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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic Variation in PSCA is Associated with Bladder Cancer Susceptibility in a Korean Population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Genetic factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of human cancer. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) identified an association between the rs2294008 polymorphism of the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene and bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine whether the rs2294008 polymorphism is similarly associated with bladder cancer susceptibility in a Korean population.
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The prognosis of patients less than 40 years with bladder cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Natural history of young patients with bladder cancer has not yet been known. So this study aimed to understand characteristics and prognosis of patients less than 40 years with bladder cancer.
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Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) potentiates pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering hosts more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here we showed that S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 is ethanol tolerant, and that alcohol up-regulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (?adhE) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE in the ethanol condition conferred an increase of Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than ?adhE during the ethanol stress condition, and alcoholic mice were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than the ?adhE. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply in the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence.
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Plasmon-assisted and visible-light induced graphene oxide reduction and efficient fluorescence quenching.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Here we report a new and efficient synthetic method for reduced graphene oxide using visible-light and plasmonic nanoparticles at room temperature. The r-GO prepared using visible light showed excellent fluorescence quenching properties and target detection capabilities.
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Application of bone scans for prostate cancer staging: Which guideline shows better result?
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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We evaluated the accuracy of current guidelines by analyzing bone scan results and clinical parameters of patients with prostate cancer to determine the optimal guideline for predicting bone metastasis.
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Thiolated DNA-Based Chemistry and Control in the Structure and Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Ultrasmall Interior Nanogap.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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The design, synthesis and control of plasmonic nanostructures, especially with ultrasmall plasmonically coupled nanogap (?1 nm or smaller), are of significant interest and importance in chemistry, nanoscience, materials science, optics and nanobiotechnology. Here, we studied and established the thiolated DNA-based synthetic principles and methods in forming and controlling Au core-nanogap-Au shell structures [Au-nanobridged nanogap particles (Au-NNPs)] with various interior nanogap and Au shell structures. We found that differences in the binding affinities and modes among four different bases to Au core, DNA sequence, DNA grafting density and chemical reagents alter Au shell growth mechanism and interior nanogap-forming process on thiolated DNA-modified Au core. Importantly, poly A or poly C sequence creates a wider interior nanogap with a smoother Au shell, while poly T sequence results in a narrower interstitial interior gap with rougher Au shell, and on the basis of the electromagnetic field calculation and experimental results, we unraveled the relationships between the width of the interior plasmonic nanogap, Au shell structure, electromagnetic field and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. These principles and findings shown in this paper offer the fundamental basis for the thiolated DNA-based chemistry in forming and controlling metal nanostructures with ?1 nm plasmonic gap and insight in the optical properties of the plasmonic NNPs, and these plasmonic nanogap structures are useful as strong and controllable optical signal-generating nanoprobes.
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Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with ?-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN) from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600) of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and sodium azide (NaN3) were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN) from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0-125 ?g/mL) gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 ?g/mL); however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was investigated.
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Preparation and testing of a Vi conjugate vaccine using pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) from Streptococcus pneumoniae as the carrier protein.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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In the current study pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) was conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi to make available a vaccine against typhoid fever that has the potential to also provide broad protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae. High yielding production processes were developed for the purification of PspAs from families 1 and 2. The purified PspAs were conjugated to Vi with high recovery of both Vi and PspA. The processes developed especially for PspA family 2 could readily be adapted for large scale production under cGMP conditions. Previously we have shown that conjugation of diphtheria toxoid (DT) to Vi polysaccharide improves the immune response to Vi but can also enhance the response to DT. In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries.
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Alternatively spliced tissue factor promotes plaque angiogenesis through the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Alternatively spliced tissue factor (asTF) is a novel isoform of full-length tissue factor, which exhibits angiogenic activity. Although asTF has been detected in human plaques, it is unknown whether its expression in atherosclerosis causes increased neovascularization and an advanced plaque phenotype.
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Toxicity detection in mine water based on proteomic analysis of lysosomal enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Environ Health Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Lysosome is the cell-organelle which is commonly used as biomonitoring tool in environmental pollution. In this study, the lysosomal proteomic of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed for utilization in the detection of toxic substances in mine water samples.
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Adenylate kinase from Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for growth through its catalytic activity.
FEBS Open Bio
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) infection causes more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide. Pneumococcal growth is a prerequisite for its virulence and requires an appropriate supply of cellular energy. Adenylate kinases constitute a major family of enzymes that regulate cellular ATP levels. Some bacterial adenylate kinases (AdKs) are known to be critical for growth, but the physiological effects of AdKs in pneumococci have been poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, by crystallographic and functional studies, we report that the catalytic activity of adenylate kinase from S . pneumoniae (SpAdK) serotype 2 D39 is essential for growth. We determined the crystal structure of SpAdK in two conformations: ligand-free open form and closed in complex with a two-substrate mimic inhibitor adenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A). Crystallographic analysis of SpAdK reveals Arg-89 as a key active site residue. We generated a conditional expression mutant of pneumococcus in which the expression of the adk gene is tightly regulated by fucose. The expression level of adk correlates with growth rate. Expression of the wild-type adk gene in fucose-inducible strains rescued a growth defect, but expression of the Arg-89 mutation did not. SpAdK increased total cellular ATP levels. Furthermore, lack of functional SpAdK caused a growth defect in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SpAdK is essential for pneumococcal growth in vitro and in vivo.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae ClpL modulates adherence to A549 human lung cells through Rap1/Rac1 activation.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Caseinolytic protease L (ClpL) is a member of the HSP100/Clp chaperone family, which is found mainly in Gram-positive bacteria. ClpL is highly expressed during infection for refolding of stress-induced denatured proteins, some of which are important for adherence. However, the role of ClpL in modulating pneumococcal virulence is poorly understood. Here, we show that ClpL impairs pneumococcal adherence to A549 lung cells by inducing and activating Rap1 and Rac1, thus increasing phosphorylation of cofilin (inactive form). Moreover, infection with a clpL mutant (?clpL) causes a greater degree of filopodium formation than D39 wild-type (WT) infection. Inhibition of Rap1 and Rac1 impairs filopodium formation and pneumococcal adherence. Therefore, ClpL can reduce pneumococcal adherence to A549 cells, likely via modulation of Rap1- and Rac1-mediated filopodium formation. These results demonstrate a potential role for ClpL in pneumococcal resistance to host cell adherence during infection. This study provides insight into further understanding the interactions between hosts and pathogens.
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ATF3 Confers Resistance to Pneumococcal Infection Through Positive Regulation of Cytokine Production.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is known as a suppressor of cytokine production after exposure to lipopolysaccharide or during gram-negative bacterial infection. However, the mechanism by which ATF3 regulates innate immunity against gram-positive bacterial infection, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, remains unknown.
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Inhibition of Ninjurin 1 restores erectile function through dual angiogenic and neurotrophic effects in the diabetic mouse.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon, and erectile dysfunction (ED) is caused mainly by vascular risk factors or diseases, neurologic abnormalities, and hormonal disturbances. Men with diabetic ED often have severe endothelial dysfunction and peripheral nerve damage, which result in poor response to oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Nerve injury-induced protein 1 (Ninjurin 1, Ninj1) is known to be involved in neuroinflammatory processes and to be related to vascular regression during the embryonic period. Here, we demonstrate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice that inhibition of the Ninj1 pathway by administering Ninj1-neutralizing antibody (Ninj1-Ab) or by using Ninj1-knockout mice successfully restored erectile function through enhanced penile angiogenesis and neural regeneration. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) expression was down-regulated and angiopoietin-2 expression was up-regulated in the diabetic penis compared with that in controls, and these changes were reversed by treatment with Ninj1-Ab. Ninj1 blockade-mediated penile angiogenesis and neural regeneration as well as recovery of erectile function were abolished by inhibition of Ang1-Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with Ig and epidermal growth factor homology domain-2) signaling with soluble Tie2 antibody or Ang1 siRNA. The present results suggest that inhibition of the Ninj1 pathway will be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating ED.
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Comparison of treatment effects between children with spastic cerebral palsy under and over five years after botulinum toxin type a injection.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To evaluate whether age influences a change in the spasticity of the ankle plantar flexor after botulinum toxin type A (BTA) injection in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP).
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Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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[Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius (TaGm). [Results] Based on repeated measures analysis of variance of measurements of gait aspects comprised of gait speed, gait cycle, and step length according to the FES stimulation position, the FES stimulation significantly affected gait aspects. [Conclusion] In conclusion, stimulating the tibialis anterior and quadriceps and stimulating the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius are much more effective than stimulating only the tibialis anterior during gait training in stroke patients using FES.
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Study on the Usefulness of Sit to Stand Training in Self-directed Treatment of Stroke Patients.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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[Purpose] This study sought to determine the usefulness of sit to stand training in self-directed treatment of stroke patients. It examined the effect that sit to stand training has on balance and functional movement depending on the form of support surfaces. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly sampled and divided into an unstable support surface group (15) and stable support surface group (15). In order to identify the effect depending on the form of support surfaces, 15 minutes of support surface training plus + 15 minutes of free gait training was performed. [Results] The results of the unstable support surface training showed that the corresponding sample t-test results were significant for the 7-item 3-point Berg balance scale, timed Up and Go test, and 6-minute walking test. The independent samples t-test, showed that there were significant outcomes in step length on the affected side, and step length on the unaffected side. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the sit to stand training on stable support surfaces was not as effective as the training using unstable support surfaces, but it is a simple and stable exercise with less risk of falls during training. It can also be performed alone by the patient in order to increase endurance and dynamic balance ability. Therefore, it is considered a useful exercise that can be performed alone by the patient outside the treatment room.
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Factors associated with continuing medical therapy after transurethral resection of prostate.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To report the clinical characteristics of patients who have persistent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and continue their medical therapy postoperatively.
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The comparison of manual lymph drainage and ultrasound therapy on the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels.
Technol Health Care
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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One of the major symptoms when women are wearing high heels for a long time is leg swelling. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of manual lymph drainage with ultrasound therapy. The forty-five healthy women of twenties were participated in this study and divided randomly into three groups; manual lymph drainage group (n=15), ultrasound therapy group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Swelling was measured before wearing the high heels (10 cm-height), after one-hour of wearing the high heels, wearing the high heels of one-hour after the intervention of 15 minutes. Also swelling was calculated by using a tape measure, volumeter and body composition analyzer. Statistical analysis of the comparison between the three groups was performed by one-way ANOVA. Also comparison to the mean value in swelling according to the time was performed by repeated measure ANOVA. As the result of this study, a significant changes have emerged within each of manual lymph drainage, ultrasound therapy and control group (p< 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between each group (p> 0.05). But the mean value of manual lymph drainage group showed the tendency of fast recovering before causing swelling. Therefore, we consider that the clinical treatment of manual lymph drainage and ongoing studies will be made since manual lymph drainage is very effective in releasing the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels and standing for a long time at work.
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Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-?B. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-?B signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes.
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Discovery of novel mutations for clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori by using next-generation sequencing.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Resistance to clarithromycin is the most important factor causing failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication. Although clarithromycin resistance is mainly associated with three point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes, it is unclear whether other mutations are associated with this resistance.
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Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs and factors affecting resistance to antibiotics in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated.
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The mechanism of antimicrobial activity of sophoraflavanone B against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B), a prenylated flavonoid, can be isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of SPF-B's antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a multidrug-resistant pathogen and the main cause of hospital- and community-acquired infections. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SPF-B was assessed using the broth microdilution method. The mechanism of action of SPF-B on S. aureus was analyzed in combination assays incorporating detergents, ATPase inhibitors, and peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from S. aureus. Furthermore, morphological changes in the SPF-B-treated MRSA strains were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The MIC of SPF-B for MRSA was in the range of 15.6-31.25??g/mL. The mechanism of action of SPF-B on MRSA was investigated using combination assays with detergent and ATPase inhibitors. The optical density at 600?nm of MRSA suspensions treated with a combination of detergent and SPF-B reduced the MRSA by 63%-73%. In the SPF-B and PGN combination assay, direct binding of SPF-B with PGN from S. aureus was evident. These data may be validated for the development of new antibacterial drugs for low MRSA resistance.
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Tetrandrine suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators in PMA plus A23187-induced HMC-1 cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid from the root of Stephania tetrandra, is known to possess antitumor activity in various malignant neoplasms. However, the precise mechanism of TET-mediated immune modulation remains to be clarified. One of the possible mechanisms for its protective properties is by downregulation of the inflammatory responses. In the present study, the human mast cell line (HMC-1) was used to investigate this effect. TET significantly inhibited the induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Moreover, TET attenuated expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. In activated HMC-1 cells, the phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK1/2), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, was decreased by treatment of the cells with TET. TET inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation, I?B degradation and phosphorylation. Furthermore, TET suppressed the expression of TNF-?, IL-8, IL-6 and COX-2 through suppression of the ERK1/2, JNK1/2, I?B? degradation and phosphorylation, and NF-?B activation. These results indicated that TET exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.
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Predictors of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: an inflammation-based prognostic score.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Systemic inflammatory responses, which are defined in terms of the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), have been reported to be independent predictors of unfavorable outcomes in various human cancers. We assessed the utility of the GPS as a predictor of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC).
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The Antibacterial Assay of Tectorigenin with Detergents or ATPase Inhibitors against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Tectorigenin (TTR) is an O-methylated isoflavone derived from the rhizome of Belamacanda chinensis (L.) DC. It is known to perform a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor. The aim of this study is to examine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of TTR against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA activity of TTR was analyzed in combination assays with detergent, ATPase inhibitors, and peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from S. aureus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor survival characteristics and changes in S. aureus morphology. The MIC values of TTR against all the tested strains were 125? ? g/mL. The OD(600) of each suspension treated with a combination of Triton X-100, DCCD, and NaN3 with TTR (1/10 × MIC) had been reduced from 68% to 80%, compared to the TTR alone. At a concentration of 125? ? g/mL, PGN blocked antibacterial activity of TTR. This study indicates that anti-MRSA action of TTR is closely related to cytoplasmic membrane permeability and ABC transporter, and PGN at 125? ? g/mL directly bind to and inhibit TTR at 62.5? ? g/mL. These results can be important indication in study on antimicrobial activity mechanism against multidrug resistant strains.
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Safety and efficacy of 8-mg once-daily vs 4-mg twice-daily silodosin in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (SILVER Study): a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel, multicenter study.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To show the noninferiority of silodosin 8-mg once-daily (QD) to 4-mg twice-daily (BID) in efficacy and safety in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms or benign prostatic hyperplasia in the Korean population.
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A prospective Korean multicenter study for infectious complications in patients undergoing prostate surgery: risk factors and efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications.
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Prognostic factors for recurrence-free and overall survival after adrenalectomy for metastatic carcinoma: a retrospective cohort pilot study.
BMC Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The survival benefits of adrenalectomy (ADx) in the setting of metastatic cancer and prognostic factors for recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after adrenalectomy for metastatic carcinoma are still under debate. We evaluated the impact of clinicopathological variables on RFS and OS after ADx for metastatic carcinoma in patients with primary cancer.
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Factors influencing the failure of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with Piezolith 3000 in the management of solitary ureteral stone.
Urolithiasis
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Studies of predictive factors of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) failure in patients with ureteral stones have not yielded results sufficient to prevent ESWL failure. The present study investigated patients with ureteral stone and analyzed the predictive factors of ESWL failure. Ninety patients with ureteral stone treated from January 2006 to June 2012 using ESWL for ureteral stone were enrolled. Patient's demographic data including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), symptoms and calculous characteristics including location, size, episode and the grade of hydronephrosis were recorded. Statistical results were performed using univariate and multivariate analyses for the predictive factors of ESWL failure. In univariate analysis, calculous location, size, and grade of hydronephrosis between two groups displayed significant differences (p < 0.05). The predictive factors of ESWL failure were BMI >25 kg/m(2) [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-11.0], calculous size ? 1 cm (OR = 10.5, 95% CI 3.0-36.2), calculous location (mid-ureter; OR = 8.49, 95% CI 1.5-45.7) and severe grade of hydronephrosis (OR = 12.3, 95% CI 1.9-79.5). In conclusions, ESWL failure can be predicted in cases of obesity, calculous size exceeding 1 cm, mid-ureteral stone and severe hydronephrosis. When we consider calculous management in patients with these risk factors, initial surgical approach is recommended instead of ESWL.
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Soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc and its underground distribution in differently contaminated upland soils.
J Environ Radioact
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse to investigate the soil-to-soybean transfer of (99)Tc in two different upland soils labeled with (99)TcO4(-) in two contrasting ways. One was to mix the soil with a (99)TcO4(-) solution 26 d before sowing (pre-sowing deposition: PSD), and the other was to apply the solution onto the soil surface 44 d after sowing (growing-period deposition: GPD). The soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with the transfer factor (TF, ratio of the plant concentration to the average of at-planting and at-harvest soil concentrations) or the aggregated transfer factor (TFag, ratio of the plant concentration to the deposition density). For both the depositions, the transfer of (99)Tc to aerial parts decreased in the order of leaf > stem > pod > seed. TF values (dimensionless) from the PSD were 0.22 and 0.27 (no statistically significant difference) for mature dry seeds in the respective soils, whereas a 600-fold higher value occurred for dry leaves. The post-harvest concentrations of the PSD (99)Tc in the top 20 cm soils as a whole were about half the initial concentrations. Around 25% of the total applied activity remained in the GPD soils after the harvest. The post-harvest depth profiles of the GPD (99)Tc in the two soils showed similar patterns of logarithmic activity decrease with increasing soil depths. Only 1.5-4.3% of the total applied activity was removed through the harvested biomass (seeds, pods and stems), and it was estimated that a great part of the total pant uptake returned to the soil through the fallen leaves. TFag values (m(2) kg(-1)) were about 2-4 times higher for the GPD than for the PSD. This finding and generally high root uptake of Tc may indicate that the use of empirical deposition time-dependent TFag data is particularly important for predicting the plant concentrations of Tc after its growing-period deposition.
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Chinese yam extracts containing ?-sitosterol and ethyl linoleate protect against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and inhibit muscular expression of VCAM-1 in vitro.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is associated with increased expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte recruitment into the arterial wall. This study evaluated whether hexane extracts from the edible part (DB-H1) or bark region (DB-H2) of Dioscorea. batatas Decne have anti-atherosclerotic properties in vivo and in vitro experiments. We also identified bioactive components in the hexane extracts. Thirty-six apolipoprotein E (ApoE(-/-) ) mice and 12 control (C57BL/6J) mice were given a Western-type diet for 11 or 21 wk. To examine the effects of yam extracts on lesion development, ApoE(-/-) mice were orally administered DB-H1 or DB-H2 for the duration of the study (200 mg/kg b.w./day, 3 times per wk). Both DB-H1 and DB-H2 significantly reduced the total atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic root. In addition, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and c-reactive protein were decreased by administration of DB-H1 and DB-H2. Consistent with the in vivo observations, DB-H1 and DB-H2 inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to TNF-?-activated vascular smooth muscle cells. It was also found that treatment with DB-H1 or DB-H2 resulted in the inhibition nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production and iNOS expression in macrophages. Thus, DB-H1 and DB-H2 seem to influence atherosclerosis by affecting the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo. Our results suggest that yam extracts have the potential to be used in the prevention of atherosclerosis.
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C-Src-mediated phosphorylation of ?-catenin increases its protein stability and the ability of inducing nuclear distribution of ?-catenin.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Although ?-catenin was first considered as a brain specific protein, strong evidence of ?-catenin overexpression in various cancers, including prostate cancer, has been accumulated. Phosphorylation of ?-catenin by Akt and GSK3? has been studied in various cell lines. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of ?-catenin in prostate cancer cells remains unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that Src kinase itself phosphorylates ?-catenin on its tyrosine residues in prostate cancer cells and further illustrated that Y1073, Y1112 and Y1176 of ?-catenin are predominant sites responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by c-Src. Apart from c-Src, other Src family kinases, including Fgr, Fyn and Lyn, can also phosphorylate ?-catenin. We also found that c-Src-mediated Tyr-phosphorylation of ?-catenin increases its stability via decreasing its affinity to GSK3? and enhances its ability of inducing nuclear distribution of ?-catenin through interrupting the integrity of the E-cadherin. Taken together, these results indicate that c-Src can enhance the oncogenic function of ?-catenin in prostate cancer cells.
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In vitro anti-MRSA activity of carvone with gentamicin.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Carvone is one of the naturally occurring monoterpenes, the largest class of secondary metabolites in plants, and exists in two enantiomers, R-carvone (R-car) and S-car. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of R-car and S-car with gentamicin (GET) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major human pathogen that causes serious problems, including hospital-acquired pneumonia, abscesses and surgical wound infections. Nosocomial MRSA infections often exhibit multidrug resistance. In the present study, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with R-car, S-car and GET using the broth microdilution method. Minimal inhibitory concentration values for R- and S-car against six different strains of S. aureus ranged between 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml. Anti-MRSA activity was evaluated using the checkerboard and time-kill assays to investigate the potential synergistic effects of different combinations of the carvone enantiomers and GET. R-car plus S-car, R-car plus GET and S-car plus GET exhibited significant synergistic activity against MRSA. These findings suggest that the single-agent anti-MRSA activities of R-car, S-car and GET are effectively increased through combination therapy. This study showed that carvone may be a potential adjuvant antimicrobial agent.
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A new ultrasound method for assessment of head shape change in infants with plagiocephaly.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To compare a new ultrasound measurement method with calliper cephalometry in infants with deformational plagiocephaly (DP) and to assess the differences of two methods according to the severity of DP.
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A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Solifenacin Succinate in Patients with Urinary Frequency with or without Urgency.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency.
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Methyl gallate from Galla rhois successfully controls clinical isolates of Salmonella infection in both in vitro and in vivo systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Galla rhois is a commonly used traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria in Korea as well as in other parts of Asia. Methyl gallate (MG), a major component of Galla Rhois, exhibits strong antibacterial activity, but its mechanism of action against Salmonella spp. is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial actions of MG against Salmonella. The antibacterial activity determined by broth dilution method indicated that the antibacterial activity of MG against Salmonella strains ranged from 3.9 to 125 µg/ml. In vitro bacterial viability test indicated that MG significantly decreased the viability of Salmonella over 40% when combined with ATPase inhibitors. The time-kill curves showed that a combined MG and ATPase inhibitors (DCCD and NaN3) treatment reduced the bacterial counts dramatically after 24 h. Oral administration of MG showed a strong anti-bacterial activity against WS-5 infected BALB/c mice. In contrast to the untreated Salmonella infected control animals, MG treated groups showed no clinical symptoms of the disease, such as lethargy and liver damage. It was observed that MG treatment significantly increased the survival of animals from Salmonella infection, while in untreated groups all animal succumbed to disease by the sixth day post infection. Thus, the present study demonstrates the therapeutic ability of MG against Salmonella infections.
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?-Lapachone ameliorates lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA synthase transgenic mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lipotoxic cardiomyopathy is caused by myocardial lipid accumulation and often occurs in patients with diabetes and obesity. This study investigated the effects of ?-lapachone (?-lap), a natural compound that activates Sirt1 through elevation of the intracellular NAD+ level, on acyl CoA synthase (ACS) transgenic (Tg) mice, which have lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Oral administration of ?-lap to ACS Tg mice significantly attenuated heart failure and inhibited myocardial accumulation of triacylglycerol. Electron microscopy and measurement of mitochondrial complex II protein and mitochondrial DNA revealed that administration of ?-lap restored mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis in ACS Tg hearts. Accordingly, ?-lap administration significantly increased the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid metabolism that were down-regulated in ACS Tg hearts. ?-lap also restored the activities of Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the two key regulators of metabolism, which were suppressed in ACS Tg hearts. In H9C2 cells, ?-lap-mediated elevation of AMPK activity was retarded when the level of Sirt1 was reduced by transfection of siRNA against Sirt1. Taken together, these results indicate that ?-lap exerts cardioprotective effects against cardiac lipotoxicity through the activation of Sirt1 and AMPK. ?-lap may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy.
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Complete Genome Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Clarithromycin-Resistant Strains.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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We report the complete genome sequences of two Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin-resistant strains. Clarithromycin (CLR)-resistant strains were obtained under the exposure of H. pylori strain 26695 on agar plates with low clarithromycin concentrations. The genome data provide insights into the genomic changes of H. pylori under selection by clarithromycin in vitro.
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Efficacy of microcurrent therapy in infants with congenital muscular torticollis involving the entire sternocleidomastoid muscle: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Objective:To compare the effects of a combination of therapeutic exercise and ultrasound with or without additional microcurrent therapy in infants with congenital muscular torticollis involving the entire sternocleidomastoid muscle.Design:Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Setting:An outpatient rehabilitation clinic in a tertiary university hospital.Subjects:Infants (n = 20) with congenital muscular torticollis involving the entire sternocleidomastoid muscle.Interventions:Group 1 comprised 10 infants who received therapeutic exercise with ultrasound alone and Group 2 comprised 10 infants who received the same treatment with microcurrent therapy.Main measures:Passive cervical rotational range of motion was measured at before treatment and one, two, three, and six months after initial treatment. Thickness, cross-sectional area, and red pixel intensity on colour histograms, which were all assessed before treatment and at three months after initial treatment. Additionally, the duration of treatment was measured.Results:The mean passive cervical rotational range of motion measured at three months posttreatment was significantly greater in Group 2 (101.1°) than that in Group 1 (86.4°), and the thickness, cross-sectional area, and red pixel intensity of the affected sternocleidomastoid muscle were all less in Group 2 (7.8 mm, 100.3 mm(2), and 126.1, respectively) than those in Group 1 (9.6 mm, 121.5 mm(2), and 140.5, respectively). The mean duration of treatment was significantly shorter in Group 2 (2.6 months) than in Group 1 (6.3 months).Conclusions:Microcurrent therapy may increase the efficacy of therapeutic exercise with ultrasound for the treatment of congenital muscular torticollis involving the entire sternocleidomastoid muscle.
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Cucurbitacin B and cucurbitacin I suppress adipocyte differentiation through inhibition of STAT3 signaling.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Cucurbitacin B, a member of the cucurbitaceae family, can act as a STAT3 signaling inhibitor to regulate the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. STAT3 signaling has been shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation through C/EBP? and PPAR?. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that cucurbitacin B would prevent PPAR? mediated adipocyte differentiation through STAT3 signaling. To test this hypothesis, mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were treated with a sub-cytotoxic concentration of cucurbitacin B. Cucurbitacin B treatment inhibits lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers including PPAR? and its target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Cucurbitacin B treatment impairs STAT3 signaling as manifested by reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and suppression of STAT3 target gene expression in preadipocytes. The anti-adipogenic effects of cucurbitacin B are significantly blunted in cells with STAT3 silenced by introducing small interfering RNA. Finally, our data show that cucurbitacin I, another cucurbitacin family member, also inhibits adipocyte differentiation by suppressing STAT3 signaling. Together, our data suggest the possibility of utilizing cucurbitacins as a new strategy to treat metabolic diseases and implicate STAT3 as a new target for the development of functional foods and drugs.
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Curcumin ameliorates TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 expression and subsequent THP-1 adhesiveness via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in the HaCaT cells.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 are important in the infiltration of leukocytes into the site of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of curcumin on ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesiveness as well as its underlying action mechanism in the TNF-?-stimulated keratinocytes. Curcumin induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In addition, curcumin induced Nrf2 activation in dose- and time-dependent manners in the HaCaT cells. Curcumin suppressed TNF-?- induced ICAM-1 expression and subsequent monocyte adhesion, which were reversed by the addition of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a specific inhibitor of HO-1, or HO-1 knockdown using siRNA. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of curcumin on the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 expression and adhesion of monocytes to keratinocytes. These results suggest that curcumin may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 expression and subsequent monocyte adhesion via expression of HO-1 in the keratinocytes.
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Homeostasis of glutathione is associated with polyamine-mediated ?-lactam susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Glutathione is a tripeptide (l-?-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine) thiol compound existing in many bacteria and maintains a proper cellular redox state, thus protecting cells against toxic substances such as reactive oxygen species. Polyamines (spermine and spermidine) are low-molecular-weight aliphatic polycations ubiquitously presenting in all living cells and modulate many cellular functions. We previously reported that exogenous polyamines significantly enhanced ?-lactam susceptibility of ?-lactam-associated multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. In this study, three genes differentially associated with the polyamine effects on ?-lactam susceptibility were identified by transposon mutagenesis of A. baumannii ATCC 19606. All three genes encoded components of membrane transport systems. Inactivation of one of the genes encoding a putative glutathione transport ATP-binding protein increased the accumulation of intracellular glutathione (?150 to ?200%) and significantly decreased the polyamine effects on ?-lactam susceptibility in A. baumannii ATCC 19606. When the cells were grown with polyamines, the levels of intracellular glutathione in A. baumannii ATCC 19606 significantly decreased from ?0.5 to ?0.2 nmol, while the levels of extracellular glutathione were correspondingly increased. However, the levels of total glutathione (intra- plus extracellular) were unchanged when the cells were grown with or without polyamines. Overall, these results suggest that exogenous polyamines induce glutathione export, resulting in decreased levels of intracellular glutathione, which may produce an improper cellular redox state that is associated with the polyamine-mediated ?-lactam susceptibility of A. baumannii. This finding may provide a clue for development of new antimicrobial agents and/or novel strategies to treat multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.
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Radiation exposure to Marine biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The dose rates for six marine organisms, pelagic fish, benthic fish, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and polychaete worms, representative in marine ecosystems, have been predicted by the equilibrium model with the measured seawater activity concentrations at three locations around the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plant after the accident on March 11, 2011. Model prediction showed that total dose rates for the biota in the costal sea reached 4.8E4 ?Gy/d for pelagic fish, 3.6E6 ?Gy/d for crustaceans, 3.8E6 ?Gy/d for benthic fish, 5.2E6 ?Gy/d for macroalgae, 6.6E6 ?Gy/d for mollusks, and 8.0E6 ?Gy/d for polychaete worms. The predicted total dose rates remained above the UNSCEARs (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) benchmark level (1.0E4 ?Gy/d for an individual aquatic organism), for only the initial short period, which seems to be insufficiently long to bring about any detrimental effect on the marine biota at the population level. Furthermore, the total dose rates for benthic fish and crustaceans approximated using the measured activity concentration of the biota and bottom sediment was well below the benchmark level. From these results, it may be concluded that the impact of the ionizing radiation on the marine biota around the Fukushima NPP as a consequence of the accident would be insignificant.
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Modified opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing assays to measure potentially protective antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein A.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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The standard opsonophagocytosis killing assay (OPKA) for antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide was modified to permit an evaluation of the protection-mediating antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). We found that by increasing the incubation time with the complement and phagocytes from 45 min to 75 min, the protective activity was readily detected. In another modification, we used a capsule type 2 target strain that expressed PspA but not pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC). With these modifications separately or in combination, rabbit antisera to the recombinant ?-helical or proline-rich domains of PspA mediated >50% killing of the target strain. The ability of normal human sera to mediate the killing of pneumococci in this modified OPKA correlated with their levels of antibodies to PspA and their ability to protect mice against fatal infection with a type 3 strain. Passive protection of mice against pneumococci and killing in the modified OPKA were lost when normal human sera were adsorbed with recombinant PspA (rPspA) on Sepharose, thus supporting the potential utility of the modified OPKA to detect protective antibodies to PspA. In the standard OPKA, monoclonal antibodies to PspA were strongly protective in the presence of subprotective amounts of anti-capsule. Thus, the currently established high-throughput OPKA for antibodies to capsule could be modified in one of two ways to permit an evaluation of the opsonic efficacy of antibodies to PspA.
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Enhanced photothermal effect of plasmonic nanoparticles coated with reduced graphene oxide.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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We report plasmonic gold nanoshells and nanorods coated with reduced graphene oxide that produce an enhanced photothermal effect when stimulated by near-infrared (NIR) light. Electrostatic interactions between nanosized graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles followed by in situ chemical reduction generated reduced graphene oxide-coated nanoparticles; the coating was demonstrated using Raman and HR-TEM. Reduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles showed enhanced photothermal effect compared to noncoated or nonreduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles. Reduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles killed cells more rapidly than did noncoated or nonreduced graphene oxide-coated gold nanoparticles.
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Promoter deletions of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-encoding genes (blaKPC -2) and efflux pump (AcrAB) on ?-lactam susceptibility in KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-encoding genes containing promoter-deletions (bla(KPC-2a), bla(KPC-2b), and bla(KPC-2c) have disseminated in Enterobacteriaceae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ?-lactams in clinical KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae range from susceptible to high-level resistant, resulting in diagnostic problems. To better understand the variability in ?-lactam MICs among KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, three isoforms of bla(KPC-2) gene were used to transform Escherichia coli W4573 and its deletion mutant of an efflux pump (AcrAB) to examine the effects on ?-lactam susceptibility. MICs to ?-lactams in E. coli W4573 and its acrAB mutant strain increased 1- to 500-fold (MIC from 0.125 to 64 ?g mL(-1) of aztreonam) in the bla(KPC-2a), bla(KPC-2b), and bla(KPC-2c) transformants compared with the cloning vector alone. However, transformants of the acrAB mutant strain remained susceptible to all ?-lactams tested except for aztreonam and carbenicillin. Levels of the three promoters length and carbapenemase activities in the transformants harboring the bla(KPC-2a), bla(KPC-2b), and bla(KPC-2c) were correlated to the levels of ?-lactam MICs in both E. coli W4573 and its mutant of an efflux pump (AcrAB). Overall, these results suggest that promoter-deletions of bla(KPC-2) gene and AcrAB may be associated with the variability in ?-lactam MICs in KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
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New constituents from the Korean sponge Plakortis simplex.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Six new cyclic peroxides (1-6) were isolated from the Korean sponge Plakortis simplex, along with two new alkylpyridinium alkaloids (7 and 8). The structures of these compounds were completely determined by a combination of NMR analysis and chemical reactions. Compounds 1-6 exhibited cytotoxic/antifungal activities against RAW264.7 cells and Candida albicans.
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Combination Therapy of Sophoraflavanone B against MRSA: In Vitro Synergy Testing.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B), a known prenylated flavonoid, was isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial synergism of SPF-B combined with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, causes both hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The antimicrobial activity of SPF-B was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill curve assay. The MIC of SPF-B for 7 strains of S. aureus ranges from 15.6 to 31.25? ? g/mL determined. In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SPF-B with antibiotics had a synergistic effect; SPF-B markedly reduced the MICs of the ? -lactam antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP) and oxacillin (OXI); aminoglycosides gentamicin (GET); quinolones ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) against MRSA. The time-kill curves assay showed that a combined SPF-B and selected antibiotics treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24?h. These data suggest that the antibacterial activity of SPF-B against MRSA can be effectively increased through its combination with three groups of antibiotics ( ? -lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones). Our research can be a valuable and significant source for the development of a new antibacterial drug with low MRSA resistance.
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Kobophenol A enhances proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells with activation of the p38 pathway.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Bone cell proliferation, bone formation, and bone resorption are the main factors involved in the homeostasis of the bone mass. Osteoblast death is a problem experienced by postmenopause women. Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention for use as a drug or a drug substitute in the treatment of bone-related diseases, such as osteoporosis. This study investigated the effects of kobophenol A on the proliferation in human osteoblast cells. Kobophenol A stimulated the proliferation of osteoblast cells by the increases in DNA synthesis and the enhancement of cell cycle progression. Kobophenol A stimulation induced the expression of the cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Treatment of osteoblast cells with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 significantly inhibited kobophenol A-enhanced proliferation. In addition, kobophenol A induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Treatment of osteoblast cells with kobophenol A resulted in improvement of ROS scavenging activity. Moreover, kobophenol A treatment up-regulated the Bcl-2 level, but down-regulated the level of Bax expression. We also demonstrate that kobophenol A increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity after 2 days. Taken together, the results of this study reveal that kobophenol A has proliferative effects and enhances ALP activity in osteoblast cells and these findings provide insights into the development of a therapeutic approach of kobophenol A in the prevention of osteoporosis and other bone disorders.
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Is larger tumor size a contraindication to retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy?
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To evaluate the surgical feasibility of retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors exceeding 5 cm.
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Usefulness of the ice-cream cone pattern in computed tomography for prediction of angiomyolipoma in patients with a small renal mass.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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A morphologic contour method for assessing an exophytic renal mass as benign versus malignant on the basis of the shape of the interface with the renal parenchyma was recently developed. We investigated the usefulness of this morphologic contour method for predicting angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for small renal masses (SRMs).
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Small renal masses: surgery or surveillance.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The incidence of kidney cancer has been rising over the past two decades, especially in cases in which the disease is localized and small in size (<4 cm). This rise is mainly due to the widespread use of routine abdominal imaging such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Early detection was initially heralded as an opportunity to cure an otherwise lethal disease. However, despite increasing rates of renal surgery in parallel to this trend, mortality rates from renal cell carcinoma have remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, data suggest that a substantial proportion of small renal masses are benign. As a result, the management of small renal masses has continued to evolve along two basic themes: it has become less radical and less invasive. These shifts are in part a reflection of an improved understanding that the biology of incidentally discovered renal cell carcinoma may be more indolent than previously thought. However, not all small renal masses are indolent, and de novo metastatic disease can develop at the initial presentation. Therefore, it is with this background of clinical uncertainty and biological heterogeneity that clinicians must interpret the benefits and disadvantages of various clinical approaches to small renal masses.
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Platelet-rich plasma limits the nerve injury caused by 10% dextrose in the rabbit median nerve.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Introduction: We evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in a rabbit model of dextrose-induced median nerve injury. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits (n?=?15) were divided randomly into 3 groups. Three different regimens (group 1: 0.1 ml saline; group 2: 10% dextrose with PRP; group 3: 10% dextrose with saline) were injected within the carpal tunnel. Electrophysiological and histological findings were evaluated 12 weeks after the injection. Results: The mean median motor latency in group 3 was significantly longer than that in groups 1 and 2. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve and subsynovial connective tissue thickness in group 3 were significantly larger than those in groups 1 and 2. Conclusions: PRP injection may be effective in controlling median nerve injury, as demonstrated by improvement in electrophysiological and histological findings 12 weeks after dextrose injection. Muscle Nerve 49: 56-60, 2014.
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Ethanol induces cell cycle arrest and triggers apoptosis via Sp1-dependent p75NTR expression in human neuroblastoma cells.
Cell Biol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Ethanol exposure has deleterious effects on the central nervous system. Although several mechanisms for ethanol-induced damage have been suggested, the precise mechanism underlying ethanol-induced neuronal cell death remains unclear. Recent studies indicate that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has a critical role in the regulation of neuronal survival. This study was designed to examine the role of p75NTR in ethanol-induced apoptotic signaling in neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol caused highly increased level of p75NTR expression. The use of small interfering RNA to inhibit p75NTR expression markedly attenuated ethanol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. DNA binding activity of Sp1 was increased by ethanol, whereas inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin, a Sp1 inhibitor, or short hairpin RNA suppressed ethanol-induced p75NTR expression. In addition, inhibitors of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) augmented ethanol-induced p75NTR expression. Our results also demonstrate that inhibition of ERK and CK2 caused a further increase in the activation of the p75NTR proximal promoter induced by ethanol. This increased activation was partially suppressed by the deletion of the Sp1 binding sites. These results suggest that Sp1-mediated p75NTR expression is regulated at least in part by ERK and CK2 pathways. The present study also showed that treatment with ethanol resulted in significant increases in the expression of p21, but not the levels of p53 and p53 target genes such as Bax, Puma, and Bcl-2. Furthermore, the inhibition of p75NTR expression or Sp1 activity suppressed ethanol-induced p21 expression, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. These data suggest that ethanol increases p75NTR expression, and CK2 and ERK signaling inversely regulate Sp1-mediated p75NTR expression in ethanol-treated neuroblastoma cells. Thus, our study provides more insight into the mechanisms underlying ethanol actions.
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Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of baclofen in various biological samples and application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Baclofen is a structural analogue of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that has been used for the treatment of spasticity since 1977. This study describes a simple and sensitive LC/MS/MS assay for the quantification of baclofen in rat plasma, urine, as well as various tissue samples. The assay utilized a simple protein precipitation and achieved lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.25ng/mL for rat plasma and brain samples and 2ng/mL for rat urine, liver and kidney samples. The assay was validated to demonstrate the specificity, linearity, recovery, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, and stability by using matrix matched quality control samples. There is no endogenous or exogenous peaks interfering with the analytes and matrix effects were minimized by optimized separation condition. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.25-500ng/mL for rat plasma and brain tissue, and 2-5000ng/mL for rat urine, kidney and liver with correlation coefficients >0.999. The mean intra- and inter-day assay accuracies were 94.6-104.6 and 96.0-103.6%, respectively. The mean intra- and inter-day precisions were 5.71 and 5.70%, respectively. The developed assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study and examined urinary excretion and tissue distribution of baclofen in rats following intravenous and oral administration.
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The anti-inflammatory effect of Cheongseoikki-tang ethanol extract on allergic reactions mediated by bone marrow-derived mast cells.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Cheongseoikki-tang (CIT, Korean), also called Qingshu Yiqi decoction () and Seisho-ekki-to (Japanese), is well known as an effective traditional combination of herbs for treating cardiovascular diseases. This study was to research its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms.
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Glutathione dimerization-based plasmonic nanoswitch for biodetection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are continuously produced in the cellular systems and are controlled by several antioxidant mechanisms. Here, we developed a straightforward, sensitive, and quantitative assay for the colorimetric and spectroscopic detection of various ROS and RNS such as H2O2, ·OH, (-)OCl, NO·, and O2(-) using glutathione-modified gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNPs). A basic principle here is that the GSHs on the AuNP surface can be readily detached via the formation of glutathione disulfides upon the addition of ROS and RNS, and destabilized particles can aggregate to generate the plasmonic couplings between plasmonic AuNPs that trigger the red shift in UV-vis spectrum and solution color change. For nonradical species such as H2O2, this process can be more efficiently achieved by converting them into radical species via the Fenton reaction. Using this strategy, we were able to rapidly and quantitatively distinguish among cancerous and normal cells based on ROS and RNS production.
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Suppression of iNOS and COX-2 expression by flavokawain A via blockade of NF-?B and AP-1 activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Flavokawain A, a major constituent of chalcones derived from kava extracts, exerts various biological activities such as anti-tumor activities. In this study, we examined the suppressive effect of flavokawain A on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and the molecular mechanisms responsible for these activities in the murine macrophages. Flavokawain A significantly suppressed expression of iNOS and COX-2, as well as the subsequent production of NO and PGE2 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Flavokawain A significantly inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B and AP-1 signaling pathways. In addition, flavokawain A inhibited activation of JNK and p38 MAPK which was responsible for expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, flavokawain A suppressed LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. These results suggest that flavokawain A may exert anti-inflammatory responses by suppressing LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators via blockage of NF-?B-AP-1-JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways in the murine macrophages.
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Synergistic antibacterial effect of curcumin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are spread among infected patients, with infection rates increasing at an alarming rate. Furthermore, increased resistance to antibiotics has resulted in serious challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. Under the selection pressure of exposure to antibiotics, microorganisms evolve to survive against the new conditions imposed by therapy. Therefore, there exists a need to develop alternative natural or combination drug therapies. Curcumin (CCM), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of a plant, Curcuma longa Linné., has been found to possess many beneficial biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of curcumin and antibiotics as well as to determine the antibacterial activity of CCM against specific MRSA strains. The antibacterial activity of CCM was assessed by the broth microdilution method (by calculating the minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC]), checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill assay. Antimicrobial activity of CCM was observed against all tested strains. The MICs of CCM against 10 strains of S. aureus ranged from 125 to 250 ?g/ml. In the checkerboard test, CCM markedly reduced the MICs of the antibiotics oxacillin (OXI), ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and norfloxacin (NOR) used against MRSA. The time-kill curves showed that a combined CCM and OXI treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24h. This study suggested that CCM reduced the MICs of several antibiotics tested, notably of OXI, AMP, CIP, and NOR, and that CCM in combination with antibiotics could lead to the development of new combination of antibiotics against MRSA infection.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae ClpP protease induces apoptosis via caspase-independent pathway in human neuroblastoma cells: cytoplasmic relocalization of p53.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Streptococcus pneumoniae causes the most severe form of the bacterial meningitis which is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. Virulence factors produced by S. pneumoniae have been known to contribute significantly to the disease process. ClpP protease (ClpP) which is essential for virulence and survival under stress conditions in S. pneumoniae was examined for the ability to induce apoptosis and the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in human neuron-like cells, SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. ClpP inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in SK-N-SH cells. Treatment with ClpP resulted in hypodiploid DNA contents, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, which is an initiator of the activation of caspase cascades, was not observed in ClpP-treated cells. In addition, pretreatment with Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk), a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, could not rescue apoptotic cells from ClpP toxicity. Coincidently, caspase-3 and -8 activation and cleavage of PARP were not detected. Moreover, caspase independent apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was released from mitochondria and translocated to the nucleus in response to ClpP. We also found that ClpP treatment resulted in the increase of p53 activity and cytoplasmic p53 levels were increased by ClpP, suggesting that functional activation of p53 is intact despite increased cytoplasmic accumulation. Taken together, these data suggest that ClpP contributes to neuronal damage in meningitis and provide further insight into the mechanisms underlying action of pneumococcal virulence factors during bacterial pathogenesis.
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Anti-oxidative stress effect of red ginseng in the brain is mediated by peptidyl arginine deiminase type IV (PADI4) repression via estrogen receptor (ER) ? up-regulation.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Ginseng has been used as an anti-stress agent, and its active ingredient, ginsenoside, is similar in structure to estrogen. However, the effect of ginseng on the stressed brain is not completely understood. The aim of this study is to understand systematically how red ginseng (RG) affects gene expressions in the brain of immobilization (IMO) stressed mice to elucidate its underlying mechanism.
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Antistress effect of red ginseng in brain cells is mediated by TACE repression via PADI4.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Ginseng is known to have antistress effects. Previously, red ginseng (RG) was shown to repress stress-induced peptidyl arginine deiminase type IV (PADI4) via estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in the brain, thus inhibiting brain cell apoptosis. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? plays a critical role in immobilization (IMO) stress. However, the signaling pathway of RG-mediated repressesion of inflammation is not completely understood. In this study, we determined how RG modulated gene expression in stressed brain cells. Since secretion of TNF-? is modulated via TNF-? converting enzyme (TACE) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B, we examined the inflammatory pathway in stressed brain cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TACE was induced by IMO stress, but RG repressed TACE induction. Moreover, PADI4 siRNA repressed TACE expression compared to the mock transfected control suggesting that PADI4 was required for TACE expression. A reporter assay also revealed that H2O2 oxidative stress induced NF-?B in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, however, RG pretreatment repressed NF-?B induction. These findings were supported by significant induction of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidative stress, which could be repressed by RG administration. Taken together, RG appeared to repress stress-induced PADI4 via TACE and NF-?B in brain cells thus preventing production of ROS and subsequently protecting brain cells from apoptosis.
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The relationship of abdominal muscles balance and body balance.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data.
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Differences in lateral ankle ligaments between affected and unaffected legs in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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To investigate the architectural alterations of the lateral ankle ligaments in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
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Surgical robot system for single-port surgery with novel joint mechanism.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Single-port surgery is a new surgical method performed by inserting several surgical tools and a laparoscope through an umbilical incision. Compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery, the smaller incision in this procedure produces a lower amount of trauma, which leads to shorter hospitalization. However, with the current laparoscopic tools and surgical robots, the surgeon must overcome several difficulties, such as a limited range of motion and collisions between the surgical instruments and the laparoscope. This paper proposes a new surgical robot system for single-port surgery that uses a novel joint mechanism. The proposed joint mechanism is suitable for surgical instruments with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). Thus, it can prevent hysteresis of the joint and achieve more accurate motion with a large force. A 6-DOF surgical instrument with this joint mechanism can avoid collisions between surgical tools or arms and approach the surgical target more easily than a conventional straight surgical tool. The external arm with 2-DOF passive joints can extend the workspace of the system during surgery. Preliminary tests and validations were performed with a prototype of the system.
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Prevalence and risk factors of bladder neck contracture after radical prostatectomy.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To evaluate the prevalence of bladder neck contracture (BNC) and its risk factors in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy in Korea.
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Inactivated pep27 mutant as an effective mucosal vaccine against a secondary lethal pneumococcal challenge in mice.
Clin Exp Vaccine Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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A pep27 mutant may be able to elicit mucosal immunity against pneumococcal diseases, and could be employed as an inexpensive attenuated vaccine. However, this particular mutant contains an erythromycin-resistance marker. The purpose of the current study is to develop a markerless pep27 mutant and assess whether this inactivated mutant is able to induce mucosal immunity.
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Are more low-risk prostate cancers detected by repeated biopsy? A retrospective pilot study.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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We hypothesized that there might be a higher incidence of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) in men diagnosed at a repeated biopsy. Thus, we investigated differences in clinicopathological results of PCa after primary and repeated biopsy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.