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To investigate whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects coronary artery disease (CAD) and identify candidate mediators.
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Clinicopathologic analysis of undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) of the gallbladder (GB) is a rare malignant neoplasm and there have only been sparse case reports without precise description. We analyzed eight cases of UC of GB and compared with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) in the aspects of clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis.
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DJ-1 facilitates the interaction between STAT1 and its phosphatase, SHP-1, in brain microglia and astrocytes: A novel anti-inflammatory function of DJ-1.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Importantly, altered astrocyte and microglial functions could contribute to neuronal death in PD. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which DJ-1 (PARK7), an early onset autosomal-recessive PD gene, negatively regulates inflammatory responses of astrocytes and microglia by facilitating the interaction between STAT1 and its phosphatase, SHP-1 (Src-homology 2-domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1). Astrocytes and microglia cultured from DJ-1-knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased expression of inflammatory mediators and phosphorylation levels of STAT1 (p-STAT1) in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-?) compared to cells from wild-type (WT) mice. DJ-1 deficiency also attenuated IFN-?-induced interactions of SHP-1 with p-STAT1 and STAT1, measured 1 and 12h after IFN-? treatment, respectively. Subsequent experiments showed that DJ-1 directly interacts with SHP-1, p-STAT1, and STAT1. Notably, DJ-1 bound to SHP-1 independently of IFN-?, whereas the interactions of DJ-1 with p-STAT1 and STAT1 were dependent on IFN-?. Similar results were obtained in brain slice cultures, where IFN-? induced much stronger STAT1 phosphorylation and inflammatory responses in KO slices than in WT slices. Moreover, IFN-? treatment induced neuronal damage in KO slices. Collectively, these findings suggest that DJ-1 may function as a scaffold protein that facilitates SHP-1 interactions with p-STAT1 and STAT1, thereby preventing extensive and prolonged STAT1 activation. Thus, the loss of DJ-1 function may increase the risk of PD by enhancing brain inflammation.
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Circulating extracellular vesicles in cancer diagnosis and monitoring: an appraisal of clinical potential.
Mol Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Mammalian cells, including cancer cells, secrete extracellular vesicles. These vesicles are nanosized, bilayered proteolipids with diameters of 50-1,000 nm. It has been suggested that cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles play diverse roles in cancer progression, which involve invasion, immune modulation, neovascularization, and metastasis. Moreover, their serum levels are significantly elevated in cancer patients compared with normal controls. Recent high-throughput proteomic and transcriptomic studies of these complex extracellular organelles have accelerated the discovery of cancer-specific biomarkers and the development of novel diagnostic tools based on extracellular vesicles. Although many vesicle-associated biomarker candidates have been reported for various types of cancer, few have been validated for clinical use due to preanalytical, technical, temporal, and financial problems. Here, we discuss the potential of extracellular vesicles as sources of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and monitoring, as well as the limitations and obstacles to adoption of extracellular vesicle-based diagnosis.
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WIP1, a homeostatic regulator of the DNA damage response, is targeted by HIPK2 for phosphorylation and degradation.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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WIP1 (wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1) functions as a homeostatic regulator of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated signaling pathway in response to ionizing radiation (IR). Here we identify homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as a protein kinase that targets WIP1 for phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation. In unstressed cells, WIP1 is constitutively phosphorylated by HIPK2 and maintained at a low level by proteasomal degradation. In response to IR, ATM-dependent AMPK?2-mediated HIPK2 phosphorylation promotes inhibition of WIP1 phosphorylation through dissociation of WIP1 from HIPK2, followed by stabilization of WIP1 for termination of the ATM-mediated double-strand break (DSB) signaling cascade. Notably, HIPK2 depletion impairs IR-induced ?-H2AX foci formation, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and DNA repair signaling, and the survival rate of hipk2+/- mice upon ?-irradiation is markedly reduced compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, HIPK2 plays a critical role in the initiation of DSB repair signaling by controlling WIP1 levels in response to IR.
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Novel polymer nanowire crystals of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymer with excellent charge transport properties.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The first demonstration of polymer nanowire (PNW) crystals based on a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymer (i.e., PDTTDPP), and their application to field-effect transistors (FETs) is reported. Remarkably, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analyses of the PNW reveal its single-crystalline (SC) nature. FETs fabricated of a SC PNW exhibit a maximal charge carrier mobility of ?7.00 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , which is almost one order of magnitude higher than that of the thin-film transistors made of the same polymer (PDTTDPP).
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Dramatic enhancement of carrier mobility via effective secondary structural arrangement resulting from the substituents in a porphyrin transistor.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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OFET devices based on single-crystals of two different porphyrin derivatives display excellent mobilities of 2.57 and 0.48 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Although they generate similar J-aggregations, the dramatic enhancement of mobility obtained using porphyrin 1 is due to the well-confined secondary structural arrangement caused by substituents on the porphyrin ring.
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High-performance low-bandgap conjugated polymers bearing diethynylanthracene units for thin-film transistors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Novel donor-acceptor ?-conjugated copolymers, P(DPP-BDT) and P(DPP-ANT), were synthesized in 87-89% yield. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) made from the thermally annealed film of P(DPP-ANT) exhibited much better performance (e.g., ?max = 1.90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), Ion/off ? 10(6)) than those made from the thermally annealed film of P(DPP-BDT).
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A novel tellurophene-containing conjugated polymer with a dithiophenyl diketopyrrolopyrrole unit for use in organic thin film transistors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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A new tellurophene-based ?-conjugated polymer, PDTDPPTe, was synthesized. PDTDPPTe exhibits a smaller optical band gap (E(g)(opt) = 1.25 eV) than thiophene-based PDTDPPT (E(g)(opt) = 1.30 eV). Thin-film transistors comprising PDTDPPTe displayed outstanding performance (?(max) = 1.78 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), I(on)/I(off) = 10(5-6)).
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Exploiting GPUs in virtual machine for BioCloud.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment.
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Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile ducts: description of MRI and added value of diffusion-weighted MRI.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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To evaluate MRI features of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) and to determine added value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI).
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Proteomics, transcriptomics and lipidomics of exosomes and ectosomes.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Mammalian cells secrete two types of extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner: exosomes (50-100 nm in diameter) released from the intracellular compartment and ectosomes (also called microvesicles, 100-1000 nm in diameter) shed directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles are bilayered proteolipids enriched with proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs, and lipids. In recent years, much data have been collected regarding the specific components of extracellular vesicles from various cell types and body fluids using proteomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic methods. These studies have revealed that extracellular vesicles harbor specific types of proteins, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lipids rather than random cellular components. These results provide valuable information on the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicular cargo-sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, studies of these complex extracellular organelles have facilitated conceptual advancements in the field of intercellular communication under physiological and pathological conditions as well as for disease-specific biomarker discovery. This review focuses on the proteomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic profiles of extracellular vesicles, and will briefly summarize recent advances in the biology, function, and diagnostic potential of vesicle-specific components.
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Stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: new insight in selection of rhythm or rate control therapy and impact of mean platelet volume.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mean platelet volume (MPV) on the strategy for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) with respect to stroke prevention. MPV was analyzed in 265 patients with AF who were undergoing treatment using rhythm or rate control. The primary endpoint was ischemic stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA) event. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly higher stroke rate in the rate control group compared to the rhythm control group. A significantly higher stroke rate was observed in the higher tertile MPV group (?7.9 fL) compared to the lower tertile MPV group (<7.3 fL). When the MPV cut-off level was set to 7.85 fL using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80.0% and the specificity was 70.4% for differentiating between the group with stroke and the group without stroke. In the Cox proportional hazard analysis, after adjusting for sex, treatment strategy for AF, high MPV level, antithrombotic treatment, and high CHADS2 score, higher MPV, rate control strategy for treatment of AF, and high CHADS2 score were found to be independent predictors of stroke risk. In addition, patients with AF who were treated using rate control had high stroke risk with an MPV over 7.85 fL and high CHADS2 score. The results of this study demonstrate that the MPV and the rate control strategy for treatment of AF were predictive markers for stroke; its predictive power for stroke was independent of female sex and high CHADS2 score in patients with AF.
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Identification and characterization of proteins isolated from microvesicles derived from human lung cancer pleural effusions.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Microvesicles (MVs, also known as exosomes, ectosomes, microparticles) are released by various cancer cells, including lung, colorectal, and prostate carcinoma cells. MVs released from tumor cells and other sources accumulate in the circulation and in pleural effusion. Although recent studies have shown that MVs play multiple roles in tumor progression, the potential pathological roles of MV in pleural effusion, and their protein composition, are still unknown. In this study, we report the first global proteomic analysis of highly purified MVs derived from human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pleural effusion. Using nano-LC-MS/MS following 1D SDS-PAGE separation, we identified a total of 912 MV proteins with high confidence. Three independent experiments on three patients showed that MV proteins from PE were distinct from MV obtained from other malignancies. Bioinformatics analyses of the MS data identified pathologically relevant proteins and potential diagnostic makers for NSCLC, including lung-enriched surface antigens and proteins related to epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These findings provide new insight into the diverse functions of MVs in cancer progression and will aid in the development of novel diagnostic tools for NSCLC.
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Dual growth factor delivery using biocompatible core-shell microcapsules for angiogenesis.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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An optimized electrodropping system produces homogeneous core-shell microcapsules (C-S MCs) by using poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and alginate. Fluorescence imaging clearly shows the C-S domain in the MC. For release control, the use of high-molecular-weight PLGA (HMW 270 000) restrains the initial burst release of protein compared to that of low-MW PLGA (LMW 40 000). Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of chitosan and alginate on MCs is also useful in controlling the release profile of biomolecules. LBL (7-layer) treatment is effective in suppressing the initial burst release of protein compared to no LBL (0-layer). The difference of cumulative albumin release between HMW (7-layer LBL) and LMW (0-layer LBL) PLGA is determined to be more than 40% on day 5. When dual angiogenic growth factors (GFs), such as platelet-derived GF (PDGF) and vascular endothelial GF (VEGF), are encapsulated separately in the core and shell domains, respectively, the VEGF release rate is much greater than that of PDGF, and the difference of the cumulative release percentage between the two GFs is about 30% on day 7 with LMW core PLGA and more than 45% with HMW core PLGA. As for the angiogenic potential of MC GFs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the fluorescence signal of CD31+ suggests that the angiogenic sprout of ECs is more active in MC-mediated GF delivery than conventional GF delivery, and this difference is significant, based on the number of capillary branches in the unit area. This study demonstrates that the fabrication of biocompatible C-S MCs is possible, and that the release control of biomolecules is adjustable. Furthermore, MC-mediated GFs remain in an active form and can upregulate the angiogenic activity of ECs.
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Relation of triiodothyronine to subclinical myocardial injury in patients with chest pain.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Heart dysfunctions have been shown to be associated with altered concentrations of thyroid hormones. However, the relation between thyroid hormones and subclinical myocardial injury in those without clinically apparent coronary heart disease is not well-established. We examined the correlation between altered levels of thyrotropin, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine (T3) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in 250 patients (mean age 60 years; 42% men) with chest pain, who were free of coronary heart disease and heart failure. These patients were examined in the emergency room or outpatient department of the cardiovascular center of Chosun University Hospital. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. The baseline values of T3 were associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels (r = -0.428, p <0.001), a significantly negative correlation. We did not observe any significant correlation between the thyrotropin or free thyroxine and hs-cTnT levels. When the T3 cutoff was set at 74.6 ng/dl using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity and specificity was 70% and 69%, respectively, for differentiating between groups with and without myocardial injury. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, the odds ratio for an elevated hs-cTnT level (?0.014 ng/ml) for patients with T3 <74.6 ng/dl was 6.95 (95% confidence interval 3.09 to 15.66) compared to patients with T3 ?74.6 ng/dl. In conclusion, the T3 levels were negatively related to hs-cTnT levels among patients without clinically obvious coronary heart disease.
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Therapeutic effects of water soluble danshen extracts on atherosclerosis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs). Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by ?-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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